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COPTIC GRAMMATICAL CHRESTOMATHY 


A Course for Academic and Private Study 



ORIENTALIA LOVANIENSIA 

ANA LECTA 


1 . G. Lipinski, Studies in Aramaic Inscriptions and Onomastics I. 

2. J. Quaegebeur, Lc dicu egyptien Sha? dans la religion ct I’onomastiquc. 

■ 

3. P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexander's Campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan and 
the Siege of the Brahmin Town of Harmatelia. 

4. W.M. Callewaort, The SarvangT of the Dadfipanlhi Rajab. 

5. E. Liimnski (ed.), State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East I. 

6. E. Lipinski (ed.)* State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East II. 

7. M.-C. De Graeve, The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c. 2000-500 B.C.). 

8. W.M. Cai.lewai-rt (ed.). Early Hind? Devotional Literature in Current 
Research. 

9. F. L. Dami-n, Crisis and Religious Renewal in the Bruhmo Samaj Movement 
(1860-1884). 

10. R.Y. Ebied-A. Van Roev-L. R. Wickham, Peter of Callinicum, Anti- 
Trilheist Dossier. 

11. A. Rammant-Peeters, Lcs pyramidions egyptiens du Nouvel Empire. 

12. S. Scheers (ed.), Studia Paulo Nasler Oblata I. Numismatica Antiqua. 

13. J. Quaegebeur (ed.), Studia Paulo Nastcr Oblata II. Orientalia Antiqua. 

14. E. Platti, Yahya ibn 'Ad?, thcologicn chrctien ct philosophc arabc. 

15. E. .Gubel-E. Lipinski-B. Servais-Sovez (ed.), Studia Phoenicia I-II. 

16. W. Skalmowski-A. Van Tongerloo (ed.), Middle Iranian Studies. 

17. M. van Mol, Handbook Modern Arabisch. 

18. C. Laga-J. A. Munitiz-L. Van Rompav (ed.). After Chalccdon. Studies in 

Theology and Church History. ■ 

19. E. Lipinski (ed.). The Land of Israel: Cross-Roads of Civilizations. 

20. S. Waciismann, Acgcans in the Theban Tombs. 

21. K. Van Lerbergiie, Old Babylonian Legal and Administrative Texts from 
Philadelphia. 

22. E. Lipinski (ed.), Phoenicia and the East Mediterranean in the First Millen¬ 
nium B.C. 

23. M. Heltzer-E. Lipinski (ed.). Society and Economy in the Eastern Medi¬ 
terranean (1500-1000 B.C.). 

24. M. Van de Mieroop, Crafts in the Early Isin Period. 

25. G. Pollet (ed.), India and the Ancient World. 

26. E. Lipinski (ed.), Carthago. 

27. E. Verreet, Eine morpho-syntaktischc Abhandlung fiber das Modalsyslcm 
im Ugaritischcn. 

28. R. Zadok, The Prc-Hcllcnistic Israelite Anthroponymy and Prosopography. 


ORIENTALIA LOVANIENSIA 

ANALECTA 


-30- 

COPTIC 

GRAMMATICAL CHRESTOMATHY 


A COURSE FOR ACADEMIC AND PRIVATE STUDY 


EDITED BY 

A. SHISHA-HALEVY 



PEETERS 

LEUVEN 

IQftft 




For my parents 


ISDN 90-6831 -139 5 
D. 1988/0602/54 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Introductory notes. Aims and conception; text sources; 
selection policy and arrangement; structure of the Chrestomathy; 
technical information, editorial policy, terminology; guide-lines 
and practical suggestions for the student; Egyptian and Coptic vii 

Schematic structural outline of the chrestomathy xiv 

The alphabet xv 

Glossary practice . xvn 

First part (units 1-VI, sections 1-26): The formal-functional 

SYSTEM. I 

Unit I: The noun phrase (noun and verb lexemes), the Nominal 
Sentence, the Proper Name (sections 1-4); the adverb phrase 
(section 5). 3 

Unit II: The tcnsc-basc conjugation (“Tripartite” pattern); the 
imperative; the causative conjugation (sections 6-11) . . 32 

Unit III: Presentative and existential clauses (sections 12-14) . 62 

Unit IV: The durative (“Bipartite”) conjugation (sections 15-18) 72 

Unit V: The adverb predicated (sections 19-21). 94 

Unit VI: Synthetic conjugation forms with suffixed subject (sections 
22-26) 101 

Second part (units 1-IV, sections 27-51): Topics of advanced 
syntax .... Ill 

Unit I: Conversion . 113 

A. The circumstantial conversion (sections 27-30) . 113 

B. The relative conversion (sections 31 -33) ... 120 

a 

C. The “Second Tense” conversion (sections 34-38) 128 

D. The preterite conversion (sections 39-41) . 134 

Unit II: The conjunctive (sections 42-43). 142 

Unit III: Conditional and related constructions (sections 44-48) 147 

Unit IV: The infinitive outside conjugation (sections 49-51) . 152 

Third part: Assorted unclassified texts (graded according to 
difficulty) 157 

Tables: A. Pronouns (articles, demonstratives, personal pro¬ 
nouns) 168 







VI TA BLE OF CONTENTS 


B. Nominal Sentence patterns ... 172 

C. The base ("tripartite”) conjugation 175 

D. Thf. causative conjugation ... 180 

E. Existential and possessive statements . 182 

F. The durative conjugation . 184 

G. The converters 194 

H. The "adjective verbs” 196 

I. Lexical verb morphology 197 

J. Classification 199 

Glossary 202 

Bibliography . 257 

Index to the grammatical terms . 260 

Terminological glossary and correspondence-list •. 261 



COPTIC GRAMMATICAL CHRESTOMATHY 

<THE SAH1DIC DIALECT) 


Introductory notes: 

(1) Aims and conception. The following reasoned collection of texts is 
intended to serve as a means for acquiring acquaintance with the 
elements of Sahidic Coptic grammar, giving the student the competence 
and confidence which should enable him to deal subsequently with any 
Coptic text as far as grammatical analysis and translation is concerned; 
it is meant for students approaching the language for its general 
linguistic, Egyptological, theological or literary interests. This is neither 
a grammar, nor a textbook, not yet an "Introduction to Coptic", but a 
custom-built annotated anthology meant as a one-year (approx. 40 
weeks, 4 to 6 weekly hours) course of initiation into the analysis of 
Coptic texts, expressly meant as a substitute to so-called "grammars". It 
is meant for self-tuition, for assisted university courses (e.g. as a 

framework for a series of lectures), and for use in conjunction with 

■ 

existing textbooks. The conception underlying this chrestomathy is 
connected with a deep scepticism regarding the scientific validity of 
conventional "grammars" for a didactic introduction to a language as 
well as their effectiveness in achieving the goal of "teaching a language". 
This conception, no less than a procedural professional tenet, recognizes 
only the text, never grammatical opinion "on the language" or models 

of grammar, as the way to acquire unbiased linguistic insight and "sense 

■ 

of system". More specifically, I see the "ascending", synthetic direction 
or building grammatical familiarity in ever-increasing extent as the 
didactic counterpart as well as product of the "descending" textual 
analysis which I adopt as the sole valid structural one. I have tried to 
distil into this chrestomathy the experience of twenty years of teaching 
Coptic at the Hebrew University and abroad, to students of linguistics, 
Egyptology, archaeology and other fields, and to apply to its construction 

sensitivity both to the linguistic structure of Coptic and to the special 

didactic needs of its students. 

(2) Text sources. For reasons I have made clear elsewhere, I believe the 
literary corpus of the writings of Shenoute, the 4lh-5th century prior 
and Archimandrite to be an ideal basis for acquiring an understanding 



VIII 


INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


of Sahidic grammatical structure. It is extensive, authentic (i.e. untrans¬ 
lated), idiomatic and as idiolectic a text as one can wish for. Although 
Scripture Coptic seems often less complicated for beginners, this easiness 
is usually paid for with a heavy price of helplessness and feeling of 
unfamiliarity when leaving this textual hothouse, and may, I believe, be 
compensated for by thoughtful selection and proper arrangement of the 
material. The student who approaches the Coptic Scriptures after studying 
the Chrestomathy will find them relatively unproblematic and easy to 
tackle. I have here drawn from the major published editions as well as 
some uinpublished fragments of Shcnoutc’s opus. 

(3) Selection policy and arrancjemknt. This Chrestomathy (originally 

inspired by J. Strachan’s Old Irish Paradigms and Selections from the Old 
Irish Glosses , Dublin 1904-5 and often reprinted since, and H.B. Rosen’s 
Specimens of Gothic (Gothic and Hebrew; the Hebrew University 
Department of Linguistics, for private circulation) is constructed on the 
principles of cumulativeness (progressive advance, gradation of 
difficulty, ever-increasing extent of analysis) and system scanning. A 
prime principle — one which, in conjunction with the other two makes 
selection so very difficult — is non-interference with the text: the 

least omission or gapping for reasons of difficulty or complexity, no 

“editing”. The student must get acquainted at just the right conjunction 
with the dements requisite to assure his progress to analyzing more 

complex units. I have tried hard not to leave out the exemplification of 

any constituent clement of phrase or clause, although completeness of 

the system depicted is, of course, not feasible and not aimed for. Such 

phenomena as are not treated in a special section or sub-section of texts 

arc usually commented on in notes, and may be recovered by using the 

subject index. The choice of texts aims at a varied and “capricious” 
illustration, to ensure as realistic a textual experience as possible and 
recapture the feeling of a natural and context-dependent text, counter- 
cffecting the classificdncss and metatextual “paradigmatic” feel, and 
convey a taste of actual complexity. Redundance — repetition of texts 
and notes — is programmatic, for the sake of reviewing, solidifying 
familiarity and observing grammatical features from several different 
aspects, in different contexts and different grades of resolution, as well as 
letting autodidacts enjoy something like a teacher’s patient attention. An 
impression of relative statistical importance is meant to be given by the 
quantitative difference in strength of illustration, with “flooding” for 
certain topics such as noun determination and the main tenses. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


IX 


“Imports” from outside the corpus are as a rule avoided (except for one 
or two cases): rarity or non-attestation is no less important than 
attestation as a piece or grammatical information. Note that the gram¬ 
matical opinion reflected in the classification and selection, although 
hopefully not distorted, is often practical and idealizing: typologies and 
“pigeonholes” are made out to be sharper and clearer than they really 
are. Inside a section or sub-section, the arrangement is consciously not 
consistently progressive: easier or simpler constructions are repeated 
further on, and more difficult ones are tentatively introduced early on 
and revisited later. This is once again meant to reproduce the variety 
and randomness of the natural text, but also to allow for reviewing and 
relaxation. Note that the presented arrangement of the texts is merely a 
suggestion: the student or teacher may opt for a different, individually 
suited sequence of work and rate of progress, or decide to skip texts for 
various reasons. 

An asterisk (*) marks sections that may be skipped and revisited at a 
more advanced stage; in the Bibliography it marks reading recommended 
for advanced students. 

(4) The structure of the Chrestomathy. The first part consists of 

six units (I-VI) comprising 26 sections, and scans systematically and 

exhaustively the format and basically functional phenomena relating to 
the noun syntagm (including Nominal Sentence patterns), the verb system 

(the base and durative conjugations, alias Tripartite and Bipartite. 

a 

imperative, causative conjugation, etc.) as well as adverb predication. 
The converters are first introduced here in their full formal and main 
functional scope. 

The second part of four units (VI1-X), sections 27-51, revisits, in 
considerably complicating detail and better resolution, special topics 
chosen for their difficulty and/or their systemic significance: conversion ; 

a 

the conjunctive ; conditional complexes ; the exlra-conjugafional infinitive . 

The third part consists wholly of assorted texts of advanced syntax, 
arranged in ascending order of difficulty (complexity and extent, graded 
t-III) and assuming acquaintance with the first two parts. It is meant 
to consolidate and test the competence acquired earlier, by and combi¬ 
natory reviewing of texts and by exposure to the full range of «facts or 
life» of la parole, such as redundance, anacoluthia and plain difficulty of 
construction. Here the student is to be weaned from specialization and 
the feeling of predictability, and is left on his own to identify and place 
grammatical “irregularities” and plumb new syntactic depths. Here, too. 



X 


INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


his analytic sensitivity is put to the test by some texts in scriptio 

continue. , 

The textual parts are followed by the instruments of work and 
reference: tabus of grammatical and lexical morphology, glossaries 
(Icxemic, onomastic and morphemic), index to the gr^mm. notes, 
terminological glossary and correspondence list, bibliography. 

(5) Technical information, editorial policy, terminology 

(a) Section headings and introductory remarks should be taken as 
no more than minimal genejal information considered requisite to tackle 
the following Coptic texts, and arc not precise grammatical statement or 
resumes (reference to tables is assumed). The bibliographical references 
are selective (mostly to current grammars, textbooks or monographical 
treatments; suggestions for advanced reading are marked by an asterisk). 

(b) The individual texts themselves may be followed by any or both of 
two types of mega-textual annotation: 

“NB”: basic specific information requisite for dealing with the relevant 
text — bridging information gaps, often anticipating later illustration. 
“OBS.”: notes of broader grammatical perspective or deeper import; 
some advance information; drawing attention to unexemplihed features. 

The annotation serves the additional purpose of anticipating further 
information; also of accustoming the student to alternative terminologies 
and statement formulations, from different aspects of the analysis. (I 
attribute great importance to this: the student should be made to realize 
at an early stage that terms are not “correct” or absolute, but always 
provisional, tentative and approximative.) 

(c) The original orthography is as a rule not tampered with, with two 
exceptions: MS punctuation is not reproduced (except for some cases in 
Part III); the supralineation is standardized and “average”. (No Western 

punctuation is used, save occasionally the full stop (.) to separate several 

■ 

illustrations of the same feature in one text and rarely three full slops 
(...) to mark absolutely unavoidable omissions). 

(d) Morph-Separating dashes (-) are introduced in the earlier parts of 
the chrestomathy when this is considered helpful, on early encounters of 
new morphs or in such syntagms as are especially complex or contain 

"elusive" affixes; their use is a function of the expected difficulty in 

isolating the affix and its environment as well as of the stage of progress. 
Consistency is here not aimed for, and always overruled by didactic 
considerations. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


XI 


(e) Terminology: I have innovated rarely, and only in cases of a 
terminological vacuum, or when the existing/traditional terms are patently 
inadequate or misleading. Terminological definitions (or rather explana- 
tions) and English-German-French correspondences are listed at the end 
of the book. Acquaintance with other languages or a general (theoretical) 
linguistic basis is not presupposed, although this will prove a distinct 
advantage in many ways and is strongly recommended. 

(0 Glossary: the lexical glossary combines native and Greek lexemes 
as well as the Proper Names in the following order (under each letter): 

a 

Coptic — Greek — Proper Names. (See the Glossary Practice, which is 
also meant to practise the resolution of words into these classes). 

(6) Here is a series of guide-lines and practical suggestions for the 
student, especially for the one who uses this Chrestomathy by himself/ 
herself, without the benefit of a teacher’s guidance. These should he read 
carefully before commencing the study of the texts. 

(a) Before starting, have a free-leaf notebook ready, in which you enter 
new grammatical information as you go along, arranged roughly by 
conventional textbook headings (“the Noun”, “Nominal Sentence”, 
“the Verb” — with subdivisions as required); index every single morph 
(also difficult lexical items!) you come across, referring them to the 
relevant pages in your “grammar”. You will find this grammatical 
record, built up gradually and without omission, a worthwhile investment 
of effort: you will have a reliable grammatical sketch to use when 
stepping outside the scope of the chrestomathy to tackle new texts. 

(b) Read the texts aloud at least twice — once before your analysis 
and translation of them, once afterwards. 

(c) Read the notes (if any) only after you have done your best to 

% 

analyse and translate the text without help. Consult the “NB” notes 
first, the “OBS.” notes after completing the translation; if possible, look 
the bibliographical references up when you are at least half-way through 
' the section. 

(d) In the actual analysis, try to separate (a well-sharpened pencil is best 
for the purpose) the lexical from the grammatical component of an 
isolated string of elements; then subdivide the components of the 

grammatical “cluster” of elements, which will usually precede the lexical 

one, locating the grammatical units (“grammemes”), one by one, in the 
index. At the first stages of your progress, make a point of always 
looking up the grammemes in the glossary — DO not rely on your 



XII 


INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


memory. Full use of the Tables and Glossaries is presupposed: these are 
your instruments of study. 

(e) Once you have isolated the lexical elements in your word or text, you 
will have to decide whether they arc of Greek or native Coptic origin 
(there arc two separate glossaries for each of these categories). If you are 
unfamiliar with Greek, make a note of the following terminations of 
lexemes, characteristic of the Greek clement in Coptic: masculines 

-OS (-oc), -ON (-ON), -ON (-con), -fiS (-HC) -F.US (-€YC), -MA (-Ml); 

feminines -a (-a), -ia (-ia) -fc (-h), -IS (-ic) -sis (-cic) for nouns; -n (-e), 

-Ei (-ei), -a (-a) and -ou (-oy) for verb lexemes. Greek-origin preposi¬ 
tions, particles, adverbs, conjunctions are relatively few; make a point of 
looking them up in the Greek glossary. (Note that the Greek lists 
(glossary and index) arc combined, under each letter, in the following 
order: native elements — Greek elements — proper names); generally 
speaking, the “phonemic image” of the Greek element of the lexicon 
(and that of proper names) differs sharply from the native one, and with 
some practice you should have little trouble on that score. Consulting a 
Greek dictionary (the smaller or medium-sized Liddell-Scolt will do) is 

suggested, when you acquire sufficient confidence in uncovering the 

■ 

grammatical structure of the material; the use of a special Patristic 
Greek dictionary (c.g. Lampc) is of course recommended. 

(f) By Coptic lexicographical convention, the Coptic lexemes are arranged 
in the Glossary, as in Semitic, by radicals — i.e. first by consonants 
and only then by the alphabetic vowel sequence for every consonant. 

(NB: the semi-vowels u/w (y, oy) and i/v (i, ci) count as consonants 

(when they arc radical) or vowels (when they are not). If you arc 
unfamiliar with this system, invest some time in studying the Glossary 
and getting to understand why any given lexeme is where you find it. 
Following the alphabet, you will find a list of Grcck-Coptic and 
Egyptian-Coptic Proper Names, nouns and verbs (occurring in the 
texts) for you to look up in the Glossary as a preliminary exercise. 
Again, note that the Greek elements follow the native Coptic ones under 
each letter in the Glossary; the Proper Names come last. 

(g) Transitive verbs arc entered in the Glossary under their absolute 
(object-less) infinitive form, which you will often be expected to 
reconstruct from the actual form in your text, where the verb may be 
combined with a nominal or pronominal direct object, or where you 
may have its Stative (Qualitative) form; consult Table 1, and copy the 
«principal parts» of the verbs you isolate — absolute, pre-nominal 
(“construct”) and pre-pronominal (“pronominal”) infinitive as well as 
stative, if any. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


XIII 

9 

(h) Do not approximate. Never compromise and settle for a less than 
a formally and semantically satisfactory analysis and identification of 
entities. If you cannot identify one grammeme, try another; if you have 
unsuccessfully tried all, do not brood on the text you have found 
difficult (do not allot more than, say, twenty minutes to any single item 

in Part One) but proceed, returning to it after two or three texts. Start 

■ 

by identifying grammatical elements: they are fewer and semanti¬ 
cally more clear-cut than lexemes, and will help you decide whether to 

look for a noun or a verb in the Glossary. 

(i) Although you may use the glossary for the whole course of the 
Chrcstomathy, you should try and graduate to using a full-scale dictionary 

(Crum’s Coptic Dictionary is best) as soon as possible — not. however, 
approximately before you master Part One. When using a dictionary 
and even our Glossary, never settle for the first meaning offered for the 
lexeme, but peruse the entry, accumulating meanings and subsequently 
deciding on the one most suiting your context. It is suggested you copy 
out the «principal parts» of verb lexemes into a list in your own 
grammatical sketch. 

(j) If you work alone, try to proceed in the given order of texts. Do not 
skip unless you come up against some insurmountable difficulty with a 
text or feel you are familiar with the illustrated phenomena: the texts 
have been carefully selected and arranged with a view to illustrating in a 
reasoned order various essential aspects of grammar. Do not rush! Set 
yourself a quota of texts or time of study and do not exceed it. (Twice- 
weekly sessions is the lowest desirable frequency at early stages). If 
possible, proceed at a steady rate. 

(k) For various reasons which cannot be enumerated here, I advise 
against freely consulting “grammatical opinion”, i.e. using conventional 
or handy grammar-books or textbooks (beyond the “Bibliography” 
recommendations), at least before a text-based “feeling of the language” 
and some degree of critical faculty are developed. 

(7) Sahidic (“Dialect S”) was the main and largely representative dialect 
of Coptic, the language of Egyptian Christendom and last phase of the 
Egyptian language, of which the main stages are (partly overlapping as 
spoken/writton idioms): 

(a) script: Hieroglyphic and its cursive form, Hieratic: 

Old Egyptian (from about 3000 B.C.) 

Middle Egyptian (from about 2000 B.C.) 

Late Egyptian (from about 1300 B.C.) 



XIV INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

(b) Script: Demotic (very cursive Hieratic, often interlaced into groups): 
Demotic (Persian, Ptolemaic and Roman, from about 700 B.C.) 

(c) Script: Coptic-Greek: 

Coptic (from the 3rd century A.D.; died out as a spoken language by 
the 17th century). 

Other important dialects of Coptic arc Bohairic (“B”, centered in the 
Western Delta of the Nile), Oxyrhynchitc ("M”, for the dialect of 
“Middle Egypt” or “Mesokemic”), Achmimic (“A”) and Subachmimic 
or Lycopolitan (“A 2 ” or “L”, the main dialect of the Nag Hammadi 
Gnostic library), Fayyumic (“F”), with some others and many subvarieties. 

From the genetic point of view of language classification, Egyptian- 
Coptic constitutes a special group of its own. However, the striking 
affinities it shows with both Semitic and African (c.g. Berber) languages 
have led to the widely accepted postulation of a Hamito-Semitic or 
Afro-Asiatic common family (although the same affinities can be 
explained by language blending, rather than by genealogical descent). 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


XV 


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rt E 


RELATIVE CONVERSION (sections 31-33): PRETERITE CONVERSION (sections 39-41): 

adjoining a clause to a definite noun: “the man who heard” marking in narrative a change in “step” or tempo; marking 
“the man whose face I am watching”, “he about whom we say” anteriority, shift to the past, remote wish or condition 









THE ALPHABET 


letter 

transliteration 

numeric 

contemporary 

form 

& approx. phonic(*) 
value 

value 

name 

(of Greek 

Origin: 





a (as in French avoir) 

1 

Alpha 

B 

h 

2 

Beta 

r 

g 

3 

Gamma 

A 

<1 

4 

Da Ida' 

€ 

c (as in men, French cllc) 

5 

6 

7 

Ei 

Z 

7. 

Zeta 

M 

c (as in main, German 

8 

Hcla 


eh; not diphthong) 



e 

(comb.) t + h (hothouse) 

9 

Theta 

1, Cl 

i (as in sheet) 

10 

Iota 

K 

k 

20 

Kappa 

A 

I 

30 

Lauda, Lola 

H 

in 

40 

Mi 

N 

n 

50 

Ni 


(comb, k + s 

60 

Xi 

o 

o (as in French note) 

70 

M 

Ou 

ft 

P 

80 

Pi 

P 

r 

100 

Ro 

c 

s 

200 

Simma 

T 

l 

300 

Tau 

Y* °Y 

w, u (as in foot) 

400 

He 

4> 

(comb.) p + h (haphazard) 

500 

Phi 

X 

(comb.) k + h (backhold) 

600 

Khi 

t 

(comb.) p + s (apse) 

700 

Psi 

CO 

o (as in door) 

800 

O 

(Of Egyptian 
Origin:) 





S (as in ship) 


Shai 

q 

f 

90 

Fai 

e 

h (as in house) 


Hori 

•X 

j (us in jam) 


Djandja 

6 

c (as in chalk 


Chima 


or bookycar) 



+ 

(comb.) 1 + i (as in teen) 


Ti 


(*) Of practical value only (c.g. Tor reading out the texts); Standard 
Southern British equivalents. 



THE ALPHABET XVH 

The superlinear stroke is written above a consonant (csp. one of the 
sonorants \ m n p a; in the manuscripts, above a consonant or a group 
of consonants), to indicate its syllabic status (i.e. that it forms a syllable 
or a syllable peak by itselves): mnt- zf • tmntmntp€ “the 

testimony'*. Note that printed editions sometimes do not attempt to 
reproduce the superlinear stroke in the manuscript. In the Chrestomathy. 
only the syllabic peak (center) is marked with the superlinear stroke. 



GLOSSARY PRACTICE 


Look up the following verbs, nouns and Proper Names (Egyptian- 

Coptic and Greek-Coplic intermixed) in the Glossary, and copy the 

♦ * 

words and meanings given into your notebook. 

Note: 

(1) under each letter of the alphabet, the native words come first 
(arranged by their consonantal “skeleton”); then the ones of Greek 

origin; then the Proper flames, both last arranged in the European 
fashion, by vowels and consonants. 

(2) In Greek words, ignore an initial z before a vowel as regards its 
assignment to a letter: that is, look for under e, z° under o and so 
on. 

(3) For some native words you will find more than one entry in the 
Glossary: copy all meanings given. 


aac 

no 6 
ncuT 

H6XOC 

ft 

K*Z 

He 

K. CD 

ATT€ 

JGAITIC 

TTA.YA.OC 

BACpOp 

4 

pU>M€ 

acgbhc 

piMe 

C CJUTTT 

z* 

ZHT 

<|U>T6 

TTAACCe 

z*z 

t 


■Xtl) 

hc 

2 HK€ 

oprw 

<SlN€ 

Apxei 

qpHHO 
cy HHCO 

CAp5 

CHoy 

KpiNC 

cooyw 

oyA 

epoNoc 

^ooyT 

£OBOAOC 

Koyi 

KpONOC 

u^Hpe 

cyeepe 

HoyoyT 



GLOSSARY PRACTICE 




Moy 

THAO 

Mooy 

^HreMtuN 

CKKAHCIA 

AMHT6 

oyoeicy 

OHAHCCH 

e€ 0 <J>tA.€CTATOC 

rrooNe 

ne 

OA.I'pIC 

4>opei 

cooy 

Z*o6 

K AIN 

2°\Z 

MOYT€ 

eipe 

qjewoyTe 

cmoyeioc 

Z COON 

erne 

pAUje 

eipHNH 

nApeenoc 

ei 

TOO ODBC 

6ICDT 

•XCUCUM6 

€IOT€ 

dpooMnc 

NANOy- 

HCAtAC 

Jtoeic 

U^TOpTp 

24©NOC 

2AMHN 

cooy2 

HGTANOei 

rpAMH at€ yc 

HKA2 

BAAMTTC 

c<J>pAric 

2CIK00N 




FIRST PART (Units I-VI, Sections 1-26): 
THE FORMAL/FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


(The noun phrase, adverb phrase; Nominal Sentence, verb system, 
adverb predication) 




PART ONE: 

UrflT (I): THE NOUN PHRASE (noun & verb lexemes); 

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE; THE PROPER NAME; THE ADVERB PHRASE 

(sections 1*5) 

1.1 The delerminators: articles, demonstratives, possessive pronoun and 
article 

1.1.1 Inherent (inalienable) possession 

1.2 The attributive group (the noun expanded by w*) 

1.3 The possessive group (the noun expanded by S-, ntc-) 

1.4 Apposition 

1.5 Quantifiers; number names 

2.1 Noun coordination (“...and...’*) 

2.2 Noun disjunction (‘‘...or../’) 

2.3 Noun reiteration 

3. The Nominal Sentence: clauses predicating a pronoun or noun 
syntagm 

3.1 The interlocutive pattern: # interlocutive (lst-2nd persons: “I/we, 
you”) pronominal subject + noun-syntagm predicate # 

3.1.1 The interlocutive subject topicalizcd 

3.1.2 The interlocutive pattern, converted 

3.2 The delocutivc pattern: # nominal/pronominal predicate + delocutive 
(3rd persons: “he, she, they”) pronominal subject # 

3.2.1 The delocutive subject expanded and specified by an appositivc 
noun 

3.2.2 The delocutive subject lopicalized 

3.2.3 The delocutive pattern, converted 

3.3 The copular pattern: # nominal/pronominal subject + copula + 
nominal predicate # 

3.3.3 The copular pattern, converted 

3.4 Assorted patterns combined 

(*)3.5 Some special Nominal Sentence patterns 

(*)4 The Proper Name: selected special constructions 


5. The adverb phrase 



4 


FIRST I'ART 


1.1 THE DETERMINATORS: articles, demonstrative pronouns, pos¬ 
sessive articles and pronouns (Table AI-A4) 

(a) The definite article: “the...” (n-, t-, n-) 

(b) The indefinite articles: “a...”, “some...” (oy-, ^en-) 

(c) The zero article 

(d) ...him “every...”, “any...” 

(e) The ‘near’ demonstrative: “this” (n*.i, nei-) 

(0 The ‘remote’, affective demonstrative: “that” (mi, ni-) 

* 

(g) The possessive article: “niy, your, his/her...” (etc.) (ni-, tick-, 

noy-, neq-...) 

(h) The possessive pronoun: “mine, yours, his/hers...” (etc.), “(the) one 

pertaining to...” (rrtui, hcuk, ncu, ncoq, ntuc ...; ni-, Ti*, Ha-) 

NB:-(I) the definite articles have an alternant vocalized form: ne- 
(masc.), T€- (fcm.), we- (plur.), before a double consonant (consonant 
cluster) or ccrtaiu time-expressing nouns; the plural dcf. article n- 
assimilates to a subsequent labial, taking the form m-. 

9 

(2) Many nouns have a regular plural form, c.g. ^cub “work” vs. 
^RHye “works” or ^to “horse” vs. £T cutup “horses”. 

(3) A very small class of nouns has a regular feminine sex form, 
e.g. con “brother” vs. ccunc “sister” or ppo “king” v.t. ppcu “queen”. 

Bibliography : 

Stern parri 226-241 (a-c), 272 <d). 242-249 (c-l). 250-253 (g-h), 199-207 (gender, 
number); Steindorff parr. 136-137 (a), 140-141 (b), 142-143 (c), 88-89 (e-f), 85- 
87 (g-h), 92-94 (gender, number); Till parr. 87-91, 94-99 (a), 92-93, 100-102 (b), 
103-108 (c), 231 (d), 201-202 (c-l), 203-206 (g-h); Vi-roote parr. 121-122, 124- 
125 (a), 123-125 (b), 126 (c), 127-128 (c-l). 136-137 (g-h); Lamudin parr. 1.3, 
17.2 (a), 2.1-2.2 (b-c), 4.2, 5.2, 30.8 (c-l), 16.2 (d), 4.1, 22.2 (g-h), 1.1-1.2 (gender, 
number); Polotsk v. Rev. Till p. 229f. (0; * Shisha-Hai.evy, chapter 5 (gender, 
determination) 

(a) 

TTCAB6. mmaqhthc. oynoKpicic. NKooye THpoy. Tceetupix.- 
NerpA<)>H. weppeuoy. ne^ooy. TeyujH. tu npcuMe tu rfBAxe. < 

NG^BHyC'. MMepXTC. CU FTMAI- ^HJLONH. NG^IOMe' MtfxUNH HCNTOAH. 

Te^oyeire. NiKiexpToc. reyHoy. TP HNH - eexntc. 

ruq. wccooy ' 

(NB: ppcuoy plural of ppo; m- = n- before the labials n m}* 
i[OBS. The vocative (addressed) noun is as a rule definite] 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


5 


(b) 

oy^Hice. oYZuioNi oyApxtuN. oypMMAo. oyMiToei. oyahcthc. 
2€NJiq.‘' 2 e NpP 0< 2 eN 2i°°Y e ' oy^ht noyoit! ^eNKLTL-CLpii 

oyujMMO) 

(NB: noy«wt “single”) 

m 

[OBS. ^eNiuiTA.CApl: note the indefinite detennination of a prepositional 

» 

phrase: “some that arc...”] 

(c) 

_ * 

(p-)nApeeNoc. (p-)naht. (p-)eipHNH. (p-)anauj. (-t--)cso>. (1*-)2 ,ce - 

(jtl-)Hne\ (OYN‘)pCOM€. (OYN-)dOM. (MMN-)ArAnH. 

{NB: the auxiliary verbs p- “be, become”, “make”; *f- “give”, “cause”; 
.xi- “take”. OYN-/MN- “there is/therc is not” (sections 12-14)} 

(d) 

£ice NIM. CMOY him Ap€TH HIM TAGIO NIM. MNT-AT-CCOTM HIM. 
NCA-CA NIM. 2H-MA NIM. 


(C) 

nliTonoc. Neiq^AJce. 2^-TeipoMne tai. neiptuMe ntgijc. 

OYT€IMIN€. ^GNTeiMINe 

(OBS. oytciminc, 2 €nt€imin€ indefinite articles specified by tciming] 


(0 

niMMHiye THpij. ninApA^ycic. ni.xA.xe. ni accrhc. niaikaioc. 

TTIHpn NOytUT. NldlN-OyCUM MOytUT. MTTINAY- N©e N-NIKOOY6- 
't’TAAAintUpOC. *f*AAA6. *fnHrH. 

(NB: tti-...noy*ut “the very same...”. See n- “like...” (lit. “in the 
manner of...)} 

[OBS. Tilp - is a reinforcer or “augens”, an element containing a 
pronouif, modifying a preceding noun or pronoun: “all...”, “the whole 

of...”) 



r 


l 


-neNCTAYpoc--NeYTN2.iTeTN26A.nic thpc. 1 «tamntkoyi. neq2- 

+• m " _ 

M2AA.I>NeTN^Y XH MMIN MMU>TN.7NeqNAA26. / ^T6YAIK.AIOCYNH. 
*n AC 1 ujtVincyaithma THpoyJ/2eNnxpx-TeN<|>YCiCf7NexLrxeoN. 
noYZAt.-TAnpociliopA^TOYMAAY^OYiiJHpeoneNCMOT neNTCucy 
TCNniCTIC T€NMNT2Ap^-2HT T6NArATtM TeN2YHOMONH N€N- 
AlOirMOC NGN2IC6. 


[OBS. 2 ^ NTT ApATeN<)>YCic plural indefinite article followed by a 
prepositional phrase] 



FIRST PART 




(Npooyu)) Na.-HupA.HA. NA-MMNTHA. neqeooy MN-naneqeitoT. 
NeK^BHye THpoy nankaipoc NANpoMne nancbotg. (t6in- 
cyAHA.) Ta^eNMa nayaaN. taticcuthp. raMapia (i.e. bcikcun). 

Nanec^ai. TCNanarKH tcui mntcuoy MNTApcoMe him 

% 

jtu>k (i.c. nnoyB and fi^at). tu>k (i.c. toikoyhcnh). Noyq (i.c. 

Ne^BHye 

ntu (i.c. TToy^ai). Noyx. (i.c. NCKaraeoN). iuuc (i.c. necm). 

{NB: Hayaa-N augcns, "(as) wc (arc) alone”} 

1.1.1 INHERENT (intimate or “inalienable”) POSSESSION ex¬ 
pressed by a suffix pronoun following a special presuflixal (possesed) 
forms of a special class of nouns (esp. parts of the body). 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 195-198; Stf.indorff parr. 81-2; Till par. 188; Vergote parr. 
130(6), 131; Lambdin parr. 28.6, 29.4; Layton, "Compound Prepositions" 

po)-q. toot-k. 2 th Y* 2 th - 2 ht 9- <yaNrq. toot. pNToy. otcoq. 

coyNTC 

{NB: 2 th precedes a zero (2nd person sgl. feminine) suffix pronoun; 
toot: -t “my” is zeroed after the final t of the presuffixal form of the 
noun; pnt ^ see pan} 

Sources for I. I & 1.1.1: 

III 19, 27,45, 46, 47, 63, 64, 66, 70, 72, 73, 77, 90, 93, 96, 114, 133, 159, 
166, 184, 191, 197,219, 221; IV 4,27, 32,46,61,64,67 f., 82, 83,94, 106, 
119, 162, 180, 184, 187, 194; Ch 19, 20, 21, 27, 62, 63, 66, 67, 72, 78, 81, 
83,97; Or. 153, 155, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 167; Wess.9 118, 148, 
171, 174; RE 10 159, 161, 162; RE II 17; A I 246; A II 341,442; Cat. 
42, 43; Leyd. 345, 369; E 66; Gol. 


1.2 THE ATTRIBUTIVE PHRASE: the noun expanded by n- + 
zero-determinated noun. This construction expresses the characteriza¬ 
tion of one noun by the quality or kind of another; while S- is roughly 
equivalent to English “of* (or French “dc”), the construction on the 
whole corresponds to “adjective -t- noun” in English or German. 

V 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 183-188; Steindorff parr. 147-150; Till parr. 114-119, 122; 
Vergote par. 189 (1-6); LambOin parr. 15.1, 16.1, 23.2; * Shisha-Halevy, 
Chapter 4 **• — — 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


7 


1. oycyjuce ncbco. oyopA-xe rico<t>iA (P 130.2 101 ro) 

2. oynNi mu)H 2 (IV 15) (NB: nNA ** itngyma} 

3. oyNod nna. oyNod ncmoy (IV 206) 

4. 2GNpu)Me mitictoc Nine (III 172) {NB: m- — n- before n <f> m} 

V 

[OBS. nicTOc: the Greek masculine form of Greek-origin adjectives 
is used in Coptic for animates, both masculine and feminine] 

5. 2*2 NineoN (IV 89) 

6 . oyNod MMHHtye (Got.) 

7. Ncy^aHye THpoy naikaiocynh (Gol.) 

8. gGNpcoMe nco4>oc (IV 59) 

9. \xxy ncmot (III 63) 

10. oy^eeNoc nacgbhc. n^eewoc ngycgbhc (III 221) 

'll. 2<WC-CON MMGpiT (IV 117) 

32. NeiKoyt nzcuon (III 45) 

13. oyjK^H NtyAJtG (Ch. 97) 

14. oycHcjG NArrcxoc (Ch. 34) 

15. NGqMATOI NXpHCTIANOC ^MOyMG (Ch. 70)* 

16. NGipcUMG NJRXJte (III 70) 

17. NGSHpiON NXrpiON (P 131.5 64 vo) 

18. mca.2 NpGq*i*-KApnoc (IV 186) 

19. nGNGICOT MfipO<J>MTHC (III 62) 

20. cu ttinoO N^BX (Or. 154) 

21. oyopm n6ot (E 70) {NB: x<y n- “What kind of...?’’] 

22. £€NXTNOBG NATTOCTOAOC Ayu> MTTpO<J)HTHC (III 106) 

23. TGNOC NIM N^GAAHN 2>‘2*«p€TlKOC (Ch. 179) 

{NB: z 1 ' coordinates (“and”) zero-determinated nouns (section 

2 . 1 )} 

* 

24. COOY2C MITONHpOC NpCUMG (Ch. 21) 

[OBS. note that in a certain affective tone it is the quality-expressing 
(“adjective'’) constituent of the attributive phrase that precedes] 

25. NGq^BHyG mmg Ay to naikaion (HI 64) 

26. 2*2 nco6 natcbcu Aytu nasht (III 137) {NB: aoht « at- 

2MT) 

27. 26Np(DMG natnobg naikaioc (III 171) 

28. ncpcoc mmg iip 6 qTAN 20 (Ch. 83) 

29. TTATHA MMATOI (Ch. 56) 

30. niAKAeApToc naikacthc (III 26) 

31. NIANOMOC NApXIGpGyC 2 in P ecB Y T6 P oc 2 ,r P* MM * Te Y c 
2i<t>ApiCAioc (Ch. 122) 

32. oycicuT NATAeoc Aycu ncab6 Ay to ngycgbhc namg (Ch. 111) 


FIRST PART 



33. oyp<i>Me mttap anomoc natna NpeqTcupn NA.KAea.pToc 
NKpOq N^CAAHN (Ch. 191) 

34. TCKKAHCIA MN-nCCpeqp-OYOCIN neNCICOT NAriOTATOC AY CL) 

MHApTYPoc nApxienicKonoc kypiaaoc (HI 88f.) 

35. N6IHING NpCOMC (IV 82) 

36. NCIMNTCO<S NT6IMINC (III 32) 

37. OY*CATAptt>-TN NpCDMC (III 117) 

(NB: katapo - the prcsuffixal or pronominal form of the prepost' 

lion KATA-} 

(OBS. to replaces o in open syllables: katapcu-tn] 

38. ncow^ Scya-ene^ (IV 4) 

{NB: <^A6N62, a prepositional phrase, is here used allribulivcly 
like any noun} 

39. N€IA(UAON NUJC MNN-CONC (III 143) 

{NB: mn- coordinates (“and”) definite and indefinite nouns (section 

2 . 1 )} 

[OBS. The article n- in nconc resumes ncia.u>aon: “the [...] of *”] 

40. KCGC MM INC minc (III 51) 

{NB: minc min6 a reiterated noun (2.3), expressively used for 
“every”} 


1.3 THE POSSESSIVE PHRASE: the noun expanded by 

(a) n- + definite/indefinile noun 

(b) ntc- + definite/indefinile noun, nta - + suffix pronoun 

Constructions (a) and (b) are selected according to the determination 
and expansion of the first noun (nucleus). While both correspond to the 
English genitive and “of”, expressing possession and appurtenance, 
ntc- seems to express appurtenance rather than possession where both 
occur after similarly determinated nouns. 

(a) Iit /oy-I n- ln-/oY-J 

(b) IOY-/0-] ntc- (n-/(oY-)l 
|n- ...J ntc- fn-/(oY-)J 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 292-297; Steindorff parr. 148, 156; Till parr. 111-113, 122, 207; 
Vergoti- par. 190 (1-2); Lambdin parr. 2.3, 15.1, 22.) 



TIIE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


9 


( a ) 

[tt- t- N-/oy- ^on-] + n- + [ n- t- n-/ oy- 2 cm-] 

1. TT8HMA Mnexc (Ch. 95) 

{NB: ncxc =» nexpicroc: “sacred names” are orthographically 
abbreviated and marked with a longer superlinear stroke} 

2. nxoroc MnNoyTe (RE 10 160) 

3. ne^A.o6 Hgenq^Hpe cynn (A I 246) 

4. firene* NNrirxc (P 130.2 4 p. 84) 

5. Ne^ooy NTenp<u (IV 53) 

6. noycocp mticn^ht (III 140) 

7. tOom MneK2P°°Y (E 57) 

8. 26MfYXH N^eNpMN-NoyTe (A II 486) 

9. tc^ih Mn^XAHT h njcoei (III 151) 

10. Ne^BHye Mnxxxe (Leyd. 296) 

{NB: ^awye plural of ^cob) 

11. n6ijc NoyptUM« ncx.bg (IV 127) 

12. Ncynpe THpoy wnNoyTe (Ch. 67) 

[OBS. Note that the reinforccr T«p follows its noun immediately, 
preceding any other expansion] 

13. TMHTC HiHNTC (III 184) 

[OBS. xmntc, being a Proper Name, is not determinated] 

14. Nc^iooye ntccbcu NNerpx<f> H (III 125) 

{NB: 2 *ooye plural of ^ih) 

(b) 

(oy-2€N-/0-/ n-T-N- +J + nt6- + [tt- t- n-/( oy- 2 6N ')] I + ntx«* 

1. oycnoy NT6TTJCO61C (E 88 ) 

2. oY2HreHu>N ntgn^ggnoc (III 143) 

3. 2« N 2 BH Y e NTenxa.2 (P 131.6 44 115) 

4. ^cNKCApxcuN NTemoAic (III 27) 

{NB: ice- “other” follows the determinators but precedes the 
lexeme (section 1.5)} 

5. 2 cue- < 4 )Bp- P 2 <db MTennoyTe (IV 30) 

6. 2 BNOIKOAOHH NTC^eN^HpG tyWM (A II 433) 

■ 

7. qjHp6 NT6noyoeiN.<pHpe NTenxAxe (III 75) 

8. (we do not hear) e-^pooy ntacj (III 203) 

{NB: e- preposition governed by cuitm “hear”} 

9. oyqjeepe <yHM ktacj (Cat. 42) 

10. oyBXA NTeoy^MjxA NTXiq (III 36) 

11. 2P e HIM 2<CO> NIM NTGITMOy (IV 195) 



FIRST PART 


10 

12. nim ht*y (HI 173) 

13. jie eToyiii NTeneNJcoeic (IV 126) 

{NB: eToyjaB relative present, ‘‘which (are) holy” (section 
16.1.1)} 

14. ^eNKATACAp!! NT Ay (III 136) 


1.4 APPOSITION: one noun (or determinated element) specifying 
another by following it, with no other means of connecting the two. A 
common noun describing a Proper Name, a Proper Name identifying and 
naming a common noun; a common noun or Proper Name explicating a 
personal pronoun; a demonstrative pronoun repeated; appositive 
attributes: Koyi “little”, “small”. Fixed Greek terminological 

expressions. 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 483; Steindorff par. 144; Till parr. 110; Vergote par. 188 

* t 

1. ABSA. TTAIKAIOC. ZAXApiAC TTtyHpe NBApAXIAC (III 103) 

2. aagsanapoc n^HreHcoN (III 32) 

3. rrojojcne N^peseicKA tmaay niakcob (IV 27) 

4. MANHC TTATNOyTS MMANIXAIOC (A I 194) 

5. nsNatosic Tc tisnsicot xyco tsnmaay nans (IV 129) 

» 

(NB: Ic = iHcoyc} 

6 . ne<|MepiT we i cut noso^iasctayoc aita TiHoeeoc (III 14) 

7. npcuHe NArxeoc aoanacioc nxpxienicxonoc (MI 108) 

8 . neeppo nsxc (Ch. 122) 

{NB: nsxc = nsxpicTOc} 

9. TeipoHne tai (III 219) 

[OBS. an appositive demonstrative, meaning “this very...”] 

10. neooy n-esox ^ITN-Npcons (III 35) 

[OBS. nesox the def. article determinating an adverb phrase: “the 
t one (that is) from...”) 

IK cu npcoMe Aycu nto zcucots tsc^ims (Or. 153) 

{NB: 2 co cots : 2nd person sgl. fem. form of the reinforcer £cucu -} 

12 . ^mitsima nAi (E 82) 

v _ 

13. rrsTMoycoq) mttscnay (Or. 160) 

{NB: mttscnay: n- introduces a number name apposition} 

14. oynxpxnTcoHX icoyi (Lcyd. 345) 

15. TMNT^HKS epHM (Ch. 14) 

16. neq^M^AA <^hm (Z 246 75) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


II 


17. Nxoyi t^HM n^ooy (of life; Ryl. 71 91) 

[ODS. note that qjHM has precedence over an n- introduced attributive 
(or possessive) expansion] 

18. anoic niesiHN (III 137) . 

19. ANON MMONAXOC (Ch. 56) 

20. TKAOOAIICH CKKA.HCI A (E 84) 

{NB: this is a fixed combination, imported “ready-made” from the 

Greek and following the rules of Greek syntax; so too in texts 21-2) 

■ 

21. TCITA.ATONIKH AUACKUIA (A I 15) 

22. TTTAA.AIA MN-TKAINH AIAOHKH (A II 244) 

23. ANON NCXpCICTIANOC (Ch. 160) 

24. NTUITN CO N^AipeTlKOC (III 47) 

25. NTCOTN AC NJCAJCC NTMC (III 86) 

26. CO rrcpCONC NKAKC TTC 0 OA. ^MITKAKC nJCAAC (E 94) 

27. nexc Tc ttcnaocic Aycu ocnccothp nNoyre Ayco nujupc 

mttnoytc (Ch. 83) 

1.5 QUANTIFICATION 

! kc-, gCNKC- “another...”, “other...” (plural) 

-6c- 

l n "» ttci-, neq-Jite- “the/this/his other...”, “also the/this/his...” 

Cardinal numbers: oy-, oy- ... NoycoT “one...” 

...cnay/cntc “two...” (masc./fem.) 

number + n- + zero noun from 3 onward. 

...nim “any...”, “every...” 

Bibliography : 

Stern parr. 270-271, 277-283, 486; Stkcndorff parr. 158, 166-168; Till parr. 
162-164, 225, 227-230; Vergote parr. 147-152, Lamboin parr. 4.3, 15.3, 16.5 

1. KcnoNHpoN (RE II 18) 

2. gCNKcppcooy (III 68) 

3. gCNKCMA (RE 10 164) 

4. NKCANAHCH (RE 11 15) 

5. (She misleads not only the fools.) aa.aa NKecxaeey oh (Or. 153) * 

6. (She became a cause of transgression) nac ac m a yA a- c an aaaa 
hitcckc^ai on (Or. 166) 

{NB: na * pronominal form of the “dative” preposition n-; 
mayaa ** reinforcer or augens) 



12 


FIRST PART 


[OBS. an negates the adverb nac mayaac] 

7. tacoy NOYoeiK noy<ut (Or. 162) 

8 . NATK.ciTAA.Ai a (i.c. the Testament; Ch. 74) 

9. HHNTAN-6e^€AniC HMAY NCA-NCNepHY (HI 136) 

{NB: hmntan “we do not have*’ (section 13.2)} 

10. TTBAA CNAY HnCNOJpTl-NCICOT (III 118) 

11. OY^AAC ^NTeqOYCpHTC CNTC (A II 245) 

12. neireNoc cnay (III 219) 

13. 1*o y n^oboaoc (Or. 162) 

14. qje naixhaacotoc (III 71) 

15. UJOMNT NGBOT (III 69) 

16. ^MeqjoMre npoHne. ce uponne (III 219) 

17. TTMHT NOCIK NCUOT (III 73) 

18. taioy HN-cAq;q iiqje hn-cooy ntba n^ohnt (III 71) 

19. CH© AY<W GNCUX HNTTCqKCGICDT AAH6X (Ch. 75) 

20. CA(^q NCA6IN (III 69) 

21. TTKeoYA (Ch. 166) 

22. NeiKooYe (Ch. 83) 

23. kc^cob noy<ut (Ch. 160) 

24. oyz ht noyuit. oyccoma noycot. oyitna noycot. oycbco 

noyu)t. OYnicric noycot. oynoytc noycot (Ch. 153) 

25. cnoyAAioc nnoMec irrppco ayco neqxecoN (Ch. 108) 

26. pcoHe nih (Ch. 151) 

27. OY MONON ^N-NCqCKKAHCI A AYCO NeqTOnOC MNMA NIH... 

AAAA ^NNCNKCHI ON ANON HNNCNU^HpC AYCO NCNCIOTC 

HNNCNCNHY (Cll. 159) 

(NB: oy honon (Greek) “not only’’} 

28. (You love) n^ait nim hhc (Ch. 85) 

{NB: n- preposition marking the direct object} 

29. (Not just) pcoMe oyt€ ApxArreAoc ayco 6 oh nih (Ch. 136) 

30. oyon nih (Ch. 86) 

31. (Who does not differ from His Father) ^n6oh nih ^ncooy nih ^i- 

•TAIO NIH 2NMNTNAHT NIH ^IHNTU;AN£THq NIH ^NHNTArAOOC 
NIH ^IHNTXpHCTOC NIH (Ch. 118) 

2.1 COORDINATION (“...and ...”) 

(a) definile/indefinite noun -t- ayco (“also”) 4- definite/indefinite noun 

(b) definile/indefinite noun + hn- (“with”) + definite/indefinite noun 

(c) indefinite/zero dct. noun + ^i- (“on”) + zero-determinated noun 

(d) noun + noun (juxtaposition: asyndetic coordination, csp. in lists). 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


13 


Bibliography : 

Stern parr. 552, 559, 591-592; Steindorff parr. 179. 181, 413; Till parr. 374- 
377; Vergote par. 178; Lambdin par. 30.11(a) 

(a) 

1. Nu^Hpe u^hm Aycu Nupeepe ujhm (Wess. 9 149a-b) 

2. oyqjHpe Aycu ujeepc cntg (III 97) 

3. aagsanapoc n^HrencuN Aycu on neTpoc n^HreMcun (III 32) 

4. NcyHpe NTeyqjH Ayo> nKLKe (RE II 17) 

5. TBBO HIM Ay<D ATAGON HIM (IV 21) 

6. Tfpcone nakagaptoc Ayco t€C 2 Img naoimoc (Or. 167) 

7. oyeicuT Ayco oyMAAy (Or. 158) 

8. wee Noy^ooAe ^Noy^oeiTe Ayco oyqNT 2 Noyq>e (Or. 167) 
(NB: woe n- “in the manner of*, “like...”, “as...”) 

9. a) npcuMe Ayco nto 2<»>tt>Te Tec 2 »Me (Or. 154) 

[OBS. The personal pronoun is coordinated by Ayco, i.c. in con¬ 
struction (a)] 

(b) 

1. ne^ooy MNTeyqjH (III 113) 

2. N€npO<|>HTHC MNNATIOCTOAOC (IV 32) 

3. qjAJte HIM MN^CUB HIM NATAGON (III 1)3) 

4. neccA MNneceooy mnttgcanai wntgcOom (III 52) 

■ 

5. NdAMOyA MNNGCOOy AyCUMMACG MNNG^OOy MNNe^TOJCOp 

MNNBAAMne (HI 70) 

6. oyopfH MNoydo>NT mnoygai'I'ic MNoyAtujtJ (Ch. 47) 

7. TG^pe MNGBCCO (IV 176) 

{NB: GBCco = t-^bccu) 

8. HCAy MNIAKCDB (IV 27) 

9. iipAN Ayco N6CXHMA MNN6KAOM (IV 3) 

_ i _ _ 

10. GAACU MAyAAC MNKGCO NNOO NC^IMG (IV 62) 

11. £ 6 H 3 tl?An MN2eN*t*TtUN MN^GNICCU^ MN2GNMOCTG (WCSS 9 151a) 

(NB: ai* f*: auxiliary verbs, here indefinite infinitives (“cases 
of...”)} 

12. Ncu^e xyw AapA2AM mnicaak mniakcob mnngnciotc Twpoy 
(P 130.2 5 85) 

13. tiJaao MNN 2 AAOI THpoy (IV 115) 

(C) 

1. c cum a 2 *cnoc| (Cat. 43) 

2. PAN 2ICXHMA (IV 3) 



14 


FIRST PART 


3. MNT.xA.xe ziAujA^oM 2>Ho6Ne<$ (Ill 192) 

4. M6AOC NICCD^T 2 ,# NT fcUtOOACC 2IKAK6 JMpiMC Zl6oZ^Z 

NNOB2 2*2*° 2 I€IB€ MNNKCANArKH (RE 11 16) 

{NB: bnt = qNT} 

[OBS. Note the alternation regulated by the determination] 

5. NpcuMe N|*€<|<|i')'Y XH N^Hpe 2iupeepe 2 *con ziccdng (IV 21) 

6 . CA 20 Y nim 2I0u>nt nim (P. 130.2 5 85) 

7. (you shall not lack) nocik 2 , 2° €,t€ 2 ,xx *Y nnka eriTHpij 
NT€- TTKA2 (HI 205) 

8 . (Would that I could find) nninoytc n2*t 2 ,no Y® ^i^omt 
2 IBApCUT (III 1 1 I) 

{NB: n-(ninoyt€) preposition marking the direct object} 

9. reNoc him N2€A.AHN*2i2 x, P eT,KOC (Ch. 179) 

10. Miupe NIM 2i1'TCUN HIM MN2CUB NIM €<|2 00 Y MNeniOYMIA NIM 
NCApKIKON (IV 118) 

{NB: eq2°°Y “that is evil”, circumstantial present (sections 16.1.1, 

27.1) describing 2 <i>b nim} 

[OBS. exp *ikon the Greek neuter form of Grcck-origin adjectives 
is used in Coptic for inanimates] 

11. 2£NCxpi ng io> z l Z ro (P 130.2 86ro) 

2 €NCUN€ 2IOMG (A 1 381) 

[OBS. 2 €N - brackets [cone 2 ,a,Me J “(people) characterized 
• by 

12. OYHp N2ice 2i0pu>2 mmnt2 HK€ 2ipooY<AJ mttci-aicdn 2 IA1 tath 
MMNT pMMAO (III 205) 

(cl) 

1. 2® MM NTpMN2 MT 2 €NCOO Y N 2®NKOCMHCIC 2®N6NTOA.H 

26NMNTnxpeeNoc 2 €nk€2*my€ mmo€I2 € (III 206) 

2. 2®Nnpo<|>MTNC 2 eN €Y^rreAiON 2eHinocTO\oc 2 €N rpx<t>H 
CNXcyCDOY 2 eN KA0HrHCIC NT6N6TOYXAB 2®Nq)XXe MN26NC- 

booy« €Nxcy cdoy (HI 207) 

{NB: cNxq^cDOY “that are numerous”, circumstantial Adjective 
Verb (section 22.5). nctoyaab “they that are holy”, plural definite 
relative present (16.1.1, 31.1)} 

3. 2€N8ApBXpOC 2 eN COON€ 2 6N MATOI 2®NpMMAO 2®NTTipAC- 
MOC ... 2® NC AT AN AC 2®NAAIMONION 2®NTTNA NAKAOApTON 

26NJCCD2M 2®NJCtOY® 2®NnipACMOC NNOB6 NIM (III 205) 


THE FORM A l.*FUNCT10NA L SYSTEM 


15 


2.2 DISJUNCTION (“[either] ...or../’, ’’[neither] ...nor...”, “wheth¬ 
er... or...”): h (... h), oyAe (... oy.Ae), oyTe (... oyre), e»T€ ... 

eiTC 

Bibliography : 

Stern parr. 593, 595; Till par. 377; Vergote par. 178. 

1. neccoN h necqjaHp (III 52) 

2. oYA.rreA.oc h oynNA NTenNoyre (III 214) 

3. (Do not call this book) nomoc h qjxxe ncbco zicntoah (III 192) 

4. NAI H NIKOOyO (IV 2) 

5. neynpmp h t 6Y2 oit€ h oy^naay 0^ 1 13) 

6. eiTe ^ooyt eiT6 c^imc (IV 154, and often) 

7. (What are we all) eiTe ppo eiTe xpxu>N eire pmmao eiTe 
2HK6 eiTe oyhhb gitg OYON NtM ^toycon (Lcyd. 362) 

8. (They do not perform) nna-tcxpia mftccjoma oy^e na-tc'I'Yxh 

(III 115) 

{NB: n- direct object marker) 

9. (Let us not cut off) n^cnnoO nujontc oyTe no6 nkaatoc 

(IV 73) 

{NB: ICAATOC * KAA.AOC) 

10. MN-KAKIA OYT€ KCU£ OyT€ MOCT6 OyTC Jtl N<SONC ^OACUC 

^m-ita^ht (III 138) 

{NB: mn- negates existence (or affirms non-cxistcncc): “there is 
not” (section 12.2); assimilated form of the preposition ^n-} 

11. Hpn an oy-ac Aq oy.Ae NK.ooy€ ctna^cuoy (IV 94) 

{NB: 6TNAtpcuoY “that are numerous”, relative adjective verb 
(section 22.5)} 

[OBS. an, oY<Ae negative the nouns Hpn, xq, NKooye] 

12. Te'f'yxH *ag on Aycu nccuMA h npcuMe THpq (III 214) 

13. OYMNTJCAJte H 2SN<yAX6 MMNTJCAJCC (III 194) 


2.3 NOUN REITERATION 

(a) Of definite nouns: “every...”, “any...” 

(b) Of indefinite/zero det. nouns: ”... by...” (adverbial) 

(c) Of zero-determinated nouns (the whole following in an attributive 

phrase): “of every...”, “of all sorts of...” 

Bibliography : 

Stern par. 273; Steindorff par. 145; Till par. 109; Shisha-Halevy par 1.3.3 


16 


FIRST PART 


(a) 

1. noy* noyA kata-tccjmin€ (III 110) f 

2 . (See each other) m-itnay nNAy mn* ne^ooy ne^ooy (A II 278) 

3. (Trample on) eAipecic eAipecic (A I 395) 

4. (Things we have) £MnKAipoc nKAipoc h ^NTpoMne TpoMne 

h ^Mne^ooy ne^ooy (IV 71) 

(b) 

1. kata^ooy z oo Y h oyc^HM oytyHH (A I 150) 

2. (They speak) oyA oyA (A I 12) 

3. (The Lord sends them off) cnay cnay (A I 12) 

4. (You tear them apart) node node h aakm aakm (A I 108) 

5. (The shame diminished) ujhm u;hm (A I 101) 

(c) 

I. fAO^H N^BCCU HHIH6 HINC £l-AyAN AyAH (A II 116) 

3. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE: clauses predicating a pronoun 

■ 

or noun syntagm 
Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 300-302, 304-305, 307; Steindorfi- parr. 298-312; Till parr. 242- 
246; Vkrgote parr. 193-198; Lambdin parr. 6.1, 6.2, 15.2, ’2.2; * Polotsk v 

Nominahatz ; Shisiia-Half.vy, “Patterns”; “Discovery Procedure” 


3.1 THE 1NTERLOCUTIVE (lst/2nd person) PATTERN: 4 intcr- 

locutivc (lst-2nd person: “I/wc, you”) pronominal theme (subject) + 
noun-syntagm rheme (predicate) #: “I am/ you are...”. Sec table Bl. 
Negatived: # (ii-) theme + rheme an # 

Bibliography : 

* PolOtsky, Nominalsatz parr. 20-30; Siiisiia-Halevy, “Patterns” 

1. anF- oynoNHpoc rip cone (III 123) 

2. anFnim anok (III 15) 

[OBS. anok: augens, marking the question as rhetorical. On the 
augens as a grammatical category, see Shisha-Halevy chapter 6] 

3 . ANr-OyKATApCUTN AN NpCUMC A AAA AnF-O yK ATApOl MMIN 

MMOI (III 1 17) 



THE FORMAL FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


17 


{NB: oykatapcdtn indcf. article with the preposition kata-: 
“one according to...”} 

4. imt- oy€nth< 5 (Ch. 42) 

5. ntkoy«4>ont€ MNOYApooYe (Ch. 36) 

6 . ntk- o yoy (HI 38) 

{NB: oyoy indef. article + interrogative pronoun) 

7. e<yjte-NTKOYnNX h OYArrcxoc (, then I too am a servant of 

God) (III 38) 

8. ntg-oymaay an (III 22) 

9. an-^gncabc (P 130.4 104 123) 

10. ANON-^CNtSnH AYU) ANON-2€NATMnq>A (A I 134) 

{NB: anon- fuller variant of an-, 1st plural subject} 

11. ANON^eNOY AC ^ttXDN CITC ppo eiTC ApXCON 6IT€ PMMAO 

citc ^hkc (Lcyd. 362) 

12. ANON£CN6 oA ANON£6 Np<iL)M6 AN (A 11 174) 

13. ecyjce-ANON-Nu;Hpe ac Snppo nexc eie ANON^enppo (A I 164) 

14. NTCTN- TTCOTN AN (WeSS. 9 118a) 

{NB: ttcutn possessive pronoun, “yours (pi.)”} 

15. NTCDTN-^CNUJBp-p-^tOB M TIC AT AN AC NTCTN- £CNM A- NOyoe I 

wneTMMAY (Thompson K 3 vo) 

{NB: NTCOTN-: fuller variant of ntctn-; p- auxiliary “do, make”, 
deriving verbs from nouns; ttgtmmay determinated relative present 

predicating an adverb (section I9.J.1): “he who (is) there” » “that 

one (yonder)”} 


3.1.1 THE INTERLOCUTIVE (lst/2nd person) THEME (SUBJECT) 
TOPICAL1ZED, i.c. represented in front of the clause as well as in the 
first position of the pattern: “As for me/you, I am/you arc...”: # noun/ 
pronoun -f- [tsl/2nd pron. theme + noun-syntagm rheme]#. See • 

TABLE BI 

Bibliography : 

♦ Polotsky, Nominalsatz, parr. 35-38 

1. ANOK 2UKDT ANrnecfcMZAA. (Ill 38) 

{NB: ^cucut 1st person sgl. of the rcinforcer jojcd-: ‘Tor my 
part”, “I too”} 

2. anok jlg niTAAAincupoc anFoy^hkc ^nna-ttka^ anFoy- 
2oyc-2HK€ ^nna-tttc (Ch. 99) 


FIRST PART 


18 

I 

3. nto ^cutUTe NTeoyMAAy aw (III 22) 

{NB: ^tuu>T€ 2nd person sgl. feminine of ^ojoj.*} 

4. noyA noyA anon- mm6\oc NHSH-epHy jCLeyd. 348, cf. Eph. 

4:25) 

5. AN OH TAp ANON^eNTAAAintOpOC Mfl€MTO €BO\ MnJCOCIC 

(P 131.7 46 254) 


3.1.2 THE INTERLOCUTIVE (lst/ 2 nd person) PATTERN CON¬ 
VERTED (see tables B I, G) 

(a) Circumstantial (e- + interlocutive pattern): “although ...” (28-30) 
(d) Preterite (we- + inlqrlocutivc pattern): in remote wish (‘‘O that I 

were...”) (41) 

Bibliography: 

Steindorff parr. 374, 377, 479f.; Vergote p. 162 parr. 162, 166(2), 204; 
Lamddin par. 25.1 (d); * Polotsk v, Nam. Transposition parr. 6, 22-33. 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. (You pretend to be righteous) eNT 6 TN- 2 €N<ijA<|T 6 (HI 135 ) 

2. (Is it not amazing that I have told you all that is on my mind) canF- 
oyestHN Npo>M€ (Ch. 108) 

(d) Preterite: 

I. £AMot N6ANON-oyA HNOoy (IV 91) 


3.2 THE DELOCUTIVE (3rd person) PATTERN: # nominal/pro¬ 
nominal rheme (predicate) + delocutivc (*'hc, she, they”) pronominal 
theme (subject): ne/re/ne #. Sec table B2a 

4 

Negatived: # (n-) rheme + an + theme# 

NB: The pronominal theme (ne, re, Ne) refers cither to a preceding 
nominal (“he/she/il/they arc”) or to the determinalor of its own rheme, 
when it is used impersonally (“it is”); exx. for the latter case are texts 6 , 
7, 10, 13-18. 

Bibliography : 

* Polotsky, Nominaisatz parr. 20-30, 34 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


19 


1. TTNOYTe ne- nNoyTe an tic (Ch. 65f.) 

2. oynoNHpoH ne (Ch. 95) 

3. oyApxeuN ne- oyco<f>oc ne (Wess. 9 139a) 

4. (Of the snake:) oy £u>u>q ne z wc eujJte-oyitAn nnoy^ ne 

(Ch. 30) 

{NB: particle: “anyway”; ^cuc etpjte- “as if’} 

5. MnapooY^ an ne (Ch. 95) 

6 . (When you console a man on someone who was killed, do not tell 
him) ace- neqA^e ne MneqA^e a€ an ne (III 43) 

7. £€nkac ne (A II 342) 

8 . jeNArAeoN THpoy Ne (III 114) 

9. (Of the Bride in Song of Songs:) oyei rAp Te oyNod MMHHcye 
Ae Te oynApeeNoc Te Aytu oyqjeAeeT Te oyKnnoc Te 
Aycu oynyAH Te ... oyaaoc tc Ayo> oynpo<|>HTHc Te ... 
oyccune T6 Aycu oycoN Te oyqjHpe u^hh Te Aycu oy- 
npecaeyTHC Te oyqjeepe Te Aycu oyMAAy tc oyHt Te 

Aycu oynoAic Ae on Te (III 57-8) 

[OBS. The indefinite nouns predicated of the feminine Te “she is” 
are of feminine or masculine gender: the real predicate is the 
indefinite article oy- “a {fern.)'*) 

10. neNAAoy cyHM ne natcooyh (P 130.1 133 329) 

[OBS. Note the position of the theme ne, prosodically weaker than 
other constituents of the clause (“enclitic”)) 

11. ^GNetACDAON He CMeyqpAJte (IV 68) 

(NB: eneycpAAe circumstantial conversion of the negative aorisl 
in adnomina! role (sections 6.2.1, 27.1) describing geneiACDAON 
“that are not able to talk”} 

[OBS. Note the position of the theme Ne] 

9 

12. (Of gold:) oypAcoy nak. ne exNKorx Aycu neKMOtcMetc ne 
eicpHc (A II 531) 

(NB: e it Nilotic, eicpnc circumstantial present forms (sections 
15.1.1, 16.1.1, 28.1) “when you arc asleep... when you arc awake”; 
nak the preposition n-/na- before the 2nd sgl. masc. suffix) 

13. (When a thief is hated,) N-oynoi^e an tc oyAe N-oyNoae an 

ne aaaa oyArAeoN Njoyo ne (A I 95) 

14. nxoeic an ne (IV 154) 

15. TNHCT6IA Te (IV 154) 

16. nq^cuM ne - Tenpco tc (IV IlOf.) 

17. TeycpH Te (IV 83) 



20 


FIRST PART 


18 . M-na>it an ne njtuB aaaa tia-tanoxii MnNoyTe ne (Ch. 35 ) 
{NB: ncuK, nA- possessive pronouns (section 1.1 h)} 

19 . pycoN ne m ^eNCNHy Ne oynopNoc ne h jeNnopNoc ne h 

^eNpequ^Hcpe-eiACUAON Ne (111 192 ) 


■ 

3.2.1 THEDELOCUTIVE (third person) SUBJECT EXPANDED 
and SPECIFIED BY AN APPOS1TIVE NOUN: # nominal/pronomi¬ 
nal rheme (predicate) + ne/re/Ne + noun (specifying or explicating 
ne / T6 / ne) # (Table B2b) 

Negatived: # (n-) nominal/pronominal rheme + an + ne/Te/N€ + 

t 

noun # 

Biiiliography: 

* Polotsk y, A lominalsats parr. 38-45 

1. NToq ne nnoyre (Ch. 84) 

2. him tc tai (Ch. 121) 

3. oy Te TeN^eAnic (Ch. 82) 

4. oyHp ne neqoyBAdj (Wess. 9 117b) 

5. TCUTN TAP T€ T- 6Y<f>pOCyNM THpC O) N€CNHy (III 117) 

6 . nAi ne nnoyTe hh€ (Ch. 83) 

7. noun ne nnoyB ncuK ne n^AT tcdk re r oiKoyMCNH (III 90) 

8 . Noyq ne njoNNT mnitnoyb mn^naay nih (III 73> 

9. oyHAKApioc ne oy^m^aa Mnexc ^Noyne (P 130.2 NO ro) 

10. ApA 26 nmka2 n^ht Ne NeicyA,xe (Wess. 9 94a) 

11. oywoi^e T€ tno6 NArAnH HneNJtoeic e^oyn epoN (III 76) 

12. 2 GN^An Ne neicpAace e^pAi ejtcuN Aycu ^cncoaca an Ne (A 
II 32) 

{NB: c^pAi ejto)N two prepositional phrases: see e-, £pAi and 

e jch- } 

t 

13. au; ne nwo6 njtoeic mttanauj ne jtiN-nANA<y ne (III 16) 
{NB: jcin- = jtN- “or”} 

14. n oyTAHio ne nepupe MnnoyTe (Orig. 310) 

{NB: h introduces a rhetorical question) 

15. oyAAC eqjtA^M N^oyo ne nAAc nnacgbhc (III 113) 

{NB: eqALA^H circumstantial present (sections 16.1.1, 27.1) de¬ 
scribing oyAAC “that is impure**} 

16. ncuc rAp an ne ncA (Or. 168) (said of the beautiful woman) 

% 

17. au; 6 e ne nesKtu NCA-nujAJte mntccbcu NNerpA<f>H (III 52) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


21 


18. (He who denies, saying) Ic an ne neixc (III 114) 

19. rxi T€ ee hticltlnlc (E 78) 

[OBS. tai T€ ee “thus”, “in this manner” (lit. “this is the 
manner”); compare Nee n- or Kmee n- “as”, “like” (lit. “in the 
manner”, “according to the manner”) and NTei^e “in this manner”, 
“thus”. “The manner” (ee i.e. T-^e) is followed by n- for a 
compared noun or by a relative for a compared verbal action, event 
or stale. The possessive article is used for a compared person: 
wreN^e “like us”, lit. “in our manner”] 

20. aq; ne nciae nn^HT h oy re TMNTArciae (IV 118) 

21. Hnu) an ne neiujaace oyre MnLAJay NcyNArcurH an ne 
neiujaace aaaa naToucoyMeNH THpc ne (A I 62) 

22. oywod ne npeune (Young 14) 


3.2.2 THE DELOCUTIVE (3rd person) THEME (SUBJECT) TOPI- 
CALIZED, i.c. represented in front of the clause as well as in the second 
position of the pattern: “As for the man, he is...”: # noun/pronoun + 
[nominal/pronominal rheme (predicate) + Tie I re /we] # 

Negatived: # noun/pronoun + (n») + rheme + an + ne/Te/we # 
(Table B2c) 

Bibliography: 

* Poi-OTSKY, Nomination parr. 35-8 

1. NToq rap ayco neqetccuT oya Ne (RE 11 17) 

2. Neicqjaace MNNeiceNTOAH THpoy £€NMe ne Noyi xe £€n6oa 

ne (III 141) 

3. araeoN him noyq Ne (III 72) 

4. necooy na-NeoHpiON an ne aaaa na-ncycuc ne (III 47) 

5. (Can you say:) ace-necooy oyesoA ^MnoyeuNcy ne (P 130.5 

17 107) 

{NB: oyeaoA ^MnoycuNuj the indefinite article with an adverbial 
phrase, eaoA ?n-, consisting of cboa “out” further qualified and 
precised by the preposition 

6 . neyniee N-oyeaoA an ne ^MnTcuzM Mnexc (E 79) 

7. act NdONC HIM 2CNNOBC N€ Ayo) NOBC HIM £eNJO N<SONC Ne 

(H 92) 

8. nei-Hi rap napuiMe an ne aaaa nanNoyTe ne (P 130.4 156 
364) 



first part 


9 . t€Ino 6 NxcupeA oyeBOA. 2 | ’rM-nNoyTe T€ Ayco oyesoA. 
£iTN-pu>Me an Te neiTCDq? oyeaoA. ^NTne ne Ayco oye- 
BO\ AN ne 2 MTTKA 2 (III 107) 

{NB: oyeBOA. 2 ,t m- the indefinite article with cboa., further 
precised by ^itn- (“by the agency of') 

[OBS. Note the positions of an, ne/ie] 

10. noce MTioyA noyA Ayco neqeooy ncuq ne citc ^ooyT 

eiTe c^imc (IV 155) 


3.2.3 THE DELOCUTIVE (3rd person) PATTERN CONVERTED 
(see Tables B2, G) 

(a) Circumstantial (e- + delocutive pattern): “although", also adnominal 

(27-30) 

(b) Relative (ere- + delocutive pattern): “who..." (31-33) 

(d) Preterite (nc- + delocutive pattern): past tense, anteriority, hypo¬ 
thetical result (39-41) 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. oyNoae enon ne (A I 84) 

2. Tec^iMe gtxcu mhoc xe- an?- oynApeeNoc eoyei an tc 

(A II 62) 

{NB: ctacu relative present predicating xo> "say" (section 15.1.1) 
with mho^ c "it" the neuter feminine (direct-object-marking prepo¬ 
sition + c) as an empty direct object: "who says <it)"} 

[OBS. oyei "one (fern.)" represents the indefinite article oy- ("a 
(fern.)” of the predicate in the first (affirmative) Nominal Sentence] 

3. (These you say are pure) e^eNATqjAy n€ (E 67) 

4. (They think of themselves xe-^eNArAeoN no e^eNnoNHpoN ng 

(A I 209) 

5. (How can anything have existed before Him) eNToq ne TAne 
mttccdnt THpq (Wess. 9 147c) 

6. pcoMe e^ennpASic ojhm nc Neq^BHye (IV 25) 

{NB: adnominal circumstantial, expanding (qualifying) po)Me} 

7. oyMooy e-MncuK an ne (Or. 155) 

(b) Relative: 

1. NAceBHC namg €TG 2 Gnbotg Mnxoeic ng Ney^iooye (IV 10) 

2. nMHHcye eTG-Mncuq an ne (P 130.2 95 149) 

3. 'f'nHI’H eTCNTCUK an Te (Or. 155) 



THE FOR MAI.-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



4. M€T€-NOyq N€ (III 93) 

{NB: N6T6- the plural definite article as antecedent (nucleus, i.e. 
grammatical center or head) of the relative: “they who” (section 
31.1). The predicate here as in exx. 2, 3, 5, 7 is a possessive pronoun 
(section 1.1)} 

5. neTencui an ne nerencoq ne (Ch. 77) 

6. ngt- N2 eNNO Y Te an ng (III 45) 

7. TeTCTOJK Te TCT6TCUK an re neTenai ne (Or. 158) 

{NB: rrcu 2nd person sgl. fern, possessive pronoun (nco- + zero 
suffix)} 

8. oypcoMe no ycoT eTenNoyTe ne oyMAAy NoycoT €T€- 

eiXHM NTne Te (IV 129) 

[OBS. eTe ...ne and eTenAi ne ... are used for “namely” and 
glossing (“to wit”). Unlike the relative conversion elsewhere (section 
31.1-2), this is compatible also with indefinite and zero nouns. See 
also ex. 10] 

9. nAi €T€oy 20 Te ne acooq (IV 76) 

10. (nMoyi) €T€anok. ne n^M^AA. MnNoyTe (TBAcyop) e tcn- 

tok. ne n^M^AA MnM ammconac (III 79) 

11. nerencoq ne ttka^ THpq (Young 4) 

(d) Preterite: 

1. kA irAp Ne^eNpcoHe Ne (and became wolves), Ne^eNArreAoc 
Ne (and became demons) (Ch. 72) 

2. NCNAcyBeep rAp Ne (Ch. 108) 

3. merpA rAp Nenexc ne (III 51, cf. I Cor. 10:4) 

4. Neoycyme NAy an ne (III 75) 


3.3 THE COPULAR PATTERN: # nominal/pronominal theme (sub¬ 
ject) + copula (ne, more rarely Te) + nominal rheme (predicate) #: 
see Table B3. 

The theme in this pattern is characteristically context-bound, e.g. (and 
most frequently) resuming a preceding noun and giving it thematic 
status; in this role the pattern is used for glossing or explicating 
preceding text. 

Bibliography: 

* Polotsky, Nominalsatz parr. 46-55; Shisha-Halevy, “Patterns”, “Discovery 
Procedure” 165f. 



24 


r 1RST PART 


1. nqjoytpoy NT6NMiNe NpcuMe ne oymntjhkc Ayu> gtm* p- 
MAI^OMT (Ch. 98) 

{NB: e-TM- "not tothe preposition e- "to" followed by -tm- 
negativing the infinitive} 

2. nCA MnpMMAO ne ha (Ch. 98) 

[OBS. The rheme (predicate) here is the infinitive ha] 

3. eeAmc THpc miiabioc ne jeAnuc enHA MnNoyTe nupAH- 

^th<| (Ch. 99) 

4. neyNOYTe tap ne ptuMe (IV 183) 

5. neyNoyre ah ne 7c (Ch. I09f.) 

• 

6. mh rAp nKe<t>AAAioH MMerpA<|>H ah ne neyArreAion (Wess. 9 

130a) 

7. n^cuB nnaikaioc ne ^cdb him natabon n^coB mnaccbhc ne 
20)8 him MnoHHpoH (Wess. 9 177b) 

8 . THoyne nanomia him ne n<SoA THoyne maikaiocymh him 
T€ TM6 (A II 494) 

[OBS. t€ is a feminine form of the copula, here following a 
feminine theme] 

9. oyKoyH miijccok am csoa MnnoMoc ne tm-p-amauj 
MM oyac ... aaaa naccoK esoA MnnoMoc ne tm-p-amauj 
enTupq (IV 66) 

10. rc^pe MnptuMe ne oyoeiK MMoyMooy mShkc- Tpo<J>H 

(Rossi 2/3 90) 

11. (“Sow the seed at dawn (MnMAy Mupcupn)’’) nway Ntycopn ne 
TMHTq^Hpe upHM (F 131.5 43 99) 

[OBS. The theme (subject) resumes here an clement of the preceding 
context, which is then glossed by the rheme (predicate): this is a 
characteristic role of this pattern] 

12. (“The demons have gathered in their dens (^MMeyaHe)’’) neysHB 
A€ ne m^ht NMpcoMe MATMoyre (IV 177) 

13. (“Vipers and vipers’ sons”) ii^oq mcn eTCcoupe ^latM-niCA? ne 
2^AAHM him (Ch. 139) 

{NB: eTCoxye relative present: “which crawl’’} 

14. (“The glory of God shall be in the islands of the sea”) baaacca 

ne nxocMOC hmhcoc Me hcichahci a finexc xy<v neqTo- 

noc ^MnicA^ THpq (Ch. 141) 

15. (Glossing Job 6:7) nMoyi ac ne nAiAsoAoc Ayco nequpnoup 
ne anomia him (Rossi 2/3 89) 

16. (“Woe to them who will turn impious (ac€bhc) amongst you’’) 

HACeSHC Me M€TCTO 680A MHeMTOAH MM€M€IOTe NCTCTO 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


25 


eso*. MntyAJte Mnxoeic we weTMOcre N-NeT-^iToycuoY 
NJtioye (HI 152f.) 

{NB: the rhemes (predicates) are definite relative present forms: 
N€tcto €80* “they who reject”, nctmoctc “they who hate”. 

Both are followed by the direct-object marker n-; NeT^iToycuoy 

■ 

definite relative present predicating a proposition a I phrase: “they 
who are on ( 21 -) their bosom (Toy<u - oy)’\ i.e. “their neigh¬ 
bours” } 

17. (I asked:) nim ne nxi (they answered:) nxi ne nxyAoc ninoc- 

TOAOC (IV 198) 

» 

[OBS. him ne nxi, nxi ne ...: note the alternation of the deioculive 
pattern in the inquiry with the copular in the response] 


3.3.1 THE COPULAR PATTERN CONVERTED (see Tables B3, G) 

(a) Circumstantial (e- + copular pattern): “...being...”, also adnominal 

(27-30) 

(b) Relative (ere- + copular pattern): “who...” (31-33) 

(c) Preterite (Ne- + copular pattern): past tense, hypothetical condi¬ 
tion and result (39-41) 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1 . (According to the Apostle’s “He who worked at us”,) en*i ne 

nwoYTe (III 33) 

2 . (see) e-YPtune eq^nooc 2ineqT6A<uNioN eneqpxn ne mao- 
oaioc (Mt. 9) 

(NB: eq^Mooc adnominal circumstantial present (sections 15.1.1, 
27.1), “sitting”: the two circumstantials here qualify the indefinite 
OY-} 

(b) Relative: 

1. netzcuoN 6 Ne*AXiCTON eTe-Teq<t>ycic ne kim NreqAne 

enecHT (III 49) 

{NB: eN- = n-} 

2. H€T€re yc ynho»a ne Miqje nmmak (Ch. 37) 

(NB: NeT6- definite determinated relative, “they who”. Similarly in 

text 3; the rhemes in I-3 are infinitives) 

3. MCTcneyoYaMy ne ccuoy? e 2°Y2 e^oyN n^gnxphma jum- 
mtA£ (Ch. 86) 



26 


FIRST PART 


(d) Preterite: 

I. 6N6neKNOyT6 AN FTC ^HTK (E 67) 

{NB: €Ne-, circumstantial preterite as remote or hypothetical 
condition (section 41). ^mtk possessed form of z H with a 2nd sgl. 

masc. possessor suffix pronoun} 

■ 


3.4 ASSORTED PATTERNS, COMBINED 

1. ANON-HIM H £eN-Oy NCNCpi (III 107) 

2. ANON£€Npe<jp-NOBe NToq ac oyn€TOYii» ne (III 142) 
{NBt oyrrcTOyAAB nominalized relative present (section 31.1.1): 
“one who is holy”} 

t 

3. anonncc^h^aa. Ayco nto<| Tie neNApxtoN Ayu> neNppo (IV 34) 

4. (The woman who says:) ANroynApecNoc eoyci an tc (A II 
62) 

(DBS. oyci “one (fern.)”, resuming oy- in oynApeeNoc: cf. 
“one 1 ’ resuming the indefinite article in English and other European 

9 

languages] 

5. TTAnpo mtiaoht oyoycucpq NAq tc Ayco oynAc^ NTeq- 

'I'yxH nc Neqcnoroy (IV 59) 

{NB: iiAOHT * itat-^ht} 

6. ncxNoyTe ne ^htk Ayco Nrx-oycApicncoN THpic (P 131.6 88 

rt>) _ 

7. nnApAKAHTOC HCN NAH6 n€ n6nNA 6TOYAAB ... Ayco nAy- 

aoc an ne (A II 403) 

(NB: eT.oyAAs: relative present, “who is holy”) 


(*)3.5 SOME SPECIAL NOMINAL SENTENCE RHEMES or 
PATTERNS 

(a) Zero-determinated rheme (predicate) in the delocutive pattern, 

corresponding to the predication of an adjective in English 
(predicating an abstract quality) 

(b) Adverb predicated in the delocutive pattern (19-20) 

(c) The reiterated noun/personal pronoun as rheme of the theme ne, 

predicating the immutability of the delocutive theme; on “still” is a 

■ 

component of this pattern 

(d) The “amok ne” pattern, meaning “it is I”, “I am in existence”, “l 

am he”, “I am someone important” 


THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


27 


(e) The “balanced” pattern, equating the rheme and theme terms in a 

logically inversible “algebraic” proposition 

Bibliography: 

* Polotsky, Nominahatz parr. 31-33; Siiisha-Halevy, “Patterns”, “Discovery 
Procedure” 163 IT. 


(a) 

1. MK*2 N£HT ne CCUTM €N€iqjAX6 (A I 176) 

2. Nose ne nenpaN ptuMe an (RE 10 161) 

[OBS. negates the predicative term piuMe) 

3. (An exquisite house) cmoi^c ne nay epoq (A II 114) 

(NB: the circumstantial converter, marking the Nominal Sentence 
as adnominal to (qualifying) the indefinite oyHi} 

4. cyme ne Jtooy (A I 210) 

(b) 

1. NTet^e on ne aapa?aM mn-icaak mn* i akcdb (Ch. 75) 

2. UJA-neiMA T€ TeTNMNT-^HT NOytUT NMMAM (P 130.1 135 

333 f.) 

[OBS. mnt- here forms the .abstract noun corresponding to the 
concrete oy^HT Noyorr] 

3. ena.iN.xH nhtn ne <^pn-THyTN (III 46) 

(c) 

1. neq^aHye ayu> NeqTcocy aciNNcpopn NTooy ntooy on ne 

(III 42) 

2. neK^pa neit^pB on ne aytu ntok ntok on ne (Ch. 21) 

4 — 

3. ncobt Ae'NTooy NTooy on ne (Ch. 143) 

4. (Of Christ's Church) ntoc ntoc on ne (III 31) 

5. aoyKAOoae napare mmo<j eNToq NToq on ne ... N^aipen- 
koc eTCooq aoyneeooy nipaze Mnooy cntooy ntooy 

on ne CHnoycpiae (Cl. Pr. 36 201) 

(d) 

1. (Who created them?) mh NToq an ne ayo> neqeicoT (Orig. 309) 

(NB: hh ... an rhetorical question, presupposing an affirmative 

answer: “It is, isn't it...?) 

2. 7c iicaq ne NToq on Mnooy ne ayo> NToq ne Noyoeiq) nim 

(Ch. 63f., cf. Heb. 13:8) 

3. (You cry out:) eaM Te enroc an ne (Ch. 23) 



28 


FIRST PART 


[OBS. Contrast the feminine rheme (predicate) pronoun with the 
invariable ire (“it”, “ce”, “cs”), with Te predicating the definite 
noun ojih] 

4. (It is the monks that arc supposed to fast,) ntooy nxmg hc (Ch. 
102 ) 

5. A.NOK ne natoeic (A I 370) 

[OBS. This is the “theological” existential “amok ne”] 

(e) 

1. NeitKApnoc MnoNHpoH we Noyoy ayco noyoy we NoyK (P 
130.2 109 vo) 

{NB: noyoy, noyic possessive pronouns: “theirs”, “yours”) 

2 . nppo nexc nujwpe Mnppo neTe-NeK^uHye ne ueq^BHye 

•XIN- TApXH MnCOJNT (RE 10 162) 

{NB: neT€N€K-.„ “You whose....” 

3. N€C|M€A.OC N€ MCTHMeXOC (A II 2) 

4. anon ne NToq (III 22) 

(*)4 THE PROPER NAME: SELECTED SPECIAL 
CONSTRUCTIONS 

(a) Determination. The personal Proper Name is normally not determi¬ 
nated, and functions in many ways like a personal pronoun. Some 
place-names differ in this respect. 

(b) The Proper Name as nucleus (grammatical center of its construction). 

The Proper Name is qualified (expanded) appositively, by a noun 
apposition that is usually definite or by a definite relative verb form. 
The expansion marker h- (1.2-1.3) expresses possession only. 

(c) The Proper Name as expansion (satellite, grammatical periphery). 

The Proper Name itself may “name-identify” (expand) an appellative 

, (common) noun, in apposilivc or conjunctional (jcc- “quoting”) 
* constructions. 

% 

(d) The Proper Name a S' rheme (predicate): naming constructions, 

name-identifying constructions. 

(a) 

1. TT 6 CMOT N&B 6 A. TUlIKXIOC MH-CHM MN- IJL(f> 6 T MN- ICAAK NH- 

IU)CH<)> (III 173) 

2. AHANIAC MlZAHA AZApiAC (E 76) 

3. (Genesis 22:11) 

[OBS. The Proper Name is reiterated in address (“vocative”), csp. 
in the Scriptures] 




THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


29 


4. NTO TA^OM MAT AMO I (P 130.2 100 VO) 

{NB: matamo i imperative of a causative verb (section 8), with a 
1st person sgl. object: “tell me”} 

5. NpUJMe NCOAOMA MNrOMOfpA (III 132) 

6. neniciconoc NKApxApic NTMectonoTAMiA (111 109) 

7. tbasyacun (III 165) 

8 . 2ATN-eAA.ACCA NTTAAIAAtA (III 99) 

9. OI6A.HM ©1CAHM (HI 167) 

(NB: eie ahm * T-^tepoycAAHM) 

(b) 

1. TTAyAOC TTATIOCTOAOC (IV 198) 

2. Tc neNocoetc (III 224) 

3. ATTOAACUN nKIOApcUAOC (A I 386) 

4. TAypiwoc n^HrcMtuN (III 30) 

5. ANNA TUJHpG M<t>ANOyHA (IV 29) 

6. zaxapiac nujHpe nbapaxiac neNTAreTN^OTaeq (III 166) 
(NB: neNTATCTN^OTaeq determinated (definite) relative perfect 
(sections 6.1.1, 31.1) in apposition to the Proper Name: “he whom 
you (pi.) murdered” (the verb ^cutii)} 

7. (not shbnoute) cepttioc nAyAoc oypeone npmn^ht (Act. 
13:7) 

(c) 

1. nApxieniciconoc icypiAAoc (III 89) 

2. neTiieicuT nna< 4 >t* 2 ht <|>apacu (III 50) 

3. ttjliicaioc i cub (III 78) 

4. neiANOMOC NABOyXOAONOCOp (III 84) 

5. mneToyAAB icu^annhc (III 106) 

(NB: ncToyAAB nominalized relative, “one who is holy”} 

6. npeqpNOBe itcatanac (IV 127) 

7. oyMA ace- bgaamcun (III 59) 

8. neicxHMA xe- monaxoc (BM 253) 

[OB$. Note the affinity of zero-determinated appellatives with Proper 
, Names; the former are in this case “lexeme” or “notion” names] 

9. nAcesHC .xe-^cupireNHc (Wess. 9 133b) 

10. oy T?€ TTGipAN JCCAA I MONION (A I 391) 

(d) 

1. neqpAN ne tiepcos (Rossi 2/3) 

2. (not shf.noute) oynoAic en6cpAN ne NAZApee (Luc. 1:26) 


30 


FIRST PART 


{NB: e- circumstantial converter, marking the naming clause as 
adnomina! to (qualifying) oynoAic} 

3. KpONoc eTeneTBe ne h<J>aictoc CTCiTTa.^ ne (A I 383f., 

385) 

[OBS. The relative Nominal Sentence CTe...ne serving as a 
hermeneutical (glossing) construction (section 3.3.1) is not appositivc, 
even when describing a Proper Name) 

4. nai eTHMiy €T€icmaha ne (IV 26) 

{NB: eTHMiy ’‘who is there”, “yonder”: relative present predi¬ 
cating the adverb mm ay “there”} 

5. con CNay €T6 cimu>n ne mn- ANApc ac (III 99) 

6 . ay^oyTe enacoeic mithi .xe-eeeAZeBoyA (IV 35) 

{NB: ayMoyre 3rd person plural perfect form (section 6.1), 
predicating MoyTe: “they called”} 

7. (The Pharisees who wished) eTpeyMoyTe epooy cboa ^itoo- 
Toy NNpcuHe .xe-^pAaeei ayeu. ace-peq^-csto (III 161) 

{NB: eTpey- “that they should...”, the preposition e- with the 
causative infinitive TpeyHoyTe (9.0.1b); ^itootoy see ^itn-} 
[OBS. 2 »tootoy n- an indirect construction (= 3rd-person suffix 
pronoun + n- + noun) for attaching a nominal possessor to an 
intimately possessed noun (in this case, Ttupe (toot-) “hand”; 
“they” in eTpey- is generic (“impersonal”), serving with cboa 
2»tn- to express the passive] 


5 THE ADVERB PHRASE 

Adverbs (lexemes, inanalyzable) are rare: tai “here”. Prepositional 
phrases (preposition + noun, with the prenominal form of the preposi¬ 
tion, i.e. its glossary form; preposition + (suffix) pronoun, with the 
preposition in its special pronominal alternant form: ^m-tthi “in the 
house”, N^HT-q “in it (him)”, HN-iiptuHe “with the people”, 

HHMA-y “with them”. 

The three fixed phrases cboa “out” (e- + boa) 

e^oyw “in(to)” (e- + ^oyw) 
e^pai “up” or “down” (e- + ^pAi), in turn 
further specified by prepositional phrases. The whole complex usually 
modjfics verb lexemes (infinitives). 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 512-588; Steindorff parr. 174-206; Till parr. 233-240; Vergote 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


31 


parr. 173-177; Lambdin parr. 1.4, 7.2, 8.1, 9.1, 10.1 f., 10.4, 18.3; Layton, 
“Compound Prepositions", * Shisiia-halbvy. Chapter I 

1. ^Miie^ooY (III 138) 

2. ^iTNoypiUMe mnoyc^img (Or. 166) 

3. THACTNOyTC NAM6 (Or. 168) 

4. ntgi^g (IV 80) 

5. NAcy N^e (Ch. 76) 

6. GBOA ^ITMn^AAO £ATHN *YU> 2ITN0AAO) 2*TN- THyTN (IV 

79) 

7. ^gnanau; enjciNJCH (A I 298) 

8. JciNNtyopn Aya> on tgnoy (III 98) 

9. £OING ^ATNTHyTN (IV 28) 

10. fcGNKATACApS (IV 81) 

1.1. oynApATeN^ycic (IV 112) 

[OBS. The definite article here is specified by a prepositional phrase] 

12. TTCO0 A AH© CUC (A II 18) 

13. ^gnatnoytg ng 4>ANepoN (P 130.4 125 37) 

14. GTBeoy (Or. 157) 

15. GT86ITAI (Or. 156) 

16. HIM 6BOA N^HTN (Or. 154) 

■ 

17. GTBHMToy (Or. 164) 

18. £pAi n^htg (III 201) 

{NB: n^htg: 2nd sgl. fcm. of ^N'/n^ht** "in”) 

19. KAAC| NG GBOA (III 202f.) 

{NB: ng: 2nd sgl. fem. of n-/na* "to”; kaacj sec kco) 

20. gjcooc ng (III 202) 

{NB: gxoocc g- + infinitive (xcu with 3rd sgl. fem. object, "it”)} 

21. -f^An epo (Itl 201) 

22. JoyoMoy taxy (Ch. 114) 

23. JatiToy e^oyn eneqMA nmton (E 82) 

24. ]ku> Nccuoy NNGycyNArturH (E 83) 

25. ]bcox GBOA ^itootn (E 85) 

26. IpAcpG G?pAi ex. cun (E 91) 

27. ]qi mmay HneTNeise (Or. 155) 

28. JcyAXG NMHG TGNOy z IXMTIKA? (Ill 203) 

29. ]H6TAN0GI G£PAI GXNNGyNOBG (E 91) 

30. )6<l> NMMAN (E 87) 

31. 6TBGNIM H GTBGOy 6TBHMT NMHG (WeSS. 9 1 12) 

{NB: gtbhht 1st person sgl., nmmg 2nd person sgl. fem. forms of 
the prepositions gtbg-, mn-} 




w 


UNIT (II): THE TENSE-BASE CONJUGATION (tripartite pattern) 

(Sections 6-7) 


6 MAIN-SENTENCE conjugation: 

6.1 The PERFECT base: a- ( affirmative ), Hn(e)- (negative) 

6.1.1 The perfect, converted 

% ^ 

6.2 The AORIST base: ujA(pe)- ( affirmative ), Me(pe)- ( negative ) 

6.2.1 The aorist, converted 

6.3 mit * t (€)- “NOT YET”: 

6.3.1 NnA.T<jcu>TM converted 

6.4 The OPTATIVE (“Third Future”) base: e-... e- (affirmative), Swe- 

(negative) 

7 DEPENDENT CLAUSE conjugation: 

7.1 qjANT(e)- 

7.2 TEMPORAL: NT€pe- (“since-”, “after-”, “having...”) 

7.3 CONDITIONAL: e-»... ujan-, epojAH- (“if-”, “when(ever)”), 

negatived: e**... qjANTM-/epq>ANTM- 

4 4 

7.4 The CONJUNCTIVE: “...and...”, ”... or...” n **/ ntc -, negatived: 

N- ... TM-/NT6TM- 


6-7 THE TENSE-BASE CONJUGATION (Table C) conjugates a 

verb phrase , consisting of the infinitive discontinuously preceded by a set 
of tense prefixes for an actor (noun phrases, demonstrative or indefinite 
pronouns, or a suflix pronoun, with a special prcsufiixal base often 
used); the verb phrase (base + infinitive) is predicate (rheme), the actor 
is subject (theme). 

NB: (1) The nominal actor can either occur after the base, in substitu¬ 
tion to the actor suflix (a-q-ccoTM / a - n p.u> mo c^th), or follow the 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


33 


whole conjugation form in apposition to a 3rd person suffix, in which 
case it must be introduced by n6i- (xqcoiTM Nbi-npcone). 

(2) the direct object of the verb is constructed in two different 

■ 

ways: 

(I) immediately following the infinitive — a nominal object combined 
with a special prenominal (or “construct slate”) form of the infinitive: 
a.q 2 e*ri-npcuMe, and a pronominal suffix object combined with the 
special presuffi*?| (or “pronominal state”) form of the infinitive; 

AcftOTBe-q. 

(II) introduced by the preposition (for a nominal object) or (for a 
pronominal suffix object). 


6 THE MAIN CLAUSE conjugation pattern consists of a set of 
affirmative/negative pairs of bases for every tense, with the sector 
interposing between base and infinitive, i.c. infixed in the noun phrase: 

# base (affirmative) + actor + infinitive # 

(e.g. A.-q-cu>TM "He (has) heard”), 

# base (negative) + actor + infinitive # 

(e.g. Mn-q-ctuTM “He has not hcard/did not hear”) 

Bibliography: 

I 

Polotsky, “Conjugation System”, parr. 1-4, 7, 26; Veroote par. 159 

6.1 THE PERFECT BASE (Table C(I)l): 

Affirmative: x- + actor + infinitive - *qco>TM 

Negative : mtt- + pronominal actor + infinitive - httcjccotm 

fine* + nominal (or demonstrative/indef. pron., also 2nd sgl. 
fem. zero suffix) actor + infinitive — MnenpoiMe cuitm 

The Coptic perfect corresponds approximately to the Latin perfectum , 
or the English (and generally West European) past simple and present 
perfect tenses combined. Note its narrative function, with conjunc¬ 
tionless (asyndetic) coordination of several progressing perfect forms. 

Bibliography : 

i 

Stern parr. 374, 392; Steindorff parr. 334-338, 359-360; Till parr. 313, 315; 
Vergote par. 159(1); Lambdin parr. 7.1, 8.2, 10.1*10.3 

(a) Affirmative: 

1. x-1-pa.qje emitc (III 15) 

2. nei^cuB xin^y epoq (III 38) 



34 


FIRST PART 


s 


3^/a.inay ©yp^coy (IV 125) 
{NB: preposition governed by 
ing ©-} 

X-Y-TO.KO MTT2A.TT NNCBIHN 


-Y the indefinite article follow- 



5. xycoo)<\ xynex-nx6ce ©^oyn e^p^q AYZ^BC-neq^o *Y* 

^ioy© epoq ayccubg HMoq a.yI'-ka^ ©Jtcoq (III 101) 


{NB: ejpa. 


epo 


MHO 


ejccu- are the pronominal forms of 



the prepositions e^pN-, ©-, n- (dir. object) and ©jcn-} 

ANace-2^2 H€N jly<« anciutm (Leyd. 332) 

AYncoT no© N^eNOY^oop (III 202) 

{NB: nee n-: “in the manner of’, “like”} 

8. xqxpxei N-qi-reqduc e^pxi ©poi eq-noxenoc nmmjli x- 

NOK 2COCOT xi'j' OYBHq (III 38f.) 

{NB: n-: preposition, governed by xpxei, preceding the infinitive 
qi; 2 cuco»» t reinforcer or augens, in the 1st sgl.} 

9. A.YTTAJLN* MMOC ^NTCC^AH N61-NIANOMOC (Ch. 122) 

10. xn©im© ©t©ymnt6cdb (P 131.5 63 vo) 

11. oy2°°Y t mnoyc^im© xqTAHiooY n6i-ttnoyt© (IV 37) 

12. xqTcuoYN xqxcnxz© hmooy AqcHOY epooY (IV 198) 

13. ANqi Hn©NCTA.Ypoc xnoya^n NCA-njtoeic (III 72) 

14. XT©TNp-X0HT (III 49) 

[OBS. For p- “become”, see text 18] - - - - - 

ATeTNCYN^ICTX MMU1TN ^CUC-AIKXIOC €-<NT©TN 5 >eNUJ XqT© 

e ©TTPef 



^NTeTNMNTXTCBCO 

(III 135) 


JLTCTNp- THYTN HH© 


©TN^eN 



{NB: ©NTeTN^NcpAqT© and ©nt©tn^©n6oa arc two circum¬ 
stantial inlerlocutive Nominal Sentences (section 3.1.2); p-...N- 




(eipe) “render”, “make into”} 

16. *MOC>YTq (P 130.2 24 555) 

{NB: the actor here is pronominal and “zero” 


the 2nd person sgl 


feminine suffix: A-0-MOOYTq} 

17. a.p©TNNooY 6© nan (Leyd. 410) 


{NB: xpe- a variant form of the perfect base before the 2nd sgl. 
fern, zero pronoun} 

18. oYnNX nak. xexpTON Aqp -oyapxkcun jly«> OY2 ot l ••• oy- 

oya>Huj ^qp-oyaxtyop (RE 10 160) 

[OBS. p- “become”: the “copular” p-, prcnominal form of the 
infinitive eipe] 

19. jl-ttnob© <5po epooY (HI 151) 

20. A.nacoeic tctooy ©boa (Ch. 26) - .... 


THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



(NB: tctooy 3rd person plural pronominal object with the 


causative verb 



) 


21. A.NAJLIHONION coyN-rucoeic ^Mneioyoeiuj iyniZToy iy- 
oytuqjT Hxq xyxaf-KXK eaoA. ^NoyNod ncmh (III 85) 

{NB: tixzt* presuffixal form of the infinitive ttcu^t, with a 3rd 
person plural object} 

22. A.HTUCTOC p-Moei?e (III 72) 


[OBS. p- “do, make”: the “transitive” auxiliary p- (prenominal of 
eipe), deriving compound verbs from nouns} 

23. ) x^xz rip xe-z±Z MMNTpeqacioyi €TB6-N€iMNTpeqTU>2 
NT6I£6 NOC6 ^UyTOpTp (IV 188) 

{NB: ace- sec jccd; divide Nei- mnt- peq- jci- oyi, ngi- mnt- peq- 

rwz) 

24. Til re ee NTCyNii^qjrH NNioYi.ii inaoeic nnoyTe Mepi- 
Toy cboa oyTe-AiQQ nim (Ch. 145) 

{NB: Til T6 oe “thus”, “this is the manner”} 

25. Texipic NTMNTMONixoc ... ipeatiZMec (III 206) 

{NB: ipe-: a variant form of the 2nd sgl. fern, perfect; aci^Mec: 
see accu^M} 

26. iMiu^c ^SoyNod NircoN (A I 151) 

27. inecT<Dq (A I 445) 

{NB: mcctcd* see moctc} 

(b) Negative: 

1. MITN-XI-C^IMe oyA.6 wnilxi-^ii (A I 203) 

2. eTae-oy de mttciccutm enii h mreiNoei NNii (IV 187) 

3. nniJCi-Nii eTMMiy NdoNC (Wess. 9 163d) 

{NB: eTMMiy "which is there”, “yonder”, rel. present predicating 
an adverb} 

4. MneTNqjine (BM 253f. 159) 

/V^noyqi-iiiy ntoot (III 57) 


V {NB 




ntoot: the preposition(>< tn-) with the 1st sgl. suffix (-t 


zeroed after a final -t)} 




6., Mrroy+ oyae-nNoae iycu MiroyncDT Nccuq ?NTeynpiSic 




NiriooN (Ch. 120) 


7. ixeSiNApoc n^HreMcuN iycu on neTpoc n^wreMcuN ii- 

upiae MMMiy N^i? neon iycu Mnoyjccu NNCiMiWcod ntgi- 


M1N6 (III 32) 

{NB: NMMiy: 3rd person plural with hhmi^, see mn-} 

8. equate-MnecoycuNT uji-nooy iicoycoNe xnok (III 21) 
{NB: coyu>NT, coycuNe are 1st sgl. and 2nd sgl. fem. pronomi- 



36 


FI RST PA RT 


nal objects of cooyN; wne- 2nd sgl. fcm. actor, anok reinforccr 
or augcns} 

Mnep-^OTe ^MTq mhnoyt 6 (Lcyd. 317) 

3 # 

_ {NB: fine- 2nd sgl. fcm. form of the ncg. perfect; ^ht- “before”} 
lO^MnoYdHT (111 158) 

{NB: -<Snt 1st sgl. object zeroed after the final -r of the pronominal 
form of 6 me} 

11. inew^HT cyooye a^htn qjooye angncap* cyooye Mne- 

NNOBe peu MMIN6 NIH M1T.XA.Xe NAAIMONtON CJJOOye £pAI 

NJHTN (IV 23) 

{NB: ^hth possessed form of (1st plural possessor)} 

12. mtt€ANau; MnejOTe MnepMem Mnexmo HnedtowT fine- 
cA^oy finecyAxe ... AMA;>Te NTeiMine NpcuMe erMpnoae 

eTey'pyxH (A 1 80) 


6.1.1 THE PERFECT CONVERTED (Tables 0(1)1, G) 

(a) Circumstantial e- AqccuTM “he having heard”, “afler/sincc he had 

heard”; adnominal; “...and then he heard” (in narrative) (27-30) 
Negative e-MnqccuTM 

(b) Relative cmt- AqccuTM (epoq) “who (whom) he hcard/has 

heard” (31-33) 

Negative €T€-MnqccuTM (epoq) 

NB: the relative perfect is often written NT-Aqcci>TM 

(c) Second Tense (Second Perfect) nt-A qccuTM “(It is...) that he 

heard/has heard” (34-38) 

Negative €Te- MnqccuTM “(It is...) that he did not hcar/has not 
heard”, NTAqccuTM ... an “(it is) not (...) that he hcard/has 

heard” 

NB: the Second Perfect (affirmative) is often written cnt- AqccuTM 

(d) Preterite we- AqctoTH “he had heard” (40-41). (In the protasis of a 

hypothetical condition cncntA qccoTH) 

Negative Ne-MirqccuTM (eNCHnqccuTH in the protasis of a 

hypothetical condition). 

NB: the preterite form is often followed by ne, the function of 
which is not entirely clear. It seems to characterize the preterite 
form as background . 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 423-424, 376; Steindorff parr. 374, 378, 465, 472; Tii.l parr. 316, 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


37 


327, 329, 461-462; Vergote parr. 163(3), 164(3), 163(3), 166(6); Lambdin parr. 
12.1-12.3, 14.1, 25.1(a); Polotsky, “Conjugation System” parr. 10-11, 16-18, 
* Nom. Transposition parr. 16-18 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. AK^-^THK M€N 6nCqupA.X€ e*f 6MHC6 € AK.TT Ap AB A A6 

NNeqKecyAJte THpoy (III 64) 

(NB: ^tmk see ^ht] 

2. AKMcpiTN nApAncNMnqpA eAK-f* MncKMONorcNHC Ncynpe 

^xpoN (RE 10 162a) 

{NB: MepiTN sec M6 (verb); ^Apow sec ^a-} 

3. AHMoy Mnnexc ^itm- iibattticma CAyTOMCN nmmac) ^iTMn- 
BAnTiCMA eneqnoY (Ch. 166) 

(NB: NMMAq sec mn-} 

(OBS. gaytomcn the 3rd person plural actor with a direct object 
to the infinitive convey a notion corresponding to the passive voice] 

4. AywAy en-xocic nneooy 7c CAqati MoyMop<|>H n^mjaa ct- 
bhhtn Ay co on nwoyTC JtiNN-cyopn CAqqpume Speqp^cuB 

(IV 36) 

(NB: 6TBHHTM Sec 6TBC-} 

3. 6TS6- oy AKCCUTM NCA- TINOMOC CJtl- MHC6 CMniCCCOTM AC 

NToq Ncco-q ^NNcqicecyAJcc THpoy (III 64) 

6. MeqjAK aijci-^oinc n6onc N^HT-THyTN CMnlCIMC (III 139) 

{NB: m^htthytn see ^n-} 

7. MnqKA-de-^coa MncjK.A6cA.AAy NtyA-xe Stt^tamon epooy 

(III 94) 

8. Ay^ooy noycut oyeiwe h oycaoT NoycoT Ayco oypoMne 

an MneN‘f , -Noy6c nak (RE 10 164) 

{NB: MncN'f- = CMnn't*-) 

[OBS. The circumstantial converter is often zeroed before a syllabic 
nasal consonant (m or n)] 

(b) Relative: 

1. ndKepAyNoc CNTAqei cjcco-n (III 220) 

2. nrAMOC NTA-nnoyTC TACioq Ayco AqTiaoq (III 27) 

3. NKooyc THpoy cNTAqjcooy (III 64) 

[OBS. Note the position of the reinforcer (augens) which, while 
expanding the object suffix in Jtoo y, occurs in the second position 
of the prosodic unit] 

4. ncNTAqnAAccc mmon (Ch. 118) 


38 


FIRST PART 


{NB: neNTAq- the relative expanding a definite article (section 
31.1): “he who”} 

5. t#abya.o>n eTGMnc.xi-n*2pe (III 165) 

6. NipCUMG NCNOq GTGMnoyCI Np-NOBG ^N-eniBOyAn NIM MnO* 

NiipoH e^oyH GNexpicTixNOc (III 89) 

7. ng-^bhyg eT€Mne-Keoyx xxy (Ch. 17) 

8. THNTnxpeeNoc GTGMnqcGi ncyxace gtbhhtc Ndi-npcowG 

NA.rx.eoc Ae anacioc nApxieniCKonoc (III 108) 

{NB: -c in gtbhhtc refers back to the antecedent: “about 
which...”} 

9. ngioja-xg GTGMnGTNCoycuNoy -xe-oy ng (III 75) 

10. aitatnobg Ayco ncTCHnqcoyN -nobg xxq nnobg £Apon h 

GTBHHTN (A I 86) 

{NB: aa»* n- “make into” (see Gipe); neTennq- definite relative, 
i.e. the relative with a dcf. article as antecedent} 

(c) Second Perfect: 

1. NTAyp-qjMMo Gpo>TN gtbgngy^bhyg Geooy (III 143) 

{NB: 6TB6- is emphasized by the Second Perfect: “It is because 
of... that...”; eeooy “which are evil”, relative present} 

2. MTTGOyA NOyCUT 61 G^OyN GNGICyNArcom GTBGHI H GTBGMA 
H GTB66IOrT6 XWX NTANGI THpN GMGTANOGI GX.N- NGNNOBG 

(IV 164) 

{NB: e- mgtanogi is emphasized by the Second Perfect: “It is in 
order to... that...”} 

3. 2 UJ.B nim NTAqAAy NTAqAAy THpoy GTBGnGNOyaCAl (A II 

436f.) 

{NB: the first NTAq- is the relative, the second Second Perfect, 
emphasizing gtsc-} 

(d) Preterite: 

1. NGAyei TT6 GTBG^GHATTOXOrtA (A II 44) 

{NB: ne a “backgrounding” morpheme often accompanying the 
preterite conversion} 

2. ngaijcg-itai on (III 37) 

3. NGAqA^G TAP 6pATCJ 2NT6KKA.HCI A (III 37) 

{NB: a^g ... cpAT-» sec co^g} 

4. NGAqonc tap ate- oyanatkaion ne gtmkaay gu^ajcg (A II 
44) 

{NB: -c 3rd sgl. feminine object of con, “it”, the fern, pronoun in a 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



“neuter” sense; €tmk.aay the infinitive (kcu, with a 3rd person 
plural object) negatived by tm) 

5 . eNeNT&Noycucy r&p ne eryMNAfce ^innomoc nn€ntak.jcooy 
(you would not escape their vengeance) (Ch. 95) 


6.2 THE AORIST BASE (Table C(I)2): 

Affirmative: uja- + pronominal actor + infinitive - qjAqccuTM 

cyApe* + nominal (dem./indcf./2nd sgl. fern.) actor + 
infinitive — cyApeNpcuMe ccotm 

Negative: Me- + pronominal actor + infinitive - MeqccuTM 

Mepe- 4- nominal (dem./indef./2nd sgl. fcm.) actor + infinitive 

- MepenpcoMe ccotm 

The Coptic aorist expresses timelessncss, a general truth, habitude, 
propensity, natural consequence, approx, corresponding to the English 
Present Simple. The negative aorist expresses also the lack of (natural) 
ability ("He cannot...”, “it is not in his nature to...”). 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 377, 393, 396; Steindorff parr. 342-343, 364-365; Till parr. 304- 
305; Vergote par. 159(3); Lambdin par. 28.1; Young, “Present 1“ 


(a) Affirmative: 

I. cyAyjcooc 6TBe-n£oq ate- ryAqp-^OTe £HTq MnpcoMe eqKH 

KA^wy (A I 260) 

{NB: ^ht- n- the construction of the preposition ^ht* with a 
noun. eqKH KA£Hy circumstantial present, “when he is naked”} 

cyAycyiee ntmc mitnoytc 2mit6oa. ... cyAycy iae on 

'^^MTIAIKAION £MTIJU NtiONC AytO TTTBBO 2MTT.XU>2M (P 130.4 

104 123) 


3 . (yApGTCio Mnoeix mnttmooy ... cyApeTcio on MrtNoae 
TTNOB 6 (III 204) 

{NB: both actor of the aorist and object of tcio are the 2 nd sgl. 

V 

fern, zero pronoun (reflexive object)} 

4. (The dead sheep, once it is dead,) <yAqp-nu>oy (i.e. the wild 
beasts*) cyAqcyume uxy N?pe (III 47) 

5. <yApe- ttaoht rAp ^MneqccoBe ope NoyMNTcyAqTe (IV 80) 

6. cpApenMocTe rAp ToyNec-oyi*-TtuN (III 122) 

7 ) enMA NTTTONHpiA MFTITONHpOC NpCUMC UJAp€TMNTArA©OC 



1 


\ 


40 j 


FIRST PART 


J 


MnOk.rjk.eoc Npu>MC qi mmay ntttonhpia MnptOMe Njuot.6 (IV 

124) 

8. MH Xtt>piC-TAKO H K.NOC UJApsqNT <yu>nC ^N^NAAy GNANOyq 

(E 73) 

{NB: eNANoyq adnominal circumstantial Adjective Verb, quali¬ 


fying (scctio 




9. mh qjAp 


:tions 22.1. 22.5, 27.1) that is good } , , 

qpcuMefleAqMoyj Aya) AyTOMcq pnoee (Ch. 


103) 


NB: the infinitive of the aorist is p-(nobc). The circumstantial 
perfect qualifies po>Mc} 

10. ntci^c cpApenMAi-'Noyre oycoN^ c?oa Mneqoytucy THpq 

€2oyN enotoeic ate* AqMepiTq c^oyc-TTcqcoN Aycu N^oyo 
eneqeicuT MNTcqMAxy (IV 128) 

{NB: MepiTi* the pronominal form of the infinitive Me (i.c. its 


alternant form before a nominal object)} 

(b) Negative: 

1. Apjk. MCKOyCUM 2NNI06IK NOyCUT nmmac Aytu NlOlN-OyCUM 

NoycoT (IV 38) 

{NB: nmmac see mn-} 

2. MeqpupAy enm mttnoyte (Z 189) 

3. gtbc* tanoxh MiTNoyTe McyqcuTE cboa 2Noy6enH SSp- 
CUME €Tf»NOB€ (III 194) 

{NB: eTpNoee relative present; for (he verb, sec nobc} 


4. neyecy- 6m6om cu;aha nee NoyqjHpe ujhm (IV 52) 

{NB: -c<y- or -uj- (after a vowel), with 6m6om (see <5om, 6ine) 
and other infinitives: “be able”} 

2NTKe-oycyH Mepe-neqjHT ^inhb SoyMe (A II 435) 

{NB: 2 N-T-KE “even in the...”} 





(jj/MCK^con epooy (Ch. 24) 

7. MENJCCUKM ^N-CIOOyNC (III 83) 


f 


6.2.1 THE AORIST CONVERTED (Tables C(I)2, G) 

(a) Circumstantial: e-<yAqca>TM adnominal (“who hears”, quali¬ 

fying an indefinite nucleus; 27) 

Negative e-MeqctuTM “who/when he does not, cannot hear” (27-30) 

(b) Relative: c- <y AqccuTM “who hears” (31-33) 

Negative e-McqccurM etc- McqctUTM “who cannot, does not 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


41 


(c) Second Tense (Second Aorist): G-qjAqcu>TM “(It is ...) that he 

hears” (34-38) 

Negative cujAqctUTM ... an ... “(It is) not ... that he hears” 

(d) Preterite: mg- o) AqctUTM “He would hear”, expressing past habit/ 

propensity (39-40) 

Negative we - MeqcojTM 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 426, 427, 433-434; Steindorff parr. 374, 378, 465, 474; Till parr. 
327, 334, 461-462; Vergote parr. 163(4), 164(5), 165(5), 166(5); Lambdin par. 
28.1; Polotsky, “Conjugation System" parr. 10-11, 16-18 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. ^GNGNTHd GUJAyMOA^OY (IV 85) 

2. TTJCOGIC OyKpiTHC mamg ne GMGqJtl-^O (III 129) 

3. oyccoMA etyAqHoy (P 130.2 88 ro) 

4. (They say “we arc praying”) GMGyp^tua (III 92) 

5. (They that enter the House of God) cMGynpoccxe Soyc^- 
CA£N6 (IV 38) 

|NB: Noye^CA^NG =» gnoyg^ca^mg the preposition e- (gov¬ 
erned by npocexG) zeroed before the syllabic nasal) 

6. (We have the Tree of Life, the Cross, shining day and night) 
GMGpeneqoyoeiN ^tomtm gng? (HI 94) 

(b) Relative: 

1. NG-^BHyG CT€<£)ANCT?OY.AAXe gaay (A II 433) 

{NB: G-AAy see eipc) 

2. n^oyMnc eojAqei gjkm- ttk a? (Ch. 11) 

(NB: njoy-: sec jcuoy) 

3. nqNT GTGMGqNKOTK (P 131.6 81 vo) 

4. NGTCUjAy^e eio\ ^ntgtpaitgxa (III 78) 

[OBS. The dcf. article antecedent of the relative gtgojay- “the one 
who...”] 

■ 

5. mu GTGMGpG-JtOOAGC OyTG ^OOA.6 TAKO N£HTq (A 11 237 

» Mt. 6:20)) 

{NB: ii^HTq see jm-} 

6. NCMOT GTGOJ AK.BCUK G^OyN NjHTOy (^A-NGTG-NOyK NG 

(Ch. 23) 

{NB: ngtgnoyk ng determinated relative form of the delocutive 
Nominal sentence) ' 

7. mh nccpAq^G 6 g MGqTtuoyN goAcuc (Lcyd. 345) 

{NB: viGcpAq- determinated relative aorist, “the one who...”} 



FIRST PART 


42 

8 . ngtgmgycgi HTtupn Ayo> fiqi NNGTGNoyoy ah ng (IV 99) 

\ {NB: NeTeneycei dct. rcl. negatived Nominal Sentence: “they 
. that are not..."; NeTeNoyNoy an we see note to text 6 } 

9. Ne^RHye eT€Me<y<ye (A I 197) 

10. tai t«g oe eojANTCuoyw ^NoyqjoucuT gsoa (III 149) 

(c) Second Aorisl: 

1. eqpjcc- a y<yiN€ ON nca- oy<yA.xe eujAy<yiNe ^noymntzak 

(III 32) 

(NB: 2 N- is emphasized by the Second Aorisl ("It is... that...”)} 

2 . e£yAycAN<y-TAp€.TH ah ^iTH-oyoeiK (A II 438) 

(NB: ^itn- is emphasized by the Second Aorisl ("It is not... 
,that...)} 

[DBS. The negativer an negatives the nexus (the subject-predicate 
relation corresponding to “it is...’’) between the Second Aorist 
("that...”) and the adverb] 

3. neTMoy eujApe-Tey'f'YXH ei cboa n^htoy ecyAcacoic en- 

* 

ccuma N-N€TOyjcno MHooy (Wess. 9 145b) 

(NB: N€TMoy "they who die", determinated relative present; so 
too Neroyatno mmooy “they whom they beget", e- is empha¬ 
sized by the Second Aorist} 

(d) Preterite: 

1. NeuyAJte as MNNei^BHye MN^eNKooye eNA<y tooy NG<yANA- 

Ay ne Ayou NetyANacooy...xycu NeneNecy-ueiee MHooy 

ne (III 149) 

{NB: €NA<ycuoy circumstantial conversion of the Adjective Verb 
(sections 22.2, 22.5, 27.1), qualifying ^gnkooyg; AAy see eipe; 
acooy sec ato; mmooy 3rd plural pronoun after the preposition ii- 
introducing the direct object) 

2. N 6 <yAp 6 <yA.HA (III 203) 

{NB: 2nd sgl. fem. actor) 

3. Z*Z NCOn CTBGnGMItA? N^HT NNGTMMAy NGMG IGCy- 6 m 60 M 
N An AT A NN 6 THHY NAN £180 A. (A I 475) 

{NB: NGTHHAy, NGTNHy det. relative present, the first predicating 
the adverb mmay “there" ("they who are there", "they yonder", 
"those"), the second a stative (section 16.1.1, "they who are 
coming")} 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


6.3 MnATqctDTM “NOT YET” (Tabic C(l)3): 

finiT* + pronominal actor + infinitive — Pin xTqccuTM 
«nm- + nominal (dem./inder./2nd sgl. fern.) actor + infinitive - 
MnAT6npcuM6 ccoTM “Hc/the man has not yet heard*' 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 395; Steindorfp parr. 362-363; Till par. 320; Vergote par. 159(2); 
Lamboin par. 30.5 

1. MnATOYNOJCK pco 6NGq)TeKU>Oy (III 103) 

{NB: nojc** the pronominal form (“state”) of the verb Noyjte i.e. 
its alternant form before a pronominal direct object. ujTeKcuoy 
the plural form of ujtgko} 

2. M?TAT€-TGK.THCIC rxp COytONC MMIN MHOC KATATTO)A-XC 
Oy-AG MTTATGC6IMG JCG-AU) T€ TOyCIA NT6y'|'YXH XU) T€ 

T€<t>ycic MT1CCUMA (HI 224) 

{NB: kthcic = kticic. coycuNcj pronominal form of cooyN) 

3. MTTATGNC0CK l*Ap NCJI ^A-NGNGpHy (IV 34) 

4. Mnx't'eico pu> cboa ^mttca^oy NNxneeooy MMncx^oy 
eNTXiNTq h €NTXicoK<j G^pxi GJLUJI MAyXAT (A I 103) 

{NB: Mx-neeooy: pi. possessive pronoun + det. relative present 
(“that which is evil”); nt* see ging. mayaat 1st sgl. form of 
mayaa*} 



6.3.1 MnxTqccuTM (“Not Yet”) CONVERTED (Tables C 3, G) 

(a) Circumstantial e-MnxTqccuTM “before he has heard”; also 

adnominal (27-30). Note the especially prevalent ?xeH (e)nnxTq- 
ccutm fex-eH “before”) 

(b) Relative (gt 6- MnxTqc<DTM) “who has not yet heard” (31-33) 


Bibliography: 

■ 

Stern par. 437; Steindorff parr. 378, 465; Till parr. 320, 327-328, 461-462; 
Veroote parr. 164(4), 165(4); Lamboin par. 30.5; Polotsky, “Conjugation 
System” parr. 10-tl. 16-18 


(a) Circumstantial: 

1. Meyoyaj^ £N- hi GMnAToyxoTq xycu MeyKx-^CN^Nxxy 
NXNXrKXION N^HTq (A II 147) 

{NB: icx- prenominal form of kcu} 



44 


FIRST PART 


2. AT€qfY XH pNoae CMnATcei AneqctUMA (Wess. 9 144c) 

3. THNTpMN^HT TT€ €IM€ Jt€- ANON^eNOy AY*U £eNOy N€ 

NGN^BHye eMnjLTe- neNA^e cdjcn (IV 20) 

{NB: divide t- hnt- pH- n- ^ht } 

4. ceoycDM mttatoybcdk €Tenpoc<J>opA (Ch. 50) 

{NB: ceoyajH present (section 15.1) “they cat”. HnAToy - 
\ eMniTOY’, with the converter e- zeroed before the syllabic nasal) 
5.. nnceu;-qi epo <y a- nMG£cy omnt h TTMe^qTooy N2ooy 
MnATETNNOOY NAN NNOyO^AAe NMKA^ N^HT (Z 397) 

{NB: the actor of nne-, mttatc- (= eMniTe-) and possessor in 
the possessive article Noy- is the 2nd sgl. fem. zero suffix pronoun. 
This is a rhetorical question.} 

6. ^GNUjHpe ujhm ... mitatoynoci eeHA.iK.iA (IV 103) 

{NB: MnAToy- = ewnAToy) 

7. (Christ, who existed with His Father) GMnATqrAMie -aitgaoc 
oyT€ ApxArreAoc Ayu) n6om mnncapa<|>in (Z 246) 

8. (How many tribulations have weighed upon you) £aoh MnATGei 
e^oyw eniBioc (III 105) 

9. £Aqh rAp HTTAroyp- KoiNioNiA NMHAN (we used not to fear that 
our clothes might be stolen) (IV 105) 

(b) Relative: 

1. neNeituT N2AAo...riAi €TGMnATqa>cic jcintA qscoK epATq 

* ^ 

HnwoyTe (HI 142) 

{NB: NTAq- the form of the perfect (actually Second Perfect) 
following aciN- “since”} 

2. NeTeMnAToy ei e^pAi epoq (i.c. down to moral disease) (IV 20) 

3. OyON TAP HIM eT€MflATOyCOycUMr mnngkmati a (III 77) 

{NB: coycuN-* pronominal state of cooyw; r alternant of k after 
a nasal (here a 2nd sgl. masc. suffix as object)} 


# 

6.4 ' THE OPTATIVE (or “THIRD FUTURE”, Tabic C(l)4): 

9 

■ 

Affirmative: e- + pronominal actor + e- + infinitive — eqeccuTH 

epe- 4- nominal (dem./indef./2nd sgl. fem.) actor + 

infinitive - epenpcoMe ccoth 

Negative : fine- + nominal/pronominal actor + infinitive - NNeqcu)- 

tn, HNenpcuHe co>tm 

(a-b) The optative expresses wish, with shades of meaning varying 

according to the actor person and to whether The form is affirmative 



i 


l 


THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



or negative. In the 1st persons: willingncss/unwillingncss, intent, 
agreement/refusal, exhortation/prohibition. In the 2nd persons: 
request, desire, polite demand (negative request, prohibition). In the 
3rd persons: wish, desire, prayer, “prophetic future'*. 

(c) Following oce- (“that") or jteKA(A)c (originally “that let it’*, in 

the negative constructed with the circumstantial optative cnNcq-), 
the optative, aflirmative or negative, expresses in all persons purpose 
(“final clause", “in order that...”) and result (“consecutive clause*’, 
“so that ...*’) 

ND: except for the circumstantial negative optative after .xcica(a)c 

(X6ka(l)c (e)NNeqccoTM), the optative is not converted. 


(a) Affirmative: 

riNoyTe eqexco nai gboa (Wcss. 9 163a) 
eYejxpej NtyAJte THpoy ntangngiotg 2<^n hmooy e- 



tootn (IV 65) 
{NB: ScyAJce 


GNq?A.xe. gtootn sec gtn- (1st plur. suffix 


after the pronominal form of the preposition)} 

3. neycNoq eqetyome e^pAi GJCN-TGyArrG (III 143) 

4. nnoyTe eqecMoy epooy Aytu eqc^pe^ epooy e^cue nim 
eq^ooy xyco eqe't'-MTan NAy 2 Nmton him (IV 116) 

(NB: eq^ooy “that is evil**, adnominal circumstantial present} 

5. (The houses which we have built in the name of your glory) 
eKCMA^oy NpcuMe enu>N2 gkgma2<>y naaoc enu>N2 (ill 
218) 

{NB: MA^oy pronominal form of the infinitive Moy2 with 3rd 
plur. object} 

GNe^pe? GMnGTNXNoyoy (III 203) 

(NB: m-ttgtnx.no yoy plur.-definite nominalized relative of the 
“Adjective Verb** nanoy (sections 22.1, 31.1.1) after the preposition 
6- governed by 2 A.pe^ “those that are good”} 

6K€*t* NAN MnGKOyacAl (IV 74) 

8. 6T6TNGMOO<yG 2»*nA^Oy NNGCNHy (IV 62) 

{NB: ngcnhy see con} 

9. epenjcoeic ging e^pAt excuoy mhcajoy THpq gtch 2 
2NN6rpA(j)H THpoy Aycu gtch 2 2MnGutcu«uMG... Ayco epen- 





MncqOaiNT 


NTOpm (IV 207) 


present, predicating a stalive (section 


qualifying the antecedent ncA 2 oy: “that 
10. GKGCOyTUJNN (IV 75) 



46 


FIRST PART 


P 


(b) Negative: 

1. NNGKp-NOGIK NNCK^CUTB NGKJtlOyG NN€Kp-HHTpe NNOyjC 

(III 64) 

2. NNeqitToq epon Ayco NNGNMGpiTq aaaa eqeqjcune nan 
N oyjcAJce eTBenNoyTe eneNcoN ne (IV 128) 

* w 

{NB: H€p it * pronominal form of the infinitive He} 

[OBS. Note the concessive ("even though") or adversative ("al¬ 
though") meaning of the circumstantial Nominal Sentence] 

3. NNeccycune (III 116) 

[OBS. This is the native Coptic correspondent to the Greek-origin 

MM reNOITO] 

4. NNenuoye NNeip-MNTpe NNoyat nngijci-6oa NNGip- \xxy 

NKpoq ^Noy^con (III*20, oath upon entering Shenoute’s monas- 
tery) 

5. ttKScdnt a.g NTAqei e-xcooy Ayco •foprn nngcktoc gboa 
HH ooy (Ch. 124) 

6. NNeq?Hpe o>hm ccubg (IV 168) 

[OBS. Note the generic use of the zero-determinated noun, common 
in the textual genre of instructions and precepts; cf. also texts 8-9, 

H] 

7. NNGAAAy NC^IMG N^HT-THyTN q}AJCG MNAAAy NpCUMG (IV 63) 

{NB: -THyTN a "heavy" form of the suffixed 2nd person plural, 

following the prenominal and not Jlhc pronominal ;form of the 


infinitive) 


i 


8. jNN6CAG«N fcpAI N^HTG •f-ITA^pG ep(OM€ £IBOA (IV 160) 

9. * NNcjpCOMG iCOKep^COi GMnATCNGCNHy THpOy COJOY2 GMAy 

(IV 51) 

10. (Books which we do not have and which we need) NN6N6q)-u;iNG 

NCCUOy £IBOA AJCM-n^AAO (IV 72) 

{NB: -eqj- or -q;- after a vowel, preceding the infinitive: “be able 


to 


9* 


• • 4 


. nccuoy see nca-} 


11. NNGpCDMG NO<5 ng 6 NPCUMG 7PAI N9HTN 6IT6 900yT GITG 

CelHG (IV 80) 

12. NNCKCUpiC NNOyjC GK.C'f AG NNGKANAUJ MTT.XOGIC (III 66) 


(c) Clauses of purpose and result: 

1. Aqjcoopoy gboa gngxcupa jcgkac cyGcycoiTG ^noymnt- 
cyHMO MNOyHNT^HKG (III 99) 

2. AiMACTiroy hhcutn .xg-nngtnpnobg (RE 10 164) 

3. GTBG-Oy 6 g on ApGGipG NNINOd MTTGOOOy HTTGqMTO 6BOA 



¥ 

/ r 

¥ 

THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM f 47 

■ 

V 

\ 

JtiN- NoyNotf NpojMe qjA-NoyujHpe <yHM Aya> jun-noyno6 

nc^img qiA-Noyqjeepe <y hh jcgkac epeacoK epATq ^Noy* 
qjTOpTp MNoycpme (III 199) 

(NB: neoooy = neT-jooy: nominalized relative present, here 
zero-determinated: “(anything) that is evil’*; 2nd sgl. fern, actor and 
possessor.} 

4. (You touch and cat every impurity) jeeKAC eyenecTco eso\ 

2iTN-ic MNNeqxrr€AOC (III 203) 

(NB: MecTco 2nd sgl. fern, object with the infinitive moctc} 

5. (Let him eat his bread in righteousness) Jte-NNeqqjame NAq 
eyNoee (IV 78) 

(NB: ey- the preposition e- before the indefinite article) 

6. (They fear the angel) ace-Nweqn ataccc mmooy (IV 21) 

7. oy&NATNcocTHC CAyNTcj NMMAy ate-eqecoq; (IV 62) 

(NB: eAyNTq circumstantial perfect, qualifying the indefinite noun; 
the pronominal form of the infinitive erne) 


7. THE DEPENDENT CLAUSE CONJUGATION (Table C b): 
conjugation forms (verbal sentence forms) that do not occur independ¬ 
ently. While they too consist of a verb-phrase (‘base... infinitive") with an 
infixed theme actor (noun or pronoun): # base + actor + infinitive #, 
they differ formally from the main-sentence conjugation pattern (section 6) 

in their negation: 

(pronominal actor) # base + actor + -tm- + infinitive # 

| 9 * 

(e.g/NTepeq-TM-ccoTM “since he did not hear”), 

(nominal actor) # base + -tm + actor + infinitive # 

(e.g. NT6pe-TM-npcuM€ ccdtm “since the man did not hear”). 


Being by themselves in dependent status, the dependent-clause conjuga¬ 
tion forms are not converted. 


Bibliography : 

Polotsky, “Conjugation System” parr. 1-4, 7, 27; Vergote par. 161 


7.1 “UNTIL” (Table C(II)l): up ANTqcouTM 

qj ant- 4- pronominal actor + infinitive: qjANTqccuTM 
cyANTC- + nominaI/dem./indefinite/interr./2nd sgl. fern, actor + infini¬ 
tive: q>ANTenpu>M6 cidtm ”... until he hears/heard”, in narrative or 
dialogue. 



FIRST PART 



Bibliography: 

Stern par. 449; Steindorff par. 373; Till parr. 312,444; Virgotc par. 161(4); 
Lamddin par. 30.3 


!. Ayatt-doA r^p eitucti4> mttphnkhmc qpANTcjci e^pAt 

L?GNN 06 NBAI'j'IC (III 103) 

{ NB; M-n-pH*N-KHMe} 

t 

2. MrToyei gsoa N^HTcj (i.c. out of sin) cyANToyGi eTooTtj 
NAMNT6 (P 130.5 59 Vo) 

3. MTT6- NGTMMAy gi cyANTGiTNoyTG Ocdnt epooy (III 143) 
{NB: NCTHMAy: determinated relative, predicating hmay “there, 

9 

yonder”: “they who are yonder”, “those”} 

4. ne^we N^ooy ... NNGpcoMG eq;KA-oeiK NTOOTq GTiTHpq 

2PAI N^HTN €IT€ ^OOyT ®IT€ C^IMG GITG N06 GITG KOyi 
UpANTq.XCUK €BO\ THpq JtlN-TT<yOpn NCABBATON U) ANTOyGI 
GBOA ^HTTNOO MTTAC.XA (IV 58) 

{NB: ttg^mg N^ooy is here adverbial: “during...”; ka- prenomi- 
nal (“construct”) form of the infinitive kid} 

5. apgjcgpg-^hbc ag on gng? ujANTcdtunG nnzoq ^httkakg 

Jtepo AG ON MnOJA-XG MNTGCBU) 2MTTOY2HT U^ANTGdCOTTG 

HHNOBG MNITK. AK.G NTOyMNTATCCDTM (P 130.2 24 554f.) 

{NB: Ape-, up ahtc*, noy*, Toy- are all 2nd sgl. fcm. (zero suffix) 
forms, of tense base and possessive article. JtGpo imperative} 

6. qjANTGoy opcunc gn^n-ngi^icg (III 18) 

{NB: 6 N 2 NNGI 2 ICG circumstantial present predicating an adverb 
(prepositional phrase ^n-; 19.1.1) “that (lit. “as, while”) we arc in 
these straits”} 

(OBS. cyAMTcoy cycunc is usually complemented by the circum¬ 
stantial conversion) 

7. cy a icy aha upAN'fNAy cn^o mitgxc (A I 467) 

8 . HTTOyNOJCcj GBOA ^MTTMA NU) 6A66T OyTG M1TO y.XG- AAAy 

NqpAJce NAq oyTG nnoypAAAy n^cdb NAq qpANTGnacoGic gi 

(A I 63) 


7.2 THE TEMPORAL (Table C(II)2): NTGpGqccoTM 

NTGpG- + nominal/pronominal actor + infinitive: NTepeqccoTH 

NTGpGnpCUHG CCUTH 

The Temporal expresses temporal and/or causal depcndance, especially 
anterior or background action or event, and may be translated by 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



English “aftcr/sincc he (had heard". NTepeqctuTM is a narralivc form, 
with the main clause following (or preceding) it normally being the 
perfect Aqca>TM. 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 425; Stkindorff parr. 421, 447-450; Till par. 319; Vergotf. par. 
161(3); Lambdin par. 13.1 

1. AipAU^C €MXTe HTepiJCl NHeC^AI NT6KMHT€I(UT (III 13) 

2. NTepiJcnioq €JCN-NeqMNTtyAqTe nrepeqei nii €2Pai €JtS- 
T6K.KA.HCIX Mlieqoyco^ CTOOT<j CCpAJCC 62COB NTCI^e 2^- 

THI (III 33) 

3. NTepoyarroq AqMoy h Aqnoy 2N®h (111 43) 

4. NTepoyTAMio MnptuMe katat€Y2IR<a)n Aycu KATAneyeme 
KATANCrpA<|>H ATINOyTC Niqe C^OyN 62PAq NOynHOH NU)N2 

(IV 37) 

{NB: 62 PA-* see c^pw-} 

5. ANTCUT N^HT NTCpNCCUTM CNUJA-Xe NTCC>4>IA MITNOyTC (III 14) 

■ 

6 . NT6pNJt6- NAI A6 AH6I ATTMHHCye THpq Ay CL) NT€pNJC€- 

np coupe ... aitkomcc kaicapioc oycoupi (III 29) 

{NB: jc6- is the pronominal form of the infinitive jlcd) 

7. ac ame A€ woy^ooy NTepNupAJtc 6 tb6tmntnoyt6 

MTI6NC<UTHp AytU X.G- Aqp- pO>M6 AqoyU>2 MNNptUMG 

AGOING oyaxyi jHnMHH<ye (Cat. 41) 

8. NT6p6KA€IN TAP 2 a,T ® MneqCON AyJCI-KBA HMOq (P 131.4 

141 40) 

[OBS. ii-/MMo- introduces the direct object of a compound verb 
(auxiliary + zero-det. noun)] 

9. NTepenacoeic a€ riNoyre nn antokp ATtop Niqe e^oyN 
e^pAq NoynNOH ncun^ Aqupcune Noy^yxH ecoN2 a y cd 
AqKiM THpq AqcyAJce Aqnooupe AqcooyrH NNeqbuc eney- 

2<ub AqcMoy 2 MneqAAC (Cat. 43) 

{NB: ecoN2 adnominal circumstantial present, qualifying the 
indefinite noun ("which is alive")} 

7.3 THE CONDITIONAL (Table C(II)3): 6qcy anccutm 

6- + pronominal actor + -up an- + infinitive: e-q-qpAN-cuiTM 
epup an- + nominal/dem./indefinite/2nd sgl. fern, actor + infinitive: 

epqiAN- npcoMe ccutm 



50 


FIRST PART 


V J 

Negatived : 6- + pron. actor + -ujan- + -tm- + infinitive: eqq?AN- 

th-ccuth (rarely, -ojah- is absent). 

epcyAN- + -tm- + noin. (etc.) actor + infinitive: cp<pAN-TM- 

npcuMe CCDTM 

The Coptic Conditional corresponds averagely to an “if and when’* 
conditional clause in English. The conjugation form may be preceded by 
^otan (“whenever”, esp. “as soon as”), ccycune (“should it happen”) 
or kin (“even if’, “even though”). See below, 42-43. 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 420-421; Steindokff parr. 328, 421, 492-494, 496; Till parr. 447- 

448', Vergote par. 161(5); Lamddin par. 29.1 

% 

(a) Affirmative: 

1: eNu^Atjeipe rxp ntmc antaig-tmg ANccuty MndoA gnujan- 

eipe JLG MTTNA ANTAIG-TMHTNAHT ANCCUCp NTMNTATNA (III 

112) 

(NB: TAie- prenominal (“construct state”) of taio} 

2. GTGTNtpAHMOy ^NHGTNMNTATNA^TG MN- TGTNMNTATNOyTG 

tpATGTNujoune MMepic nnaaimonion (III 48) 

{NB: q;a>ne n- “become (as)”} 

[OBS. The aorist is a characteristic result clause (“apodosis”) after 
the Conditional] 

3. (In monastic instructions:) gyu^ankioa^ gttma noy<vm NNcpcu- 
mg n^htn 6u) (IV 103) 

4. (Of flies:) q)xyoyw% eacM-neeicu €Yq)AN<5NTCj (III 48) 

5. itmooy eyqjANTA^q MNnHpTT (yAqpoyA NoytuT... npCDMC 

^cucoq equ^ANMCTexe enemu CToyiAS tpAqpoyA Koytur 
NMMAq (III 52) 

{NB: ta^- pronominal state of tcus; p- construct state of eipc; 
nenNA gtoyaab “the Holy Ghost”) 

6. epqjANBtDK cjoyn gnoyhi necpApecyAHA epc^ANei A6 oh 
esoA <pApccyAHA epu^AN^Mooc e^pAi tpApctoq? Ay to on 
ep<j)ANTU>OYN q) ApGMGAGTA (III 203) 

{NB: 2nd sgl. fern, bases and possessive article} 

7 . SoyMoije an t€ oyTC NoyNose an ne cyqj anmgctc- £6 N- 

pcuMG Npeqjcioye (A I 95) 

{NB: MGCT6- construct of moctg} 

8. cpqj an-NGC ooy oycuH mttgnth() eqjAyMoy cyqjANoyoMq 
q^Apcntpcuc AyriH JtGAqAMGAGi (RE II 16a) 


i 


THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



(NB: eajx y- relative aorist; oyoM^ pronominal of oycuM) 

9. ^otah epujANrrptuMe MepertNose qjAperiNoyTe f' Oom 

MnNoee e^pAi ejccuq (Ch. 68) 

10. (“Come and search my dwellings”) etytune 6 ku;an6n- cia- 
cuaon w^HToy (Ch. 43) 

(NB: 6ii- construct of dme) 

11. (“You shall not arise eyeless”) kjln eycy anti topic nnckbaa (III 

105) 

12. ican euyxNMoy H-fHAaci-j*ne an naaay MnATqpNAy (Ch. 
107) 

(NB: N't'NAJCi-AN negatived future, 1st person sgl. (section 17.1) “I 
shall not taste”; MniTq- = cMfiATq-, circumstantial “not yet” 
form; “be (proper) lime”) 

(OBS. The 3rd sgl. masc. in MnArqpNAy is the “impersonal" 
neuter, “it” in “it is time”) 

(b) Negatived: 

1. oyot NHTN 6T€TN<yANTMBCUK. CT6ICIC AHCIA H CTCTNU)AN- 

TMJCI CBOA FTC COM A MNVTCCNOq MITJCOeiC OyOl A€ ON 

NHTN €T6TNq;ANBtUK H CTCTNU} ANJCI CBOA SMTlMyCTHpiOM 

CTOyAAB CT6TNO N£HT CNAy (III 45) 

(NB: eToyAAB relative present “which is holy”; €T6 tno n- 
circumstantial present predicating a stativc (section 16.1.1), “you 
being as...”} 

2. cyqjANTM't*- N€£ nca-^cn^hbc n< 5i-N€Tnpoce xe epooy 
Meyxepo <y AyjccnA (III 170) 

(NB: nernpoeexe determinated relative present “they that 
attend”) 

3. GpeyANTMTT^HT MnpcOMG pCU JCCU^M MCqj*NOB6 OyT€ €p- 

q^ANTMTeq^yxH a to tone ^ntaka©A pci a neqpATccuTM 

neqeytone NAq ncabc MAyAAq (IV 47f.) 

4. eqiome € ycy antmmct anoc i ccNApcy hmo cnc yNArcorw 
NN6NCIOT6 (IU 129) 

(NB: ceNApcyMMO 3rd plural future “They will be estranged”) 

5. €N<yANTM€IMe TAp GTArAITH MTieXC 1C qNAJCTIION (RE 10 

164) 

{NB: qNAJcnioN 3rd sgl. masc. future “He will rebuke us” (pro¬ 
nominal of Jcnio)) 



52 


FIRST PART 


7.4 THE CONJUNCTIVE (Table C(U)4): 

n- + pronominal aclor + infinitive: NqccoTM 

NTe- + nominal/dem./indcfinite/2nd sgl. fern, actor + infinitive: 

NTenp(UM6 CCUTM 

Negatived: h- + pronominal actor + -tm- + infinitive: wq-TM- ccuth 

NTe-TM- + nominal/dem./indcfinile/2nd sgl. fcm. actor 4- 
infinitive: ntctm* np<UMC ccotm 

The conjunctive (here but briefly illustrated; see in detail below, sections 
42*3) continues preceding verb clauses in a special close kind of coordi¬ 
nation (“... and...”) or disjunction (“... or...“), with most of its verbal 
semantic features (time reference, mode, sometimes the affirmative: 
negative distinction) induced by the preceding verb. The conjunctive is 
also used as a verb-clause form after adverbs and conjunctions. 


Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 441, 443, 445, 447; Stfjndorff parr. 366-371, 421; Till parr. 321- 

325 ;*Vf.rck)ti-: par. 161(1 ); Lamddin par. 25.2 

\ 



1. (If the rich man sleeps) <yApe-NCooNe ei NcecyAA MMoq 
Nceqei nneqxpiiMA THpq (IV 25) 

2. oyNose ne oycoM-noenc NoypujMe nr-THp-neq^o)# (Ch. 


104) 

[OBS. oya>H- construct state of thc.infinitive, unmarked orthogra- 
phically (in writing coinciding with the absolute form)] 

3. <5o><yT nFnay eTei'^yxH (IV 200) 

{NB: OcocyT imperative} 

4. eyeTAMoi h riceacooc enzAAo (III 157) 

5. epqjANoypujMe ei e^pAi eyqjtUNe h oyc^me xycu ficepx- 
piA n<>cob NTei^e ^itn- tanapkh (then those who neglect to tend 
are to be blamed as unworthy of God's mercy) (IV 99) 

6. oypcoHe neNTA-nNpyTe j* NAq noymnt-pmmao MN^eN^y- 

TTApXONTA AytO Oy€OOy Aycu NTe-TM- nNOyTC 't*- 6 !|OYCIA 

NAq eoycoH gboa. n^htc (A II 363f.) 

(NB: oyptuMe neNTinNoyTe -f NAq... “There Was a man to 
whom God had given...”, a narrative opening role of the Cleft 

i. * V ri ‘ f l y ' 


i . ' 




4 Sentence,(section 33): oypcoMe ne (“It is...”).+, 6 Nta- (relative 

* ■rJraVp: ‘ 1v> * ■ *■ ■*>■%.*■■■■ ' 

■ 

7. (She abandoned herself to the Devil and the demons) tyANToy- 
nxHre mmoc Ayto nceupAAp epoc (Ch. 121) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


53 


8. THE IMPERATIVE — the form of the verb used for commands, 
instructions and firm requests 

Affirmative: the imperative is identical with the infinitive, except for (1) a 
number of special a- prefixed forms of certain verbs, c.g. ahoy 
“ come”, laic “say (it)”, anay “see!”, Api- “do (...)!“; (2) ma- 
prefixed imperatives for the causative lexemes, (c.g. matamo “inform!”, 
for tamo “to inform”; see Table I). 

Negative: Mnp- prefixed to the infinitive: Mnp- is the actual imperative, 
meaning “do not...!”. 

Bibliography: 

Stuin parr. 384-385, 398; Steindorff parr. 287-292; Till parr. 297-300; Vlrgoti: 
parr. 160(1); Lamddin par. 17.1; Polotsky, “Modes'’ p. 76-9. 

(a) Affirmative: 

1. CMoy epoN ncye ncye choy epoN (A 11 378) 

(OBS. Note the (obligatory) definite article in addressed nouns 
(“vocative”)) 

2. €T8€rTAI MMCpAT€ tcuk n^ht (III 179) 

{NB: MepATC plural of MepiT) 

3. NTO N NTOC CA^CUTN 6BOA H ANAXCOpei NHTN (A I 73) 

[OBS. nh-tn: “dative” prepositional phrase modifying the impe¬ 
rative in a special reflexive mode-of-action (approx, “...away”)) 

4. qiToy qiToy qi-NetATNoyTe koaa^c mmoo y koaazc 

hmooy oja-cng^ (IV 7) 

5. CCUTH eniNOd NKpIMA €2pAI ojccun (Ch. 17) 

6. TALC NAN €piKe MnCN^HT €N€KAIKAICUMA (A II 320) 

[NB: taa»* pronominal of i*, with the feminine object-suffix -c 
corresponding to the ncutric “it”, here announcing the following e- 
+ infinitive} 

7. NNoys 2Ape^ epooy NpcoMc TNNooycoy nan (III 24) 

{NB: coy in TNNooycoy is the 3rd person plural of a special 
object pronoun, in most other persons identical in form with the 
suffix-pronouns: Table A5ai) 

8. KAAK ^1-neCHT £MneiCq)A.xe Jt€-NN€0Y*f*-TCDN Cl CBOA. 

fclTOOTK (IV 41) ,. 

’ 4 (NB: kaa •• pronominal of icoi ; ate- nng- final clause (above, 6.4)} 

9. 2 X ?*2 NAwepATe cth-Ttcon (P 131.5 1 ro) 

(NB: -TM- negatives the infinitive) 

10. AAK N6A.AXICTON ^MnUJAJtC NTCKTAnpO Aytt> NrAAK N- 
ATN06I £NTMHT€ NNCABCCyC (IV 41) 




/ 


\ 


{NB: ja<* pronominal of eipe; aa- n- “make nFaak 

% 

the conjunctive, coordinated by Aycu to the imperative} 

11 . eqjxe- AipNoae epoic h akpnobg epoi kco cboa NNeN-epHy 

(P 131.6 44 115) 

12. \a(£c?y gboa (Ch. 20) 

is the imperative corresponding to the infinitive ei} 


(op 


^ wv .... ... 

13J ANAy 6npH (III 31) 



20 


1 ? 


O 




A 


14. ANAy TAP £NNOyBAA €THNT€BIHN MTTAI (A II 298) 

{NB: divide €-t-mnt-€bihn} 

15. AAOK 2A-NpCUM€ NAniCTOC (P 130.4 100 ro) 

16. eyq^ANToajK e^cua him Api-coy ^Noynicnc (IV 41) 

17. Apl A- TTATOOTK. €p-eipHNH NMMAy (P 130.4 100 Vo) 

{NB: nA- possessive pronoun} 

♦ 

18. AMOy Nr-TCAB€-€IAT GBOA (III 142) 

19. oy nGTO NJtpon nak ajcic epoi (IV 38) 

{NB: oy ncTO NJtpon “What is it that is an obstacle...?“ (“What 
hinders...?”), Cleft Sentence with an interrogative focus (oy 


“what?”), section 33; ajuc see jccu} 


Aya> etceY 


74 ) 

{NB: nic- = ne*-, possessive article} 


21. Apt* ANAI MTTAMTO CBOA nF^CUTTG NATNOB6 (IV 23) 

{NB: Nr- conjunctive continuing the imperative} 

22. pA-TAMoi Jte-oy ne ne^Ao 6 NMeTjN’t'nHrH €Te-NTcoic an 

(Or. 155) 

{NB: N6T£N- definite relative present predicating £N-: “those that 



are in...’’; gtc- relative converter with a negatived delocutive 
Nominal Sentence (section 3.2); took possessive pronoun: “yours” 
(fern.)} 

23 . epcpANnefcatAJce 3*0 matmmo<| Ayco equ;ANeiBe matcoci 


(IV 127) 

24. eiq^ANJCooy Ne onr gabht (Wess. 9 111) 

{NB: on? pronominal state of cun with -t the 1st sgl. suffix 
pronoun as object after a consonant (Table A 5a); ng 2nd sgl. fern, 
of the preposition n-/na -} 

25. MoqjTe nto TnApeenoc nco6 (A II 64) 


(b) Negative: 

1. MnpicpiNe NoypcuMe NpeqpNose (IV 41) 

2. MnpMitpe eTBeoyNoyB h oy£AT (P 131.5 1 vo) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


<£> 


3. MnpBA.AnT61 nnoy^YXh MoyoiTe (P 130.1 36 153) 

{NB: mayaatc 2nd sgl. fcm. of the reinforcer may a a-} 

4. eTsenAi TcyNArturH mttpka- noyNA^Te ^uucuTe oyAe 
MnpTAJtpO €Jttt> MM IN MMO (P 130.2 6 87) 

(NB: the addressee here is the 2nd person sgl. feminine (TcyNArcu- 
m). Note the special forms of the possessive article, prepositions, 
reinforcer and reflexive object of TAJtpo (pronominal stale of 
TAJtpo and zero suffix “yourself”)} 

5. Mnpp-eoTe ntcwtn (III 88) 

{NB: ntcutn: 2nd person plural of the reinforcer anok, nto-, 
similar in form to the personal pronoun} 

6. kan MnpxpMpM MnpdNApiKe (RE 10 160) 

{NB: kan “at least”) 

7. MnpAAT no,)mmo eneiMA ^Noydenw up an'^nay epoK nNoyTe 

(III 146) 

{NB: aa- pronominal state of cipe (“make (as, into}”); -t suffix 

pronoun following a double vowel, the notation of a “disappeared” 
laryngal consonant (Table A 5a)} 

8. MTTpTTC- AAAy OC€ (Ch. 56) 

[OBS. ttc-...oc€ (pronominal TTO^...oce) “make <someone) 
suffer loss** is the causative lexemic equivalent of •f-oce “suffer 
loss” ] 

9. THE CAUSATIVE CONJUGATION (Table D) 

The causative conjugation consists of a set of forms conjugating the 
infinitive for person (in this sense, like the tense base conjugation) with a 
constant base >pe- which, in turn, is attached to prefixed forms of the 
verb “give”, “let, cause**, as follows: 

The prefixed infinitive of f: T-pe-: TpeqccuTM the causative 
infinitive "(to) make him hear**; also supplying the infinitive with an 

actor: “for him to hear”, “that he hear” (negatived TMTpeqccuTM) 

(9.1). 

The imperative of -f: ma / negative Mirp-f (mttpt-): the causative 
imperative or jussive “make/let him hear!’*, "let him hear!** MApeq- 

ccdtm / MnpTpeqcojTM (10) 

A special grammaticalized first-person sgl. conjugated form of : 
TApcqcaiTM the consequents causative conjunctive, “(Do this,) 
and (you may be sure that) 



4 



FIRST PART 



Bibliography: 

Polotsky, “Modes”; * Polotsk v, Kausativer Injinitiv 


9.1 THE CAUSATIVE INFINITIVE (Table DI): TpeqccuTM / 

TpenptDMe ccuth 

(Isl sgi. TpjictoTM, 2nd sgl. fern. TpectuTH; also nominal/dcm./ 
indef./interr. actor) 

(a) In conjugation, occupying the usual infinitive position: “makc/let 

him hear” 

(b) After the preposition e-: “that he hear”; neg. eTHTpe- 

(c) After other prepositions: ^MrtTpe-, mnnc ATpc-, ANTiTpe-, 

NCATpe-, Nrpe-, xcupiCTpe-, zMTrrpeqccuTM “in (the event 
of) his hearing” 

MNNCATpeqCtDTH 

ANTITpeqCOOTH 

NCATpeqCCOTN 

xcopicTpeqccuTH 

HTpeqCCUTH 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 461 - 463 ; Stein dor ff parr. 383 - 387 , 452 ; Till parr. 335 - 342 , 351 ; 
Vergoti- parr. 161 ( 5 ), 204 , 206 - 207 ; Lamdoin parr. 20 . 1 , 30 . 4 ; * Polotsk y, 
Kausativer Injinitiv parr. 7 , 10 - 21 , 22-30 


“after (the event of) his hearing” 
“instead of his hearing” 

“except that he hear”, 

“without his hearing” 

“of his hearing” 


(a) In conjugation: 

1. AqTpeyujcune THpo y HnHye mnttka^ (IV 36) 

1 

[OBS. The two coordinated nouns stand in apposition to the 3rd 
plural pronoun in Tpey-; nominal apposition to 3rd-person 
pronominal actor expressions in tense forms and Tpe- after preposi¬ 


tions would be normally introduced by n6i-1 


(2^ AKTpeNcoycuNr (III 90) 


NB: -cQYOJNr 





VO 


fit ')hk 


CD Me H 


vi i .the object suffix alternant of Rafter final n) 

pN^tte aJ{WJ|pnob€ ^cd (A I 79) 


k (*- 


{NB: 2 <u 1st sgl. of the reinforccr (augens) zww) 

4. ApcTpe-TTAi ^cutuq nxpABA (A I 118) 

5. ApeTpeyqi-pooyqj eNe^BHye mo a icon (P 130.2 96 152) 

6. MnqetyTpepcuMe pnobc TTApAneqoycuty (Ch. 74) 




THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 

7. It A. AT TATpe-NeCNHy poyANACy NAI (III 16) 

(NB: kilt imperative with 1st person sgl. pron. object, see kco 
“ let”; t a- 1st sgl. conjunctive, following-up the imperative and 
expressing its object action) 

8. MmjTpectu^ ccutm Aytu MnqTpedAxe Moocpe (Wcss. 9 142) 

9. AiTpeyMoyq MneKcoxy MNneKqpine e^oyw eNoyedpo 

MneKHi (Ch. 39) 

10. AqTpeNcoycuNq MHNeq^BHye THpoy (Ch. 160) 

(b) After the preposition e-: eTpeqctOTM, GTMTpeqccuTM 

1. HnoYKLiH GTpeweipe Mnoytocy mttnoytg ^wneiMA (III 34) 

2. oyATdoM ne GTpenc atanac ppeune N 2 M 2 AA. enNoee (Ch. 

76) 

{NB: p- ... N-: “make... into”) 

3. AycoTnc NAy eTpeyqjojne na6phn Ayco nxhpa (IV 28) 
(OBS. The ncutric feminine -c (“it”) anticipates “that” (eTpey- 
ujeune); so too in texts 5, 10, 15, originally also 6] 

4. ATeynoy 6e <y cone eTpeNTU>oy»c2* n 2 ,NH ® (Lcyd. 295 = 
Rom. 13:11) J. r't.# M , 

MnjovTAafcyiAN 0Tf»€f4poYUfTa2ttihhpxAHrmlTrxoei (111 191) 

€yqpe epon €TpeNKATA<)>pON€l MffEOOy HGBOA. JITNMptUMe 

(III 35) 

{NB: qpqpe “it behoves”, “it is fitting” (originally present form 
with a neutric feminine actor: “it goes”) 

7. AqtcTO NTeqoprw enA^oy eTMTpeqitoAAZe mmon 2N2£nno 6 
MntpACHOc (IV 206) 

8. ’fMOKMCK MMOI CIC-^CNpOMne €TMTp€pa>M€ ON- CpAJCC 

CJCOI KATAAAAy NCMOT (IV 172) 

{NB: j'HOKMCK: present, 1st sgl. “I am (have been) reflecting”; 
eic- “for” (with duration of time), see section 14} 

9. nitAipoc ne eTpeoyeiujT h oyMAAy u;u>ne wee NoyBAp- 

BApoc e^oyw eNeyqjHpe Ayoi neyepeepe (III 74) 

10. NANoyc ac an eTpeoyA JCCOpM 2 NNeqBAA (A II 258) 

{NB: NANoyc “it is good”, Adjective Verb (section 22.1)} 

11. NTOK 2 U ’ CUK neNCON TN2<ON 6TOOTK €Tp€KAnOTACCe 

MneKHi (III 99f.) 

{NB: tn 2 U>n present form, “we enjoin”; 2<u* governs the preposi¬ 
tion 6TH* / 6TOOT 

12. AyMioje oyBe-MNTAceBNC nim eTMTpeyp-jcoeic epooy 

(IV 5) 





FIRST PART 



13. anay jte*£N z x Z mm a 2 NNerpA<}>H a yearn ctootn ctm- 

* 

TpeNcupic naaay n*nauj (III 182) 

14. tu)B2 mttjcocic mttcooy ic eTHTpeic^c 2 moyt?onhpon Jte- 

NNCKCI e^pAI eTOOTq MTTAAC NNCNTAItp- ©€ NOy.XA.Xe NNA- 

2PAY (HI I06f.) 

{NB: ncnta- determinated relative perfect (“they who...), predi¬ 
cating p-ee n- “bc(comc) as”} 

15. NNeccpame CTpApNose mttcmto cbo\ Hnacoeic (IV 91) 

16. NN€Y©A.IB€ Npa>H€ €TMTpeYTHHO<| (IV 92) 

•if I 

(c) ^MnrpeqctuTH, MNNCArpeqccoTM; other prepositions with xpe-; 
xpeqccuxM as a “that” form: j ^ 

CD 2Mnxpequ;A N6i-npH xyfeevo y J c^oyn n6i-tn۩hpion L. 

^MnTpeqneipe Nrii-npH ntancaiocynh anaaimonion co>- 
°Y2 g^oyn (IV 176f.) 

2. AqnA nan 2noyno6 nna ayco AqcHoy epoN ^noynoO ncmoy 

2MnxpeqeiN€ Nxeqriut e^pAi exam ^NOY^epcoB 2 noymnx- 

cyAN^THq (IV 206) 

3. nei^oiB ainay epoq 2MirxpAA5iOY HnneTAOCe (III 38) 

{NB: nnexxoce definite nominalized relative present (section 
31.1.1): “the One who is exalted”} 

4. £MITTpeT€XApiC AC pJOYG-JtCOK CBOA ACj>NO<5 ACAICG 

ACp-COBT AN6CCKIB6 j>NOd NMHAC AYP" FIYPrOC (Ch. 148) 

{NB: 2©Y e ‘ inside the conjugation form, preceding and modifying 
the infinitives: “rather”} 

[OBS. Note the use of the auxiliary p- (construct of eipe) with 
nouns in the sense of “become”) 

5. ai€u;6h6om N'f-Aoroc ^aoyopaa.€ hoy<ot catixocic 
6nxq mm€ ^pAi n^ht 2MirxpeqxNOYi ayoj 2*nxpeqicpiNe 

mho i (Wcss. 9 139) 

{NB: 6nt«* n- “find to be...”} 

6. ahmaghthc 2°M°* or€| Mnexc 2MnTp€qoY<*>2 n2htoy 

NqjcooY*coY exAqje- oeicy AioyAAC p-atcooyn HMoq 

2HnTpcqoY«>2 N2HTq n6ittaiaboa.oc (Ch. 66) 

7. Mnqate-AAAY nqjAxe nay mnncatpcyfiapaiti (III 148) 

{tyB: TTApAiTi * nAp AiT6i (and often, i * ci in words of Greek 

origin: a phenomenon of Hellenistic Greek orthography and phono¬ 
logy} 

8. MNNCAXpAC I 6BOA 2 ,TOOTO Y MnNK.AA.AAY MTfCeOOY €- 

ujcdttc Amooy (III 88) _ 

■ 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



{NB: neeooy zero-article nominalized relative present (section 

31.1.1) : "that is evil"} 

9. NGNTAyTTApABA MNNCATpCyp- LNLCp NAK JCC- NNCNpNOBC 

Ayeipe on (III 17) 

(OBS. cipe (with no or zero object) resumes the derived verb p- 

ANA<&>] 

10. N€NTAyTp€KK.A- BOA. MMOOy C^NAK AN MNNCATpCKOMKO y 

(Ch. 27) 

{NB: g^nak. an “you not willing", "against your will” (section 

24.1) } 

11. OyKAONKHClC UJHM NCyCUpTT NTKHptAKH HNNCATpCyU>U> 

Mne'pAATHpioN MNneyArreAtoN ^Noy^ooy no;a (III III) 

{NB: K.A0HKHCIC s* K AOHFHC 1C, KHpiAKH * KHplAKH (SCC 

note to text 7)} 

12. MMA CNTAyBCUK CM Ay MNNCATpC yBCUK CBOA. ^NNCyNArcurM 

Mnjcoeic (III 126) 

13. neeooy nc NTpcynApAre (Ch. 178) 

14. ANTiTpcycoyNnacocic cboa. n^htoy Ayp- atcooyn MMoq 
cyANToyci CTOOTq MneyTCUCDBC (IV 4) 

15. ANTITpCNp- MOCI^C CJtN-NTAMIO MTINOyTC MNNCqMCAOC 
TMpoy NTN*t*-€OOy NAq AKTpceAe pMOCI^C CJCMnTAKO 

MneyKOCHOc (Wess. 9 118) 

{NB: the conjunctive (NTN'f’cooy) continues -TpeN-} 

16. t€k6om an tc cnee oyre ntoic oyxe nckaaimcon expe- 
oypcuMC pNOBC xcupic-Tpeneqoya>q> pqjopn encqMceye 
Aycu Tcq6nioyMiA £Agh MneqcyoJtNC (Ch. 35) 

17. eioyeqj-oy ntotthytn NCAxpexN*f 2 Hy mmcuxn (A I 267) 
{NB: eioye^oy "What is it that I want?", Second Present with 
an interrogative object as focus (section 36)} 

18. nMA an NTpenpume oyu>N£ cboa NTeqMNXjecutupe nc 

♦ 

tmhtc njcnsaao mn^cn^aacu (A I 3) 

i 

[OBS. A negative copular Nominal Sentence (section 3.3), with 
("the place to...", lit. "the place that one should...") as theme and 
tmhtc ... as rheme (predicate)] 

19. NANoyTpcnpcuMe Moy fijoyo come (A I 52) 

{NB: NANoy-: Adjective Verb: "It is better (that...)"} 


10 THE CAUSATIVE IMPERATIVE or JUSSIVE (Tabic D2): 

3rd persons : MApcqccuTM / MApenpcoMC ccuxm, neg. Mnpxpe 
qccuTM / MnpTpcnpcoMe ccutm "Let him/the man (not) hear!" 






FIRST PART 


1st person plural : mapnccutm, neg. mtiptpgnccdtm “Let us (not) 
hear!” 

(Rarely also in the 1st singular, with the semantic component of 

causation more pronounced; also with nominal/dcm./indcfinitc actor) 

BiolkxiRaphy: 

Sti-rn parr. 383. 398; Till par. 346 (ncg.); Lamdoin par. 30.1; Polotsky, 
“Modes" p. 81-84; * Kausativer Infinitiv parr. 8. 31-36 


(a) Affirmative: 

Q0 MApeqMooyT Mn^oq (P 130.2 24 555) 

(2/ HApdnNOYTG CCDTM GFTGTNCpAHA (P. 130.2 100 ro) 

3. Tc Krooy 6e AyeD MApoycoycDNr (Cli. 125) 

4. MApoyTAMON n<5i-N ipcqncpG- pAcoy NNoyat (Wess. 9 143) 

5. gtbgtt ai MApGnoyA noyA mmon bohogi epoq (RE II 16) 

6. ^Noyjcmo mapnjcttio nngncphy (P 130.4 110 552) 

[OBS. 2 Noy- + infinitive followed by a conjugation form predica¬ 
ting the same verb is the Coptic version of the so-called “absolute" 
or “tautological" infinitive, used to reinforce the verbal notion (“he 
will hear indeed")] 

7. MApNp-£M£AA NNCNGpHy NOG nTc ... T1AI NTAqJCI NOyMOp<f>H 
N^M^AA eTDHHTN Ay CD N66 MTIAyAOC TT^M^AA NIC A yCU NOG 

NNATTOCTOAOC THpOy (IV 34) 

8. ANON £CDCDN CD NACNHy MApfipTMG Ay CD NTNJtCD NTMG 

jcgkac gngcooytn ^NNGN^BHyc THpoy (P 130.5 550 22) 

9. H ApGTTACGBHC KCD NCCOq NNCqglOOyG Ay CD npCDHG NANO- 

HOC NNGqujoJtNG hA pcqKOTq enaoeic (Ch. 37) 


^JO) MApiHOy NT6NAI CDN£ (A I 100) 


JWk 


Hnp(rp 


eA7?HMON (P 130.2 60 72) 


•wk 


triY !<(*/ 


MTipTpACCDTH -X6- ATGTNp- £A£ NU^AJCG MNTT2AAO 2 e Z e 

MMON MMON GMTIATqGI UJApON (A I 73) 

3. MTTpTpGTTGIC2 HT MICA£ NTOK TTAGICDT (P 130.2 I 78) 

4. MTTpTpGpCOMC <$NTOy (A I 213) 

5. m npTpGNcp ing 6g TGNoy NCA-^oyo cnAi (Wess. 9 148) 

6. MTTpTpGNICpiNG NNGNGpHy (P 131.6 44 115) 

7. MTTpTpGNCCDOJ NTGXApiC AAA A MApN-f-COOy NTOq MTT- 

NoyTG (IV 24) 

{NB: NToq adversative particle) 

8. ^ MTTpTpGNAAN NC^MMO 6TTNOyTG MNTT6XC GTBGOyOyNOq 

MNOVC.OACA MNOYA aycd MMNTACGBHC (A I 166) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM ( j>l J 

11 THE CONSEQUENTIAL CAUSATIVE CONJUNCTIVE (TApeq- 
ccotm, Tabic D3: 

2nd & 3rd persons: tapckccotm / TApcqccoTM / TApenpcoMe 
ccotm “(Do this,) and (I promise you that...)”- Also nominal/ 
demonstr./indeiinilc actor. 

. I 

1st person plural: tapnccotm “...and then we shall...” 

Also as the logical sequel to a rhetorical question. 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 453; Steindorff parr. 352-354; Till par. 311; Vergote par. 161(2); 
Polotsky, “Modes" p. 87-89; * Kausativcr Infvutiv parr. 9, 31, 37-40, 45 

1. NA TApoyNA NAK qjCN^THK TApOYqjeN^THY £ApOK Ktt) 6BOA. 

TApoyKCO NAK CBOA (P 131.6 43 TO) 

{NB: cpeN- * ujn- (see (pcone)} 

2. MATAeie-nNOYTe tap€K<5m6om (III 112) 

3. cei NHTN NNCTN^HAONH NJCCUJH ^ICCOCOq ... TApeTCTNCCI 

ON MnpcUK^ MNflKCO^T €T6Meqcuu;M (A II 224f.) 

4. £Ape£ CTMNTBAA^HT NOC CTCH^ TApCTCTNNAy enCOOyTN 

(Cl. Pr. 22 364) 

5. cpN^THK 6e ^aftckaaoc nfcootoy cboa ... TApoycpqe 

eeiHG A.€-HN-6€NOyT€ NBAAAK (Ch. 48) 

{NB: cootoy * cotoy (see ccotc); statement of non¬ 
existence, “there is nol’\ section 12.2) 

6. MAfNnpocexe eNeqcpAjte TApNeme eneTNtpiNc riccoq 

(Cat. 41) 

{NB: ncTticpiNe iiccoq determinated relative present “that which 
you seek”, nccu «- being the preposition governed by <piNe) 

7. eqTtON noycoNcp TApencpcoc no>r iiccoq (A II 510) 

{NB: eqrcoN Second Present, putting in focus the interrogative 
adverbial predicate tcon “where?” (section 37): “Where is he?”} 

8. AMOY CTCKKAHCIA TApeTTNOyTC CMOy CpOK ^NTCKMNTpM- 

MAO (P 131.6 13 vo) 

9. N€A- oyA esoA eq^ooy ^°Y HHH 9 e TApcn*t*- tcon bcok 

6BOA NMMACJ (A 1 63f.) 

{NB: eq^ooy adnominat circumstantial present: “that is evil"> 



UNIT (III): PRESENTATIVE and EXISTENTIAL CLAUSES 

(sections 12-14) 


12.1 Affirmation of existence: oyN- “There exists” 

12.1.1 Conversions 

12.2 Negation of existence: (m)mn- “There docs not exist” 

12.2.1 Conversions 

l 

13.1 Affirmation of existential possession: the verboid o ynta. - q “(He) 
has” 

13.1.1 Conversions 

13.2 Negation of existential possession: the verboid (h)hhtx^ q “(He) 
does not have” 

13.2.1 Conversions 

14 Presentative (deictic existence) clauses: etc (zhhtg) “Here is...”. 
Prepositional eic (with expression of time): “It has been... since...”. 


12 EXISTENTIAL STATEMENTS, EXISTENTIAL POSSESSION 

(sec Table E), 

oyr5- “there is/cxi$ts...”, affirmation of existence (12.1) 

(m)hn- “There is not/does not exist...” (12.2) 

The cxistants (non-cxistants, as the case may be) are never definite; 
however, the determinated (“definite”) relative (31.1) does occur after 
oyw- or (h)hh-, in a generic (non-specific) sense (oyN- neT- ^thereTs 
such a one as...”) 

The fusion of oyn-/(m)mn- and the preposition fire-, nt*-* “with, 
“by” forms the Coptic expression for predicative possession (“have/ 

have not”), i.e. the verboid oymta*», (h)mnt** (13) 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 317, 368; Steindorff parr. 296, 397-402; Till parr. 287-296; 
Vergote par. 170(7-8); Lambdin par. 2.2, Polotsky, “Conjugation System”, 
parr. 33-35; Shisha-Hai.f.vy, “Existential Statements” 

m 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


63 


12.1 AFFIRMATION OF EXISTENCE, oyn- “There exists”, “There 
is” (Table El) 

% 

NB: oy m*...n-/mmo<* predicates intimate (“inalienable”) possession 

1. oynkcicocmoc ?*poq mitai (Orig. 303) 

2. MH OYN<Je-ppO MCA- p- pM^ e C»OA JNTOprH CTNHy ... MH 

OYN<SeMNT-€po NCA-p-ppo Mn<UN2 qjA-ewe^ (A I 165) 

|NB: €tnhy relative present: “that is coming”; MNTcpo is the 
abstract noun derived from the concrete ppo} 

3. oynoyom epooy HTOorq Mn-xoeic Mnm (P 130.5 15 ro) 
[OBS. The preposition e- denotes the debtor, ntoot- the creditor] 

4. OywOOM MMOK €€IM€ HnATOYCNT*Tne MM-IUCA? 

n€-oy ncTC^oon (Orig. 814) 

{NB: n€oy neTiyoon preterite conversion of the Cleft Sentence 
(section 33.3): “What was it that existed?”} 

5. OYN0OM €Tp€'I , Y XH P NO#e AJCN-CCDMA H€ CCDMA A.XN-'J'Y xh 

(Orig. 335) 

{NB: He * h; a rhetorical question) 

6. oyNAJUHcuN eqnHT ncaaaimoin xycu pome MnoNHpoc 
eqnHT ncap<jumg MnoNHpoc (A II 16) 

(NB: eqnnr adnominal circumstantial present, qualifying the zero- 
article nouns: “running after”, “pursuing”} 

7. eoj-xe-oyNgoiNe n^htthytm euti mmooy nOonc MApoyTA- 

moi Jte-eieeiMe (III 139) 

{NB: eiJti mmooy n6ohc adnominal circumstantial present, quali¬ 
fying “whom I am wronging”} 

8. oyHc^iMe eojipcnec^i jynonTCYC epoc Jce-oyNoeiK 

Te (Or. 159) 

9. htcutn A6 oyNKAj oyNdwM oySecooY oyn€£€ oyN^y- 

nApxoNTA oyNApXH o yNCSoyciA Aytu oynboH mmcutn 
_cp-noycuqj MnnoyTe ^HnetNoye^CA^Me mmatg (Ch. 100) 

[OBS. Note the conjunction-less coordination of several clauses in 
an “enumerative style”) 


12.1.1 oym- CONVERTED (Tables El, G): 

(a) Circumstantial eoyw- eyn- “there existing...” (also adnominal; 

27-30) 

(b) Relative eTeoyN- “(.-.) whom there exists...” (31-33) 

(c) Second Tense eoyw- (very rare; 34-38) 



64 


FI RST PA RT 


(d) Preterite NeoyN- “there existed”, also in hypothetical (remote) 

condition (39-41) 

Uiiiliography: 

Stern parr. 412, 414; Steindorff parr. 374, 377, 468; Till parr. 462, 468; 
Lamddin par. 25.1(c); Polotsky, “Conjugation System”, parr. 33-35, * Non i. 
Transposition parr. 34-37 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. mmnkg^cob rap ayu> Keupajce eoyNtSoM eTpeptune ccoth 
epooy ... (Orig, 360) 

{NB: mmn-: sec section 12.2) 

2. Hnp- GB^j- thytn eNercpcune n^htthytn zNaaay n^cub 
eoyNdon mmcotn eaay way (E 81) 

{NB: ngtujcung determinated relative present “they that are ill”) 

(b) Relative: 

1. N€TNNoyT€ GTeoyN-BaA. MMooy (Mun. 107) 

2. neTeoyNdoM mmo<j e^cuB nih (E 88) 

(c) Second Tense : 

1. apa goyn^gntn^ MrmoyTG nnaNTOKparcop (Ch. 186) 

{NB: the Second Tense marks the rhetorical question as such, or 
stresses the cxistant ^gntn^, or both (see sections 36. 38)} 

(d) Preterite: 

1. eNeoyndoN rap mmok ayco ewe-TBoneeia aw tc nnexc 
(you would not have remained silent) (Ch. 36) 

2. NeoyNoyNod rap mmhhu/g MMay ne (Ch. 133) 

{NB: ne occurs often with the preterite conversion: its function is 
not entirely clear, but it seems to mark the whole clause as 
background) 


12.2 NEGATION OF EXISTENCE: hmn-, mn- “There does not 

exist”, “There is not” (Table El) 

NB: (h)mn-... n-/mmo* negates intimate (“inalienable”) possession 

1. mnco4>oc N^oyo epooy (IV 2) 

{NB: the preposition e- used to express comparison (“more than”)} 

2. MNaaay rap nccunt xcupic-renpoNoia MnNoyTG (IV 199) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAl. SYSTEM 


65 


3. MMNca^oy mttboa. NT6rpa<|>H jkg- Mnqei espai excuq (IV 10) 
[OBS. xc- introduces a relative (rather adnominal) negative clause 
qualifying the existant of mmn- (or in implied non-existence)] 

4. MMNKegcus rap aycu Keujaate GoywdoM erpepatne ccotm 
epooy h 6noci mmooy m €*t*-Kapnoc hjhtoy (Orig. 360) 

5. MMNxrxnH h^htoy « 2 oyw epoq (III 133) 

6. eupjcG- oyndoM mtgc^img gbohggi enec^ai CTse-oy 
mnOom nn^ai eeoHeei eTeqc^ine (Or. 157) 

7. MN^an mm6 mnaikaion mnna oyae MNCooyw nnoytg 

^utMnKa? (Ch. 96) 

8. mmnojcdng mmntkxc MMNneipacHOc Npcune hmnaoki- 
naze mmok (Ch. 13) 

9. oyKoyi tc aycu mmnkib6 mhoc (Ch. 148) 

10. MNpcuMe ajcM-4'Y* H aycu mmn'J'yxh ajcN-pu>Me (Orig. 340) 

11. ntok ne ntok ne ayo> mnkgno yT€ nbxaxk (A I 211) 

[OBS. ntok ne ntok ne Nominal Sentence predicating immuta¬ 
bility or Divine Existence) 


12.2.1 (m)mn- CONVERTED (Tables El, G): 

(a) Circumstantial cmn*, €mmn-, mmn- “there not existing..." (also 

adnominal; 27-30) 

(b) Relative gt€(m)mn “(...) whom there docs not exist..." (31-33) 

(c) Second Tense g(m)mn- Scripture Coptic €tg(m)mn- (rare; 34-38) 

(d) Preterite nc(m)mn- “there used not to exist", also in hypothetical 

(remote) condition (39-41) 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. (They say there arc twelve gospels,) 6mno yoN nca-qTooy nxa- 

TAMaeeaioc nKaTAMapKoc nKATAAoyKac nKATaico^aN- 

nhc (Orig. 425) 

2. u/oaNe eMNTadpo N^HTq (A II 416) 

3.,n€NTaqTpea>N€ ujame mmnoyon (Ch. 149) 

(NB: ncNTaqTpe- determinated relative perfect: “He who caus¬ 
ed...") 

(b) Relative: 

1. TTKAipOC CTGMNKU) GBOA. N^HTq (A I 212) 

2. NGTGMNnAT MMOOy (III 143) 



66 


FIRST PART 


3. NACGBHC NAME ... eTCMMNCAJOY MTTBOA. NT6rp A<|>H JtC- 

Hiiqei e^pAi ejccooy (IV 10) 

(OBS. Adnominal ate-, see OBS. on 12.2, text (3)] 

(c) Second Tense: 

1. MNHCATpeYCOYN-TTCOOYN THpq AyO) CMNK€HOYT€ NCA-IC 

(K 9316) 

{NB: this is probably the Second Tense as a “that" clause} 

2. (not shenoute) hh €T€mn6om mmoi CToyate- thytn (Jes. 
50:2) 

* • 

{NB: the Second Tense marking a rhetorical question} 

(d) Preterite: 

\ 

I. n€mn- neTKtOTe Ncooq ne (A I 459) 

(NB: ne*r- “one who...”, det. relative present} 


13 THE EXISTENTIAL-POSSESSION VERBOID (Table E2): 
Aflfirmative oynta-: “(He) has...” (“There is + with him”) 

Negative (m)mnta- “(He) does not have...” (“There is not 4* with 

him”) 

The possession verboid is combined with the possessor (nominal/pro¬ 
nominal) and possessed (nominal/pronominal) in the following main 
constructions: 


NOMINAL POSSESSED 

(a) OYNTA - (PRON. POSSESSOR)/ O YMT€- (NOM. POSSESSOR) 4- POSSESSED 

(+ mm Ay “there”) 

(b) OYNTA* (PRON. POSSESSOR)/ O YNT 6- (NOM. POSSESSOR) (+ MM Ay) 

+ N- POSSESSED 


PRONOMINAL POSSESSED 

(c) oynta* + possessor 4- possessed (possessor: suffix pronouns; 

possessed: objective pronouns, see Table A 5a/a J 

Construction (a) is normal for a zero-determinated possessed and 
possible with other dclcrminators; all constructions are used for 
oynta«* and (m)mnta-*. 

Bibliography: 

n 

Stern parr. 312-316; Steindorff parr. 397-403; Till parr. 289-295; Vergote 
par. 170(8); Lamddin par. 22.1; Polotsky, “Conjugation-System” parr. 33-35; 
* Nom. Transposition parr. 41-46 


THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


67 


13.1 AFFIRMATION OF EXISTENTIAL POSSESSION: o Y nta- 
“(He) has” (Table E2) 

1. OYNTtj-2^2 NXpHMA HHiy (IV 25) 

2. oyntxy mma Y NoyNod Msetce ^atm- ttnoytc (P 130.2 102 22) 

3. OYNTJkN-Tc mm ay (Ch. 120) 

4. oyNTC-TeJioYCiA gkcdnc h ctmkconc (IV 13) 

5. n^oq dyNTe-TeqMATOY weccyi (Ch. 28) 

6. mh oyNTe-neKeicuT tepoNoe \xxy p<o NToq ncazgnnobg 

(Ch. 42) 

7. TA'pyxH °ynt€- 2^2 NA.rA.ooN mmay (III 111 = Lc. 12:19) 
{NB: second sgl. fern. possessor) 


13.1.1 oynta- CONVERTED (Tables E2, G): 

(a) Circumstantial coynta**, eY^ TA- * **(hc) having...” (also ad- 

nominal; 27*30) 

(b) Relative eTeoyNTA-* “who has“whom (he) has...” (31-33) 

(c) Second Tense c(o)ynta«* “(It is...) that (he) has...” (34-38) 

Negatived eoyNTA*... an “(He) had, used to have...”, also in 
hypothetical (remote) condition (39-41) 

NB: resumption of the antecedent (in the case of relative conversion: 

“...which (he) has...”) is by means of the objective pronouns (Table A5aj) 


Bibliography: 


Stern parr. 412,414; Steindorff parr. 402,468; Lambdin par 
“Conjugation System” parr. 33-35; * Nom. Transposition pai 






Polotsk y 


(a) Circumstantial: 

i 

1. NANoyc eoyNTAM epcuMc N^oyo co Y ntay cpoN (Miss. 278) 
(NB: NANoyc Adjective Verb (section 22.1) with a neulric feminine 
actor “it is good”) 

2. 2 «Npo)M€ eoyNTAN epooy (P 130.4 157 ro) 

3. Mnpcpome eoyNTic-^^ nc^imc (A 11 61) 

(OBS. u^ume -f circumstantial is here used to supply a (negative) 
imperative for the possessive verboid) 

(b) Relative: 

1. oyoN him €T€oyntay mmay NTei^e^nic (Ch. 86) 

2. N6TCOYNTAY” ptUM€ MMA Y (P 130.2 62 76) 



FIRST PART 


68 

3. nereoyNTxq^cuv nmman MApeqei GriAiKACTupioN (III 89) 

4. T^Y^rAnH ctgoyntayc G^oyN enNoyTe (IV 52) 

5. N€T€OYNT*qcoY (Or. 161) 

{NB: -coy is here the objective pronoun (Table A 5 a t ); similarly 
-c in the next text) 

6. OYci*-a>26 SoytWT tgtgoyntaic (Ch. 99) 

{NB: this is a Cleft Sentence (section 33), with the possessed pul in 
focus and resumed by the objective pronoun >c: “It is a ...that I 
have”} 

7. ngtgoyntay mmay ntc5oy c1 * cpn^An Aytu oh eoyNTiy 
g j* Mn^Hice (Ch. 86) 

(NB: The relative conversion is here carried on by the circumstan¬ 
tial (section 29.1)) 

(c) Second Tense: 

1. ecyate-oyNTAK-niCTic mmay €,e eoyNTAK mmay Mnjccux 
HTTHyCTHpiON (Cat. 43) 

{NB: the direct object is emphasized (put into focus) by the Second 
Tense) 

2. equate- OYNTq-oydoM rxp on coyNTAqc ^nnctka-ma NAq 
n£htoy (HI 85 ) 

{NB: is here put into focus by the Second Tense) 

(d) Preterite: 

1. ttagicdt i*-eooY nai zmttgooy GNGoyNTAiq ^a^thk eMni- 

tgijkocmoc <yo)T?6 (Cat. 42 = Joh. 17:5) 

{NB: T eoo Y imperative; gngoynta** relative preterite (double 
conversion)) 

2. eNeoyNTAy-2 €An,c rA P mmay 2NTcyNAru>rH miucogic 
ngynabcuk an ne gboa ^itootn (Wess. 9 162) 

{NB: 6NG- circumstantial preterite (double conversion), expressing 
the" supposition constituent of a remote hypothetical condition 
(“irrealis”); ngyna- preterite future, used for remote hypothetical 
result (“they would not have gone”, sec section 41)) 


13.2 NEGATION OF EXISTENTIAL POSSESSION: THE VERBOID 
(h)mnta- “(He) does not have...” (Table E2) 

For construction and Bibliography, see 13.1 

I. GUJJtG-MNTAK-niCTIC MMAY GIG- MNTAIt- 2GATTIC MMAY 

(Cal. 43) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


69 


2. MNTK0OM MM Ay TTAAIMONION NCATAKO (III 7B) 

(NB: ttaaimonion address (*'vocative”)} 

3. mntan-aoi<56 mntan-ujajc€ e.xa> ^Mne^ooy mit^ait (Ch. 
120 ) 

4. mntay mmay nt^otc Mnexc (P 130.2 25 327) 

5. e^AeoyNTAK^eNCHqe Noyoyoeio; a a a. a tcnoy mntak 

(Ch. 31) 

6. MNT€-n€iu;a)Nc uji mmay (IV 21) 

7. MNT€-AIKACTHpiON C^AJCC MMAy CJCO) epot (Ch. 95) 

8. ANON MMepATe MMNTAN-Oe^eAniC MMAY NCANCNepHY ei- 

mhti enNoyTe MAyAAq MNnjtoeic Tc (III 136) 

9. MNTAI-MOCTC €£°Y N CpOC (A I 71) 

10. MNTAN-oeuc eoyioM (Ch. 47) 


13.2.1 (m)mnta* CONVERTED (Tables E2, G) 

(a) Circumstantial cmnta*, cmmnta**, mmnta-* “(He) not 

having...” (also adnominal; 27-30) 

(b) Relative ctc(m)mnta ^ “who does not have”, “whom (he) does 

not have” (31-33) 

(d) Preterite ncmntA"* “(He) did not have...”, also in hypothetical 

(remote) condition (34-38) 

For Bibliography, see 13.2.1 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. 2® N 2®Hy€ NBOTC CMNTOy Hfl€ (E 94) 

2. CMNT6TCYNArtOTM NNlOyAAl TTJLOeiC 1C MMAY MMNTOy- 

AAAy MMAY (III 57) 

3. ^ewujMMo €MNToy-po>M€ mmay 2P* 1 n^htn (P 130.2 62 76) 

(b) Relative: 

1. VTNOYT6 STCMNTtj- (£>QONOC (P 130.2 101 TO) 

2. NecioYP crcMNToy- upHpe mmay ntctcapS (IV 31) 

3. neTeMNTAq-ntyHpc MNTAq-ncitUT cmnta<|-tici cut ac mn- 

TAq-NoyTc mmay (A H 384) 

(NB: neTCMNTAq- determinated relative: “he who...”; so too in 
text 4} 

4. neTeoyNTq-^oeiTe cntc MApeq-f-oyei MneTCMNTAq Aycu 
neTCOYNTq-OYoeiic MApeqeipe on ^inai (Ch. 55, cf. Lc. 

3:11) 



\ 

I 


FIRST PART 


70 

% 

(c) Preterite: 

I. weMNTAq ei* (III 78) 


14 PRESENTATIVE (DEICTIC-EXISTENTIAL) CLAUSES: eic-, 

eic-^HHre “Here is...” 

(a) # eic- + noun syntagm ( + advcrb/circumstantial/relative) #, 

# eic-^HHTe (rarely eic-) + clause # 

(b) # eic- + expression of lime: “prepositional” eic, ‘Tor” (with the 

present tense in the 1st person in Coptic, corresponding to the 
Present Perfect Progressive in English, “have been ...-ing” 

Bibliography: 

Sii-rn par. 529; Stuinmorw parr. 214-215; Till par. 387; Vi-rgotu par. 182; 
Lambdin par. 28.2; Shisha-Halevy, “Existential Statements” 

(a) 

1. eiC-OYPHMAO HFTOOY ^NOYTTOAIC ••• (IV 25) 

2. eic- oymht.xa«X 6 ennoyTe namc ^eweioTe hmjgncnhy 
*Y tu ^ewpcDMe eY«xtt> mhoc ate- anon-H inexc (III 74) 

(NB: ey-xu) mhoc adnominal circumstantial qualifying ^ew-: 
“Who say”} 

3. enNA NTTAiae ntxyka.-H coycHc m^htc eic-noyonq e- 

TOyXAB MNnTA(|)OC €TTAIHy HTAyRAnejcC N^HTtj (III 94) 

(NB: eToyAxa, €tta.ihy relative present forms (qualifying 

noyoMcj and nTX<f>oc) predicating the statives oyAAB, “which is 
holy”, TAiHy “which is precious”} 

4. eic^HHTe 6e atgitaanh HNKOoye oyoiN^ eaoA. (Orig. 413) 

5. ntyuiA NTAyxooc jeexyaaq nan eic^HHne THpoy TN^Ape^ 

epooy ?athn (III 89) 

{NB: although eic-^HHTe seems to have been generalized for all 
genders/numbers, ^hhng replaces £HHTe here with a 3rd plural 
presented pronoun) 

6. cic-tta .1 ne nupi (III 166) 

7. eicoypcoHe xqei (A I 54) 

8. eicnaccu^H mnnobg him eic nuco^T NTre^eNN* *yo> nkoa- 
acic NU^aene^ (Ch. 171) 

(b) 

1. *f*MoicMeic mmoi eic-^eNpoMne (IV-172) — 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 71 

{NB: -fMOKMCK present form (section 15.1) “I have been con¬ 
sidering, pondering'*) 

2. eic-^oyo ece Nponne *t*<oc 9 2 NNeyA.rreA.ioN (P 130.5 79 I) 

{NB: present "I have been reading** 

3. eic-q>OMTe NpoMne *t*NHy ei^iNe (Ch. 173) 

{NB: *f*NHy present, predicating a stative (section 16.1): “I have 
been going**; eic^iNe circumstantial present (section 15.1.1) "1 
searching**) 



UNIT (IV): THE DURATIVE (“BIPARTITE”) CONJUGATION 

(sections 15-18) 


. • 



• I 


. . Vt % * \ s *. j i : 

15.1-'The' present: durative infinitive rhenie: personal pronoun, Proper 

w 

Name, demonstrative or definite nominal theme-actor 

15.1.1 Conversions 

15.2 The existential prfsent: durative infinitive rheme, an indefinite 
nominal (indef. or zero-determinated) or pronominal theme-actor 

15.2.1 Conversions 


16.1 The present: stative verbal rheme, personal pronoun. Proper 
Name, demonstrative or definite nominal themc-aclor 

16.1.1 Conversions 


16.2 The existential present: stative verbal predicate, an indefinite 
nominal (indef. or zero-determinated) or pronominal theme-actor 

16.2.1 Conversions 


17.1 The present-based FUTURE: personal pronoun, Proper Name, 
demonstrative or definite nominal theme-actor 


17.1.1 Conversions 

17.2 The existential present-BASED FUTURE, an indefinite nominal 
(indef. or zero-determinated) or pronominal actor 

17.2.1 ' Conversions 


(*) 18. Assorted durative examples: stative r.v. infinitive. The stern- 
jernstedt rule (direct object of the durative infinitive). 


15-19 


THE DURATIVE (“BIPARTITE”) CONJUGATION (Table F) 


This present-tense conjugation pattern combines a Proper Name, 
definite noun, demonstrative or personal pronoun (/;rc//.v-pronoun. 
Table A 5b) as theme (subject) and actor, with a situational verbal 
rheme (predicate): the durative infinitive (15), e.g. “in the action or 

course of hearing” (ef. English “writing” as in “He is writing”); or with 

the stative (16), a special form expressing (for transitive verbs) passive 

■ 

state (cf. “broken”, “written” as in “It is written”). For intransitives 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


73 


(e.g. verbs denoting movement, posture, condition or quality), the 
stalive conveys the condition of being in action or stale (“I am coming", 
“The boy is thirsty”) and replaces the durative infinitive as the normal 
rheme in the durative conjugation. A certain stative (na, “being in the 
course of going”) is used as auxiliary with the lexical infinitive, forming 

a compound future (17). An adverb is a third word-class predicated in 

\ 

the durative conjugation (19): “I am here”, “God is in this house”. 
Like another major non-verbal clause pattern, namely the Nominal 
Sentence, the durative conjugation is negatived by (n-).an, en¬ 

veloping the negatived clause. 

In the case of indefinite actor nouns and pronouns, the durative 
conjugation is combined with the existential (affirmative) oyN- or 
(negative), (m)mn- constituting existential durative predications. 

Bibliography: 

Stern, parr. 366, 371, Steindorff parr. 311-312, 316-317, 418; Till parr. 251 - 
252, Vergote par. 158; Lambdin par. 24.2; Polotsky, “Conjugation System" 
parr. 5-9, 19-24, 28-29 

15.1 THE PRESENT: DURATIVE INFINITIVE RHEME, personal 

pronoun, proper name, demonstrative or definite nominal theme-actor 
(Table FI) 

Negation : n- ... an or ... an 

NB (the so-called stern-jernstfdt rule): 

The definite, indefinite or pronominal direct object of the durative 
infinitive is normally introduced by the preposition n-/mmo- and not 
attached directly to prenominal (construct) or pronominal forms of the 
infinitive (Tmg M-nNoyTe “1 love God” *t* Me MMo-q “I love him"). 
The verb “want, desire” is a unique exception (“I want them", ToyAcy - 
oy). On the other hand, zero-article objects are as a rule attached to the 
prenominal form: qoyeM-Aq “He eats meat”. 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 490, 492,494; Steindorff parr. 31 1-312, 316-317, 392; Till parr. 2, 
258-261; Vkrgote parr. 118(1), 186; Lambdin parr. 18.1, 24.2, 26.1; Polotsky, 
“Conjugation System” parr. 5-9. 19-24; Young, “Present I”; *Shisha-Halevy, 
Chapter 3 

1. T N ^Y rA P -xe-TeTNoyecy-Moo<ye (Ch. 125) 

[OBS. -oyecyMoocye the direct object (of oytu<y) is here the 

infinitive Moocye] 




74, 

i 


FIRST PART 


2. CGCooyn rAp Jte-ArAeoN nim noyq hg (III 72) 

[OBS. Note the plural treatment of the noun syntagm with him] 

3. cepujA CGoycuM ceccu (IV 22) 

[OBS. Note the asyndetic (conjunction-less) coordination, common 
in cases of enumeration] 

4. ICTeupn HHGTGHOyK. ah hg (Ch. 41) 

5. T 6 UJI-OGIK. HGM £HTMAq>G AyO) TGOyiDH (III 202) 

[OBS. Note the zero-determinated object, which enters the im¬ 
mediate direct-object construction in the present] 

• 

6 . HTCpiJCI HHGKC^Af UJopTT MGN THqjn-£MOT HTM-TTHOyTG 

jce-CGMOKMGK G^GHTTGeooy G^oyw Gpoi (Wess. 9 103) 

{NB: ^Nneeooy nominalized relative (n€T-, section 31.1.1) 
with the indefinite article: “(thing)s that are evil”) 

7. oyArAeoc ttg nwoyTG Aya> neqxc cjmg HHcqdiA (|hoctc 

AG MTTHOB 6 (IV 1) 

8. •fcuu; ^HHeyArrexioH gtoyaab MTTGioyocicy T«pq gic- 

^oyo 6 C 6 MpOMITG AyCU 't'eyAA€ H^HTOy Gic^oyo G^MG- 

cyoHTG (III 218) 

{NB: gtoyaab relative present predicating the stative; “which is 
holy] 

9. TG*t* H£TH G TIGHT AFT Al AOOq (A l 120) 

10. Tc oh pcuu^G epooy (Ch. 39) 

11. TGcooyN N'f*-q;i enoyujAHA- mhtoymgxgth ... TepnosG 

^cucuq AAN 9 I MNOyHHTAT -*f'- CO ^HOyMHTAT^OTG HT 6 TT- 

AOGIC (III 202) 

12. 'fajITIG GCpAJCG AG-H-f-GipG HHOC AH (Ch. 116) 

13. tghay Gpooy Aycu hahg htgcooyh ah mmooy (Z 186 257) 

14. MHHCA-HAI 'f’GTTIKAAGI MTTHOyTG MMHTpG GJCHTA^yXH AG- 

H-fjCI-dOA AH (P 130.4 8 92) 

15. N’fCOOyN MMOK AH ACHTK-HIM (P 130.4 88 TO) 

16. GTBGOy HTNp^OTG AH (IV 21) 

17 . AHOH THCOOyH AH HAAAy (Ch. 68) 

18. MTTtpHpG pAAAy AH 6AH*TTGICUT (A II 519) 

19. G^JCG-NBAA HTTHOyTG OOHiJT £MMA HIM GAN-NGT^OOy 

HHHGTHAHOyOy HXQ) HTOq N£6 N(j6(U(^T AH GAHHIHOd 

HcyToprp (Ch. 96) 

(NB: HGT^ooy, NGTHANoyoy: determinated relative forms (pre¬ 
sent and Adjective Verb respectively): “these that are evil”, “these 
that are good”} 



THE FORM A L- FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


75 


20. Ncycye an eojAH*. enexc .xeNToq ^cucuq qujAHA (Wess. 9 

143) 

{NB: n- ... an negatives cpqje, originally cu>e: “it is (not) fitting, 
right”} 

2). NTccucp an JteeAH NoyoN nim action e^oyN (Ill 192) 

{NB: rhetorical question: “Don’t you ...?} 

22. qxcu rAp MMOC 2MTT€yArreA.ION nkataicu^annhc jce-qi 

NN6TNSAA. 6£pAI NTCTNNAy CNCXCUpA JCG-HAH AyoyBAU; 

eo^coy (III 58) 

23. nA.oroc Ayco tme AupAgoM (III 193) 

24. nqpAJce mok^ an cnoci MMoq (III 197) 


15.1. THE DURATIVE INFINITIVE PREDICATION CONVERTED 
(see Tables FI, G): 

(a) Circumstantial e-: eqccuTM / cpenpcuMC ccutm 

Negatived c(N)qccuTM an / eMnptuMe ccutm an, epenpcuMe 

CCUTM AN 

“He/the man (not) hearing” (also adnominal; 27-30) 

(b) Relative ct- ctc-: ctccutm (cT(q)ccuTM ...) / cTcpcnpcuMe 

ccutm ... 

Negatived e .tccutm an (eTCNqccuTM an ...) / eTCMnpcuMe 

CCUTM AN ...» CTCpenpCUMC CCUTM AN ... 

“who is (not) hearing” “whom (he/you/the man) is/arc (not) 
hearing” (3|-33) 

(c) Second Tense (Second Present) e-: eqccuTM / epenpcune 

CCUTM 

Negatived (n) eqccuTM ... an / (N)epenpcuMe ccutm ...an 

“(It is) (not) ... that hc/thc man is hearing” (34-38) 

(d) Preterite nc-: NeqccuTM (...ne) / NepenpcuMe ccutm (... rve) 

Negativedneq ccutm an (...ne) / NepenpcuMe ccutm an 

(...ne) 

, “He/the man was (not) hearing”; also in hypothetical (remote) 
condition (39-41) 

NB: (1) Following the converters, the pronominal themes are not prefix- 

pronouns as in the basic (unconverted) present, but suffix pronouns 
(Table A5b) 

(2) With the 2nd sgl. fern, pronoun (i.e. zero), the converters have 
the same form as with a nominal theme: ep€, eTepe-, epe-, Nep6- or 
(for the relative) a Special form ct6-. _ 


76 


FIRST PART 


(3) Relative, 1st sgl e*f*- ** gt-i- (not *ct- + *)•-!): sec (I). 

(4) Note the two forms of the negatived relative (according to the 
negativer: n-...an or ...an): GTGNqccDTH an gtccoth an / 
eTCMnpa)H6 ccoth an, CTepcnpconc ccoth an. Similarly 
(circumstantial, prenominal): ewnpeone ccoth an. epenpeone 

COJTH AN 

(5) Note the difference between the circumstantial negatived present: 

6-N-q-CCDTM an / e- h- Tip to me CCOTH AN 

and the negatived Second Present: N-c-q-ccoTH an / N-epe-npcoMe 

CCOTH AN 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 373, 391, 416-417, 428-429; Stwndorff parr. 329, 376, 459-460, 
462, 466; Till parr. 317, 329, 465-466, 470-471, 473; Vcrgott. parr. 163(1), 
164(1), 165(1), 166(1,3,4), 167(1,2,4); Polotsky. ‘'Conjugation System" parr. 
10-18, * Nom. Transposition parr. II, 13-14; * funk, “Qualilativ” 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. wnpccoTH NToq cpoi eijccu nnai (Ch. 102) 

• {NB: NToq particle, not personal pronoun or augens} 

2. '|*ccoth c^oine eyAupA^oM Ayco 'f'NAy e^cNKooye eypiwe 

(Ch. 201) 

3. ceccdne ticcoq nPinaaimonion GNqcooyN an (RE 10 164) 

4*. tpAyqjcocoT gboa eyKco MneNCNoq e^pAi gjccon (Ch. 90) 

5. ainay eypAcoy epeNiM hn-nih ujcda MMooy 2PAI £N2cob 
NIH HTTONHpON (IV 125) 

{NB: ey- = e-oy-, not circumstantial converter but prepositional 
phrase) 

6. AqcpcoAG NMMAt eqoytucy cpsoA (III 39) 

7. MnpdN-Apiice gijcco nak ntmg (Ch. 103) 

8. kan gynkotk cpcnoyoGiN atepo 2 MT 1 H 1 qjAyKOToy GfTA- 

2oy (IV 25) 

9. • <|)ApCMGAGTA GpGHOOUJG GniCA HNfTAI (HI 203) 

{NB: 2nd sgl. fern, actor) 

10. ceneiee mnitai Ayco cecyntpoNGi NHHAq2N2<OB nih nata- 
oon GNcecoiT mho(j an 2 <a>c-ujhho epooy (III I3S) 

11. oyNTC-TGUOyCIA GKCONC H GTHKCDNC CyKeAGye NAC AN 

(IV 13) 

12. TTGJtniO NNUJAAC NTAIAQHKH NBppG GpGTTJCOGIC AO) HHOC 

ace... (Ill 65) 



TIIE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


77 


13. Nee eTeqjANNAy epooy ^nngnbaa ey^Mooc ^a^thn eyne- 
TiNoei epeNeypMeiooye upoyo enecHT (III 149) 

{NB: pneiooye plural of pMeiH} 

(b) Relative: 

1. tt^cub e+p^cus epoq ^mttahi (IV 163) 

2. TIMA eTOy0U>U?T €BO A ^HT<j (III I 15) 

3. Ne^BHye.NCiuje eTeeipe MMooy ^wmcAxe (III 200) 

{NB: ere- a variant form of eTepe- with the 2nd sgl. fcm. zero 
pronoun} 

4. NereNceq^Hcye an N^eNxeNoyre (Ch. 109) 

5. Npu>M€ eTeNcepqjAy an exMNTepo NMrtHye cepujAy M?l- 
KCU^T NTre^GNNA (Ch. 113) 

6. NeToyeoj-pwoBe MNN€Toyeu;-eipe an (Ch. 67) 

7. rrpcuMC eT*f eMHce ...tmhcc €T<j6a>upT cboa ^htc (III 65) 

8. N€KK6MNTAC€BHC €TNpXpiA AN RXOOy OyA OyA (Ch. 34) 

9. noytuuj mttonhpon erepeNAAiMtoN Me MMoq (Ch. 74) 

10. coyN-NeTepenexc cyAJte n^htoy ^Y 0 * eycyAJte annexe 

MNN€T<yAJC€ €BOA ^nAUBOAOC AyCU epeTTAIABOAOC 

ajixe cboa n^htoy (Wess. 9 142) 

{NB: the circumstantial "carries on" the relative conversion} 

11. Nu;A-xe THpoy €T€c<utm epooy (A I 157) 

{NB: €Te-: relative converter with a 2nd sgl. fcm. actor pronoun} 

(c) Second Present: 

1. eyajcucuT mmoo y nnaaimonion (A I 380) 

{NB: the preposition n- ("to") put in focus by the Second Present: 
"It is to... that..."} 

2. MH N6NCUUJ AN NNirpA<)»H NoyiDT (A I 183) 

{NB: the preposition n- (/mmo-), the direct object mark, pul in 
focus by the Second Present; a rhetorical question} 

3. epeNpcuMe p^OTe an ^htoy NNeqNAAJce aaaa ^htc NTeq- 
matoy (Ch. 30) 

{NB: 2 ht- n- put in focus} 

4. nai MNNiKooye eyocu) MMooy ctihhth Ay to ctbhhtoy *n 

(Ch. 91) 

{NB: erse- put in focus) 

5. eysACANize epooy enJciNJCH an (A II 312) 

{NB: enjtiNJtH put in focus, and negated by an) 



78 


FIRST PART 


(d) Preterite: 

1. N€IMOKM€K TAP ^pAI N^HT X€- OY*T<50M n€ (III 39) 

2. neiju* cyojtNe nai mayaat ace- nnau^ tone onnckanaa- 
AON NNAI HTeiHINe (III 147) 

{NB: mayaat 1st sgl. suffix -t following the final double vowel 
(indicating a laryngal consonant) of the rcinforcer (augens) may* 
aa»-; nna- 1st sgl. form of the negative optative) 

3. NeqpnMeeye Mneqeiaio mmin mmoc] (III 95) 

4. icaak N€qTO)#2 mraocic ne eqoyox^ eTpe^eNujHpe 
cycune NAq esox ^N-^peaexitA (IV 27) 

5. Necctuoe h ecpAu^e (A I 53) 

{NB: the circumstantial "carrying on" the preterite conversion) 

6. €NeT€THCOOYH NNeppCOOy NGTeTNAp^OTe ^HTOy ne 

(III 88) 

{NB: this is an instance of the hypothetical use of the preterite 
converter (section 41): a remote-hypothetical (irrealis) supposition 
and its result clause, n€T€tna-, the past future (“you would not be 
afraid’*)) 


15.2 THE EXISTENTIAL PRESENT: durativc infinitive rheme, in¬ 
definite (indef. or zero-article) nominal or pronominal theme-actor 

oym-OY pcoM€/oYA/ptt>M€ ccoTM “A man/someone is hearing" 

\ 

Negative (MjMN-oypcuMe/oYA/ptuMe ccotm “No man/no one is 

hearing" 

■ 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 368; Steindorff par. 312; Till par. 266; Vergote par. 158(1); 
Lamudin par. 158(1); Polotsky, "Conjugation System" parr. 19-21, 35 

1. oyn~?6nmhh<jj€ •f-eooy nan ^iboa (III 199) 

2. oyn^a^ 1*-cbcl) ^itootoy mmin mmooy Ay to ^iTMnatoeic 

AN (III 170) 

[OBS. an negates the adverbial ^itm-: “and not...") 

3. oyN^oiNe ujTopTp hmwtn (Orig. 307) 

4. MNAAAY TAp ^MnCCUNT THpq NTAnNOyTG TAMIOq ty IB€ NT€q- 

<|)YCic eiMHTi enpeune MAyAAq (P 130.4 104 124) 

5. MNppO OY-A6 ApXH MNAAAy NrSNOC NptDMC ApXGI ^NMnHye 

ncattnoytg MAyAAq AYconeqxc rucoeic fime Mimic a? (A 
I 164) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


79 


15.2.1 THE EXISTENTIAL PRESENT: durativc infinitive rheme, 
converted (see Tables Fa, G) 

(a) Circumstantial eoyN-, eyN- / e(M)MN-oYP<UMe/oYA/pu>Me 

ccutm “A man/no man hearing” (also adnominal; 27-30); also 
epeoYptune ccutm 

(b) Relative ctcoyn- / CTCMN-OYpcuMe/oYa/ptuMc ccutm ... 

♦ 

“whom a man/no man is hearing” (31-33); also eTepcoYpeuMe 
ccutm ... 

(d) Preterite neoY**-, n€yn- / NeMN-OYPCUMe/oY*/p<UM€ ccutm 

“A man/no man was hearing”, also in hypothetical (remote) 
condition (39-41); also NepeoYpuuMe ccutm 

Bibliography : 

Till par. 327; Vergote parr. 164(1), 165(1), 166(3,4), 167(2,3); Polotsky. 
“Conjugation System” parr. 33-35 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. oYP<UMe 6<|MOY? cnoY® h NToq coyn^cnkooyc <5cu«jjt 

c^oyn c^paq (III 116) 

(NB: both circumstantial forms arc here adnominal, qualifying 
OYpcuMe; e^paq see e^pn-} 

2. aiei e^pai CYMNTdcua CMNpcuMe cooyn eiMHTt epoK 

MAyAAK. (Wcss. 9 154) 

3. OY T€ i*pHNH N^eNpCUMC NNa.2PM-nNOYTC CpeNCYMNTAKX- 

eapToc ^hit an cncycphy cmhnoyi jcmo noya (Ch. 168f.) 
{NB: 't'pHNH * T-eipHNH; epe-, cmmn- adnominal circumstantial 
present, predicating a stative form (section 16.1.1): “whose acts of 

impurity arc not hidden”) 

■ 

4. tai T6 ee eupacupcune ^*2*2 mma cp &z x Z cjcntmntacc- 

bhc (III 40) 

(b) Relative: 

1. rr^coB eTeoYN^x^ noy-XC MMoq ©ti-a^oy mmooy ctbc^omt 

(Ch. 85) 

2. n© 6 rap ctcoynja^ rto mmooy cboa ^mitkakc enoYoeiN 

K-ATa.ica.ipoc nacycuoY on nOinctkto mmooy cboa. 
noYoem enKue (Young 4) 

{NB: nau;cuoy “There are many”, Adjective Verb (section 22.2)) 

3. neano A€ cboa zmtticut 6TeMriarr€Aoc cooyn MMoq 
(Orig. 810) 



FIRST PART 


(d) Prctcrilc: 

I. 2 AMOI OH €NeMNp(UM€ NTOTK H (IV 180) ' 

{NB: circumstantial preterite, expressing a remote wish (section 
41.2): “would that...”} 


16.1 THE PRESENT: STATIVE RHEME, personal pronoun, proper 
name, demonstrative or definite nominal theme-actor (Table F2; sec 
Table I for the morphology of the slalive form) 

Negation: n- ... an or ... an 

NB: (I) statives of transitive verbs express passive state, and are 
opposed in the durativc present to the duralivc infinitive of the verb 
(section 15): cidttt: cott? “choose” v.f. “chosen”; eipe: o “do, 
make” vs. “done”; tamio: tamihy “create” vs. “created”. However, 
statives of intransitive verbs arc mere replacements (alternants) of the 
infinitive in the durative present: with these verbs (meaning movement, 
posture, quality) the durative infinitive does not occur. Thus, for 
example, the stativc nhy represents in the duralivc present the verb ei 
“comc/go”, tint represents ficut “run”, etc. 

(2) The stativc of 6ipe “do, make”, o, is used with n- + noun 
(mostly zero-article) to express “be in the status/capacity/circumstancc 

r • 

of...”, “have the (non-intrinsic) quality of...” 

Bibliography: 

Sn-RN parr. 348-356; Stihndorff parr. 316-317; Till parr. 251, 257; Vhrgoti: 
par. 158(1); Lambdin parr. 21.2, 22.3, 24.2; Polotsky, “Conjugation System” 
parr. 5-9, 19-22, 24, 28-29 


1. W^COB OYON2 €BOA (III 74) 

2. cec^oYopT (HI 90) 

3. tnhit ep^Hice (Ch. 98) 

4. Te^RAfelT TCOB6 MTT06IK MNTTMOOY (HI 204) 

5. an ox 'foYAAB aycu neqcooYZ g^oyn oy*ab (HI 24) 

6. 'f’NHY e^pAi eNcqdioc xyw tctnnhy 2 <i,TT HY T N (HI 24) 

7. TNpOltJ TFIpN 2MTT6N2HT TNTTHT NCAMMNTN06 (Ch. 127) 

8. neTCtUTM n^euB 2°P?9 NNA 2 pAq (Ch. 116) 

; [OBS. The definite relative ttgt- is here topicalized, i.e. pul outside 

; ‘ * A # .**' ■ 

the main construction as topic or prominent subject; “(as for) him 


# i 


p* 


n 


> 


\ .r 


i ‘ 


, * 


9. MiTGqMeeYe coytcun an 620YN enNOYTe (III 44) 




THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


81 


10. 6 TB 6 OY TTA.I O NAniCTON NNA^pHTN (OHg. 390) 

11. tcickahcia nopi an €tco4>ia oyAe ntco4>ia nop5c AN 
GTeKKAGCI A (III 54) 

12. ntno an MneNJtoeic (Wcss. 9 162) 

13. cco Mneyxoeic ... See tap eNTAypneyxoeic eAyacuK 
6 boa ^itootn ••• ceo on Mneyxoeic c mctanoci jnnMA 

CTOyN^HTq (III 136) 

14. N*fnHT AN^HTOy NNNOMOC (Ch. 95) 

15. MFTeTKJtlU MMOq TOOMe epON AN (Ch. 95) 

{NB: n€T- the definite relative (“that which...”) is here the 
theme-actor of the durative present, negatived by n- ... an) 

16. neqNA ujoori ujAeNe? (Mi 117) 

17. NeyHI M6£ NAFAGON NIM (IV 22) 

18. anok ’fcoujq Ayo> 'f'TdAiHy cmatc (A II 276) 

19. noycou; MnpeoMe qjoyeiT (IV 167) 

20. N€iq>Axe naojt (RE 10 159) 

21. eqjxeoyN-K€K ocmoc Mn^pe mtiai eie-qo nkakc (Orig. 

305) 


16.1.1 THE STATIVE PREDICATION CONVERTED (see Tables 
F2, G): 


(a) Circumstantial: e-: eqcom / epenpeone corn 

Negatived €(n) qcoTn an / eMnpcuMe cott? an, epenptune 

COTT? AN 

“He/the man (not) being chosen” (also adnomina); 27-30) 

(b) Relative €t-, €t€-: ctcotit (eT(q)coTn...) / erepenpeone 

COTTT ... 

Negatived eTCorn an, eTeNqcoTn an / eTennpwMe cottt 

an..., eTepenpcuMc cottt an ... 

“who is (not) chosen” “(...) whom (he/you/the man) is/arc (not) 
chosen” (31-33) 

(c) Second Tense (Second Present) eqcoT?? / epenpeune cottt “(It 

is...) that he/the man is chosen” (34-38) 

Negatived (N)eqcoTn ...an / (N)epenpcuMC cottt ... an 

“(It is) not... that he/the man is chosen” 

(d) Preterite NeqcoT?? (... ns) / Nepenpcone cott? (... ne) 

Negatived NeqcoTn an (... ne) / NeperipcuMe cott? an (... ne) 

v ; “He/the man was (not) chosen”, also in hypothetical (remote) 
: condition (39-41) 



82 


FIRST PART 


NB: (I) Following the converters, the pronominal themes are not prefix- 
pronouns as in the basic (unconverted) present, but sufiix pronouns 
(Table A5a) 

(2) With the 2nd sgl. Tern, pronoun (i.e. zero), the converters have 
the same form as with a nominal theme: epe-, ©Tepe-, epe-, wepc- 
or (for the relative) a special form ere-. 

(3) Relative, 1st sgl e*t*- * ©t-i- (not *©t- + i*-!) (see (I)) 

(4) Note the two forms of the negatived relative (according to the 
negativer: n-... an or .,.an): ©TeNqcoTn an, ©TCOTn an / 

€T€Mnp<oHe cotH an, erepenpcUMe cotH an. Similarly for the 

» 

circumstantial and prcnominal. 

(5) Note the difference between the circumstantial negatived present: 
and the negatived Second Present: e-N-q-co*rn an / e-M-npcuM© 
cottt an and N-e-q-coTri an / N-epe-nptuM© cotS an respec¬ 
tively. 

Bibliography: 

Sthrn parr. 373, 391, 416-417, 428-429; Stf.indorff parr. 329-331, 376, 457, 
462, 466; Till parr. 317, 329, 470-471, 465-466, 473; Vergote parr. 163(1), 
164(1), 165(1), 166(1,3), 167(1,2); Lambdin parr. 19.1, 24.1-2; Polotsky, 
"Conjugation System" parr. 10-18 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. oyNOYNOYTe eqKH ^noyma eNtjoyoN? an ©boa. (Ch. 110) 

_ tt 

2. i*cooyN Noy^toB CNq^Hn an ©ncab©©y (Ch. 33) 

3. c^jccu N^eNq^AJce €ycmont (Orig. 384) 

4. NuJqje an ©au ©boa. ^mitmycthpion epen^HT ne^ nocik 

(Ch. 51) 

5. h oyn6om eNe^ NOYpoune NoytoT MnoNHpoc ©Miutoeic 
qjoon NMHAq an ©Jti-oyNod mmhhuj© n6onc ©perutoeic 

qjoon nmhay ^NNey^BHy© naikaiocynh (111 134) 

(b) Relative: 

1. ttma eTqoyH^ N^HTq (IV 121) 

2. tgcbcu ©Toyoac ncooyN ©tjlhk ©boa. ^cub nih napabon 
t (Wess. 9_I4I) 

3. 'nino6 hhooy ©touj ©tnhy ©boa ^np^k eNr^co an ©NAq- 
Toy 2nt€k<5om THpc (Ch. 29) 

(NB: o<y: see Aq;Ai; NAqToy: sec Niqe} 

4. NpAN eTAoce (Ch. 127) 

5. Tuyxxe ercHz (HI 153) ..._ 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


83 


6. njci n6onc eTepenTcopn ^OTp NMMaq (IV 1) 

i 

7. NeTcpcNeyduc M€^ ceoa n^htoy ayu> epcNeyrHHBe toah 
esoa MMooy aya> eTway op ooy ^NNeyaaa (Wcss. 9 108) 
{NB: the circumstantial, coordinated by aytu, “carries on” the 
relative conversion} 

8. n€TO SaTNa^TC (Orig. 353) 

9. N©€ CTOyO mmoc (Ch. 10) 

{NB: o mmo- is the pronominal construction of o n-} 

10. Tai on re ee ctco NaTNa^Te (A I 446) 

{NB: €T€o: rel. 2nd sgl. fern. + slative} 

(c) Second Present: 

1. NeyNoyTe aN fi€ ic aaaa eyo N^M^aa MnMaMMtuNac (Ch. 
109f.) 

{NB: n- is put in focus: “It is... that 

2. epeioyaac q/oon tcun reNoy (A 11 53) 

{NB: tcun is in focus} 

3. ayjcooc .xe-eq^icaeir (Ch. 81) 

{NB: ^itacir the stativc of ^ko is emphasized (pul in focus)} 

4. eyajose Tenoy epoq ^fioy (A II 540) 

{NB: ^N-oy is in focus} 

5. €<|o Npooyup nay Noynp (III 110) 

{NB: NoyHp is in focus} 

6. epeMOK? Noy hhhac (A I 69) 

{NB: N-oy is in focus} 

(d) Preterite: 

1. N€NMOTN Tie £MnMa CNTaN€l N^HTcj (III 121) 

{NB: Tie often accompanies the preterite conversion, apparently 
marking its clause as background for the adjacent context} 

2. NCycpOOTT ^N^CNTAHeiON cyM€2 NoyociN (III 48) 

_ _ « _ 

3. NpcuMC iicoAOMa MNroMOppa Neyu;aaT aw wax ay ne aaaa 
N^yoyooae ne ayo> NeycnaTaaa ^Snci Mnoenc aycu 

€TB€N€yNOB€ aypOKJOy JNOyqjCNC ^ITMTINOyTC (P 130.2 4 

84) 

4. aqncuT n6i- a cl>t {NMnoatc eNeqoyHj NjHToy ae-NNeq- 
T1KO MNNpCUMe NCOAOMi MNrOMOppA (III 169) 

{NB: 6Ne<|«: relative preterite (qualifying Mnoaic)} 

5. Te^yxH eTNeco Nancapnoc Noyoeiqt (IV 186) 

{NB: cTNec- relative preterite (qualifying Te'pyxH)} 

6. Nepeneqpo oyHN Noyon him (Ch. 194) 



84 


FIRST PART 


16.2 THE EXISTENTIAL PRESENT: STATIVE RHEME, indefinite 

(indef. or zero article) nominal or pronominal theme-actor: 

oyN- oyptoMe/oyA/pcuMC cotit *‘A man/someone is chosen” 
MN-oypcoHe/oyA. pcone corn “No man/no one is chosen” 

For Bibliography, sec section 15.2 

1. oyHK€€NTH6 cyoon cq^ooy cmatc (A I 244f.) 

2. Mil oyNAAAy h^cub h oyNAAAy NcyAJte cpcuTN (III 140) 

3. mmnmnt^m^aa epoon (A I 263) 

_ _ • _ _ 

4. MNAAAy MEN N£OJO £Opqj NNA^pN- NETME MMO(| (III 27) 

5. mn 2°°Y oyAAB nApAjooy Ayco ^ooy eq-xoce nApA^ooy 

(III 95) 

[OBS. Note the combination of an existential present (MN^ooy 
oyaab) with an affirmation of existence with the exislant qualified 
by an adnotninal circumstantial fcooy eqatoce)] 

6. oyN^oiNe o natnoytc (III 41) 

7. oyNMNTCHOoyc NcyArrcAioN <poon (Wess. 9 143) 

8. MN^COB NTCIMINC TOOME epON ANON NGXpiCTIANOC (WcSS. 9 

122 ) 

9. ^MITMA Ae eTNdcOUpT EBOA ^HTCJ MNpOJMC AOCE CTBCpAN 

2 >* CXHMA (IV 4) 


16.2.1 THE EXISTENTIAL PRESENT: STATIVE RHEME, CON¬ 
VERTED (see Tables E, G): 

4 

(a) Circumstantial eoyN-, €YN-/c(M)MN-oyptuMe/pu)Me cotH 

“A man/no man being chosen” (also adnominal; 27-30); also 
epeoypcoHC co-rn 

(b) Relative eTeoyN-eTeHN-oypcuHe coTn... ”(...) whom a 

man/no man is chosen” (31-33); also CTepcoypcDMe coth... 

(c) Preterite ncmn- oypcuMe corn “A man/no man was chosen”, 

also in hypothetical (remote) condition (39-41); also Nepeoy- 
pu>Me corn 

For Bibliography, sec section 15.2.1 
(a) Circumstantial: 

1. 2Enma ... Eoyw^eNNoO HMHHcye cooy^ n^htoy (IV 68) 

2. OyN^ENMINC ON NUJHN (jJOOTT CMNCOypC pHT CBOA ^ICUOy 

epcncyKApnoc cotH chatc Ayu>. eqiuajoy (P 131.6 90 ro) 


I 

\ 

\ 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


85 


{NB: Kicuoy stativc corresponding to the infinitive knnc) 

3. ^CDC €<4>JCe*€IO Npe<JKATA<f>PONei CMMNMAy N^CUB NTCI^e 

ujoon ^pAi n^ht (III 150) 

(NB: k?ht: the post-consonantal 1st sgl suffix -t is zeroed follow¬ 
ing the final t of n^mt**, the pronominal form of ^n-} 

4. AqjttUTe e^oyn ^fipcuoy HHeuonoc a.xn- cyme epeKeoyA 
oyH^. NC<uq (III 38) 

(b) Relative: 

1. itma CTeoyNoyMHHcyc cooyj epoq (Ch. 159) 

2. npxN €T€HNKepxH choj epoq (A I 391) 

3. n€T6MNOji q;oon NTeqMNTArAeoc (RE 10 161) 

4. nnoyTe eTeMNAAAy o nat6om NNA?pAq (A I 382) 

(c) Second Tense: 

I. (not shenoute) eTeMNqjeepe tyoon gboa ^nnckcnhy Aycu 
esoA ^mitaaoc THpcj (Judges 14:3) 

{NB: The Second Tense used in a rhetorical question: “It is 
that...?”} 

(d) Preterite: 

I. eN€MNoyit€pAYNoc tap tint Nccuq eqorq CBOA ... (Z 461) 
{NB: This is the circumstantial preterite as a hypothetical remote 
condition, sec section 41.1) 

17.1 THE PRESENT-BASED FUTURE (Table F3): personal pronoun, 

proper name, demonstrative or definite nominal theme-actor: 

q-/npCUM€ NACCUTM 

negatived (N)q-/(M)npu>Me naccdtm an 

The Coptic future is present-based, predicating the stative na (“in the 
course of going*') followed by the infinitive; compare English “I am 
going to...*’, the French futur proche and similar periphrastic future 
forms. 

NB: The second person plural form of the future is t6tnacu>tm (only 
one n, common to the prefix pronoun and the future characteristic -na-) 

Bibliography : 

Stern parr. 367, 379; Stejndorff parr. 318-320; Till par. 252; Vergote par. 
158(2); Lambdin parr. 18.2, 19.1; Polotsky, “Conjugation System” parr. 5-9, 
19-22, 25, 28-29; Wilson, Chapters 7-10; 



86 


FIRST PART 


1. KNA^CUM H TeTNA^CDM €AMneyHlK2 (A I 131) 

2. TI6Y2HT NAKMOM NO€ NOyTpip ... AytD TCY'pY XH NAKpOMpM 

Nee N^eNJtinec (IV 48 f.) 

3. eqjxe- AyncuT nccjdci ceNAntuT ncathytn equate- ay^a- 

pe^ enAcpAJte ceNA^Ape^ on enaiTN (IV 35) 

4. -fNAcenctonoY (Wess. 9 165) 

■ 

5. CeNAHepiTK ^ITMTTNOyTe MNNpCUMe (IV 41) 

6. TNNAJCl-2 xn NMMAK HFieHTO 6BOA M17NOyT€ (III 121) 

7. ^no nIVi na£Ao<$ (IV 86) 

8. neKeiWT Aycu Teg maa y ntayjcitok katacaps NAqiric 

^iNeyNA^i (IV 82) 

[OBS. Note Ihc prosodic difference between ihc nominal and ihc 
pronominal thcmcs-actors (in the duralivc as well as base conjuga¬ 
tion): the former may be separated from its rheme by various 
expansions (or by particles), the latter may not, being in close 
juncture with the rheme] 

9. N-f-NAKAAK CBOA AN AAAA 'f'NAMIty6 OyBHK N^OyO (111 38) 

10. N'fNANKOTK c6a.O<J AN q)AN*f*MOy (IV 19) 

11. MTTABAA NA*fCO AN €pOOy (III 198) 

12. NcjNA^HdoH epoN an (P 130.5 50 220) 

13. TTNOYT6 TAP NAKApCDq AN (HI 97) 

14. eTBeoy nFna€i an enAinNOH ntok Ayco ntoc eTseoy 

NCNACI AN NMMAK enAinNON AyCU nApiCTON Mnexc (IV 38) 

f ___ 

15. eTBeoy Necooy NACoyS-ne^p’ooy an Mnu;u)c NcencuT 
epATq (Cli. 83) 

16. ^eNpcoMe eyNKOTK an ccnaccdtm ^NoydenH eNeTMoyTe 
epooy 

17. TeNACoycuNoy (III 191) 

18. eN6-N€iiceec nacdn? (A I 369) 

(NB eN€-: prefix marking interrogation) 


17.1.1 THE PRESENT-BASED FUTURE CONVERTED (Tables 
F3, G): 

(a) Circumstantial e-: eqNAc cdtm / epenpcuMC naccdtm “He/the 

man being about to hear** (also adnominal; 27-30) 

Negatived e(N)qNAC<i>TM an / eMirpcDMe naccdtm an, 

epenpcuMe naccdtm an 

(b) Relative et- eTe-: €tnaccdtm “who is about to hear” €T(q)NA- 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


87 

ccutm ... / eTepenpcuMc maciuth... “whom hc/you/the man 
is/arc about to hear” (31-33) 

Negatived €tnaccdtm an (eTCNqNAccuTM aw) / eTGMnpcuMe 

NACCUTM AN..., eTepCTTpCoMeNACCUTM AN ... 

(c) Second Tense (Second Future) e-: eqNACcuTM / epenpcuMe 

naccutm “(It is...) that he/the man is about to hear” (34-38) 

M»gariv<?d(N) eqNACCUTM ... an/ (N)epenpu>Me naccutm ... xh 

The Second Future is also used following the conjunction ace as 
consecutive and final clause (clause of result and purpose: "so 

that...”, "in order to ...”); acka(a)c with eqNA-, also expressing 

purpose, probably governs the circumstantial, not Second Future. 
See texts 5-9 under (c) below. 

(d) Preterite (Past Future) Ne-: NeqNAccuTM / NepenpcuMe 

naccutm “He/the man was about to hear/ would hear/ would 
have heard” (39-41): the Past Future is used especially to express 
remote or hypothetical result (“irrealis” apodosis, 41.3) and remote 
wish (41.2) 

Negatived tteqnxctDTH xh (... tie) / NepenpcuMe naccutm an 
(... ne) 

NB: note the two forms of the circumstantial and relative future, 
according to the negativer (it-... an or ...an): ereNqNACcoTM an, 

6TNACCUTM AN / eTCMtipCOMe NACCUTM AN, €TepenptUM€ 

naccutm an; similarly (circumstantial, prenominal) eMnpeuMe na¬ 
ccutm an, epenpeune naccutm an. 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 382, 418-419; Stbnoorff parr. 333, 440; Till parr. 318, 360-361 ; 
VEROOTEparr. 163(2), 164(2), 165(2), 166(1,3), 167(1,2,4), 180(1); Lambdin par. 

25.1(b), Polotsky, "Conjugation System” parr. 10-18 

■ 

• ’ . 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. kcmamaat GKNAJUToy e^oyN eneitpAqje Aycu e^oyN 
eT6KMNT6pO eKNA’f* MTON HIM NAy (RE 10 161) 

2. oyNoyKAipoc nny epennoyTe ... nao ye^- ca^nc (A I 13) 
[OBS. The circumstantial specifies here an expression of time 
(oyKAipoc)] 

3. geNKenoNHpoN NTNNAqiJcooy THpoy (Ch. 52) 

(NB: ntnna- » 6NTNNA-, the circumstantial converter zeroed 

before a syllabic nasal (n)} 




88 


FIRST PART 


4. ITApAneTMC NJlMC NATUpAy NTAqntUT GBOA Hneq- 

atoeic GHTNAcyn cut an Ayu> gnFnau^^cutt an epoq (Ch. 32) 

(b) Relative: 

1. £<JD8 NIM MTIONHpON eTqNAtfNTOy ^SneqMA eq€TAM€-n^AAO 

epooy (IV 58) 

[OBS. ^iub nim lopicatizcd (pul forwards as a prominent subject): 
“(As for..., ...”; so too ngtnag ipe in the next text] 

2. monon NeTNAeipe NNe^BHye Mirp an ceNio;cune mmaka- 

pioc mmay (IV 4) 

3. CNATOUM *N()I- TATAIipO ^Mne^OOy €Tep€TAnpO NIM NA- 

TCOM (III 138) 

4. tt^an erepenacoeic To harping nnai ntgiming N^HTq (Mun. 
99) 

5. TTGTGNqNACBBG AN NTCApS NTGqAKpOByCTI A (III 154) 

6. NTAMION ON €TqNAOyON£(j GBOA NJHTOy CGNAp^Oye-j»Oy- 

OGIN NGTqNA^OFTq AG N^HTOy CGNAp^OyG- j»K AKG (IV 19) 

{NB: -p^oye- a lexeme premodifier: “do rather...”} 

7. ^ArTc ne Grpc- ngtknatgti-T ey*f*ne Ten-TU)ic (Ch. 27) 

8. neTNAoycuup cMoyoyT noyapakcon eu^AqpA^rq GTeqAne 

(Ch. 73) 

{NB: e up Aq- Second Aorist, by which eTeqAne is emphasized 
(put in focus): “It is... that...”} 

9. n.xoeic gtna'|*2 att enccuNT T«pq ^wne^ooy GrqNAicp ing 

_ i 4 

NMneeHn MnoyA noyA mmon (III 165) 

{NB: NMneenn: ii- (direct object marking preposition) + n- 
(plural def. article, assimilated to m- + definite relative present 
predicating the stalive 2 »n} 

(c) Second Future: 

1. epcyANne^Moy ag baabg eyNAMOA^q £Noy (P 130.5 61 35) 

{NB: y in focus} 

2. errtA.xe-nqpA.xe 2 Noyuptuu>T gboa (HI 70) 

{NB: 2 Noy- in focus} 

3. eyNApney2An mnnim h eyNA*f2* n cnim gtbhhtoy (III 98) 
{NB: mm*, e- in focus} 

4. epen 2 oq NAUp 2 €AMooy qpATcuN (Ch. 28) 

{NB: up a- in focus} 

5. MnqccuTM ncaTc JteepeTc nacojtm Ncuiq (Ch. 199) 

{NB: A.e-epe-...NA- consecutive: “so that...”} 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 89 

6. Jk.pANtyjk.Jce Mn-xoeic an we nai jcc-na TApoyNA nhtn *f 

TApoy't* nhtn jcckac HeT’f cyNAJci MnecMoy (Ch. 199 * Lc. 

6:38) 

(NB: JceKxc final “in order that../*} 

7. NiceMApTypoc eNTAynu>2T csoa MneycNoq JteeKNA*t*M- 

TON NAY JMnTOH NABpA^AM MNICAAK. MNIAKCOB (IV 22f.) 

(NB: Jce-eKNA- final} 

8. ANONNIH H 2^NOy N6 NeNU)» .XG6qNATp€NIMHH<y C COyU)- 

nn Ayo> MepiTN Njoyo (III 107) 

9. ntok Ae 2 u>u>ic neNcoN tn^cun ctootk crpeiCAnoTACce 

MITCK.HI £AOH H^CUB HIM MNOyAH HneiKOCMOC Jk.CK.AC 

€KNAdNee nccoth enxoroc MiTNoyTe ^Noycpqe (III 99) 

(d) Past Future 

1. eNeNcjcMoy epoc an (i.e. the well) NecNApeotye epooy an 
eTpeyce-Mooy (III 70) 

2. (Had they known the things in our heart,) NeyNAAAy mfiatnta- 
Mooy epooy (III 108) 

3. eNeqcooyN .xe-NeNTAqrAAy e^pAi epcoq ceNAMooyrq 
NeqNAOMKoy an ne (RE 10 164) 

4. eNepenNoyre nau/aac nmmc ziamtika^ TeNoy (Ill 203) 
{NB: eNepe- Second Tense (Second Preterite Future), putting 

^LXMTTicA^ T€Noy in focus} 

5. jamoi om m *m€ NeyNA'f’Aoroc ^Apooy n6in€iatccutm 
€tmmay (Mun. MO) 


17.2 THE EXISTENTIAL PRESENT-BASED FUTURE: indefinite 

(indef. or zero article) nominal or pronominal theme-actor 

oyN'OYpcoMe/oyA/pcoMe naccutm “A man/someone is going to 
hear** 

MN-oypa>Me/oyA/pa>He naccutm “No man/no one is going to 
hear” 

For Bibliography see section 15.2 

1. oyN^A? NAtyiNc nca-bcdk e^oyN (Leyd. 332) 

2. h oySpcune nackai-oyka? epeneq^o nooNe h kthy 
enA^oy (A II 24) 

{NB: a rhetorical question} 

3. mmnaaay NpcuMe NAwoy (Wess. 9 133) 



FIRST PART 


90 

4. 'feme rap jcg-hnhnthc NAtyturie x tuple- u;i hhc (IV 172) 

5. oynaraeoN nim Nxcyume Naq (IV 188) 

6. MHpcuMe NaeiMc (Wcss. 9 141) 

7. etyate-npnMeeye rap wnNoyTe waxMa^Te aw MnpcuMe 

CTHpNOBe mmnxnxu; on NXXMX2Te HMOq (III 16f.) 

8 . MN^eNMXxy Sajay naxMexei enap^iCTX NNeyu^eepe ^ntb- 
bo nim (Ch. 169) 

9. MripaN oyae cxhma NatysoHeet epon (IV 3) 

10. oyNoy^xn Nxupame £I.xm- neeycixcTHpioN (A I 78) 

!!. HNoypajHe NJiae-TM^ ^Nxeqcocu (Wcss. 9 97 ) 


17.2.1 JHE EXISTENTIAL PRESENT-BASED FUTURE, CON¬ 
VERTED 

(a) Circumstantial eoyN-/eMN-oypa>Me nxccdtm “A man/no man 

being about to hear” (also adnominal; 27-30); also epeoyptoMe 

NaCtUTM 

(b) Relative 6TeoyN-/€T€MN-oyptt>M€ nxccdtm... **(...) whom a 

man/no man is about to hear" (31-33); also CTepcoyptuMe 

NXCCDTM ... 

(c) Second Tense epeoypcDMe nxccdtm “(It is...) that a man/ 

someone is about to hear” (34-38) 

(d) Preterite n€Oym-/nchn- oypcuHe nxccdtm “A man/no man was 

about to hear” (39-41) 

I 

For Bibliography, see section 15.2.1 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. oypo re eoyN^x^ nxbo>ic e^oyN encoN^ cboa ^itootc (III 
60) 

2. ^cnciotc eoyNjeNptDMe mitictoc NaMe NXzynoMeiNe ^nt- 

cyNarcurH HnJtoeic eTBennoyre xycD CTBenoycua) ctc- 
oyNTayq e^oyN eneyeiOTe (III 172) 

3. oyeny eoyN^eNMHHcye eNxtytuoy naeipe n^cmnoG nnobc 
2PXI N£HT€ (III 206) 

{NB: eNxtycuoy circumstantial of the Adjective Verb NX<ytD<«q 

‘‘(He) is numerous” (section 22.2, 22.5), adnominal (qualifying 

£€NMHH<j;e)} 

(b) Relative: 

1. riMa eTCMNNa nx up tune mmxy nujxnmoy ^NNeNMNTXceBHC 
(RE 10 164) “ 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


9 ) 


(NB: NcyAN- = cnu;an- (Conditional)} 

2. N66 CT6MNALAY M^HTH NAUJ<5u> enAJOy 6TMKUK €nCO)OY2 
MTINAY MTTCqfAHA ... TAI ON T€ ©€ 6T6MMNAAAY 2P* 1 n^htn 

NAcyp^Ae mttnay 6tnnataao e^pAi NT6npOC<|>Op A (IV 66) 
(NB: p-^Ae “be last*’} 

3. iiee eTCMNpeqjci n6onc m nopNoc h pequjMtpe-euuoAoN 

H HOC IK H MAAAKOC ... NAKAHpONOMCI NTMNTCpO MFINOYT6 
TAI ON T6 OC GT6MNMAITO N^OyO H pcqTCUpiT NAKAHpONO- 

mci NTHNTepo mitnoytc (III 192f.) 

(c) Second Future: 

I. epeoY^ nau^jcooc on xe-oy (III 72) 

{NB: xc-, following a verb of saying, is obligatory; the interroga¬ 
tive o y is in effect the direct object of jcto} 

(d) Preterite (Past Future): 

I. N€MNpU)M€ NAqpAMA£T€ MMOOy €TMBO>K (IV 84) 

[OBS. Note the double negation] 

(*) 18 ASSORTED DURATIVE EXAMPLES: stativc vs. infinitive, 
the Stern-Jernsteot Rule (definite or personal-pronoun direct object of 
the durative infinitive introduced by n-/mmo*», zero-article object im¬ 
mediately attached to the prenominal form of the infinitive) 

1. NfpeOT€ AN 2OA0UC OyAG N*t*V**pTCOp AN (III 38) 

2. Aq M€N NIM CTHY €BOA AY<U C€MOCT€ MMOOY (HI 45) 

[OBS. Note the use of the passive-equivalent 3rd person plural in 
the absence of a stative (there is no stative correspondent to the 
infinitive Mocre); see OBS. to text 18) 

3. NAtp N2 e neTeNqcpoon an cpAqqpome ay<u nerepoon 
gcucoq cpAqAo equjume (III 224) 

(OBS. ao eq- “cease to in the circumstantial present comple¬ 
menting following a “descriptive verb” (“continue”, “stop”, “have 
already done”), the intransitive infinitive may replace the stative: 
hence eqcpome] 

4. T€TO NOYOCIN ACpKAKG TCT^OaB ACCIOJC TCTONJ ACHOy 

(Ch. 152) 

[OBS. Note here and in text 6 the alternation p- vs. o n- (non- 
durative vs. durative conjugation, respectively), which distinguishes 
the copular or intransitive p- (“be”) from the dcriving-transilivc p- 
“make” (in dur. and non-dur. patterns)] 



92 


FIRST PART 


5 . ety.xe1*NAC0YN-Te2iH Mnj&oet eTp^toT h na^coM ct^ha. 

See ercH^ m tcncoyconoy nto eie-TeNacoYN-NeT^im 
THpoY mttnoytg (III 191) 

6. NGTO n^ht ncung ayP2 ht ncapi NpeqAICOANe (RE 10 163) 

7. ceo MTT6Y<xoeic t€noy ^htiha. 6 toyh 2 ht<| (III 136) 

8. THNrepO NMTTHY® CCCSTtUT MAC NTOC CCCOBTC 

hmoc epoc (Ch. 125) 

{NB: Second Present forms, putting the prepositional phrases in 
focus) 

9. oykoyn qujoon (i.e. Jesus) eMrtATqqjcune gboa. ^MMapia 

(Cat. 41) * . 

10. cepwc ay<u cepoeic (IV 24) 

11. nai rap 2°°Y €Ngikooy€ aycu neiKooY® 2°°Y cnai (IV 
100 ) 

12. qMoou;e n^htoy (said of the moral disease, in the members of 
the body) (IV 20) 

[OBS. For Moou;e and numerous other intransitive verbs, the 
morphological differentiation of infinitive and stative docs not exist] 

13. N6TNNOB€ A^epATOY NT€TNHHT€ MNnNOYT€ (Ch. 91) 

{NB: THHT6 n-... mn-... / TeqHHTe mn-... “between X and Y") 

14. qTAje h aqT^e (IF 77, Diet. 456f.) 

[OBS. Note the opposition of intransitive stative in the durativc 
conjugation vs. intransitive infinitive in the nomdurative; see also 

texts 4, 6, 9, 22] 

15. TAKAeApCIA GTOYCipe HMOC H 6TOyNliXC (IV 48f.) 

[OBS. Note the opposition of the immediate object construction 

(aac)^in the non-durative infinitive with the mediate construction 
(eipe hmoc) in the durativc, the verb and object (the 3rd sgl. 
feminine for “it") being equal; similarly in texts 20, 26, 27] 

16. NTOK A€ KpONOC 'fctUUJ MHOK AYUJ ’fJCO) NNAI G^OYN 

epoK (III 77) 

17. qne MHoq eniTe (P 130.2 54 313) 

18. ceoY*<i}q ^iTNN^mce cghg MHoq ^iTNNiteppuiOY mmai- 

noytg (Ch. 106) 

{NB: The combination of a 3rd person plural pronominal actor, 
direct object and gboa. 2 Itn-/ 2 itoot«* “by..." expresses in 
Coptic the equivalent of the passive voice. Thus, for “he was chosen 
by God" we have in Coptic what would be literally translated 
"They chose him by God". See also text 2} 

[OBS. oyohi; is the only verb that is immediately connected with 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


93 


its direct object in the duralive, constituting an exception to the 
Stern-Jernstedt Rule; see also text 29] 

19. gome Men eYl*RA.pnoc NCA^pAt ^eNKOoye Ae eyf Mney- 

KApnoc ficATne (A I 256) 

{NB: ey- circumstantial present) 

[OBS. Note here the difference in construction between the definite 
(ney-) and zero-article direct objects, the former entering the 
mediate (n-), the latter the immediate constructions] 

20. 6IT€ N€NTAyCOyUINq €IT€ NCT€NC€COOyN MMO(j AN (III 

132) 

21. ncTMoyz ihrie Ayoi €TMoy£ miikaz Aytu eTp^oye-Mneq- 

hi (A I 234) 

22. cepniteo on njcajcg (A I 96) AKpnicep.xAJLe (P 130.2 137 337) 
{NB: -pntce- is a lexeme premodifier, modifying the slativc and 
infinitive: “do also..." cf. “do rather" (see text 21) and -j»q;pn(N)- 
“do first...”} 

23. qqjn-^MOT ntmttnoyt€ (IV 78) 

24. Teoyo)MNOB€ ^tucoq ujANTecei (Ill 202) 

(NB: oyu>M- a variant of oyeM-, the construct state of oycuM 
orthographically identical with the absolute (object-less state)} 

25. woe NTAKJtooc (Ch. 39) 

26. AIJCOOC JiNOK (III 117) T6TNXW A€ MMOC NTUJTN (III 135) 

27. iceipe mmoc h akaac mmcaoc MnopNH (E 66) 

28. T€TNq)AHA TCTN^RACIT T6TNMCA6TA NTMNT€pO NMTTHye 

(E 71) 

[OBS. Asyndetic (conjunctionless) coordination is characteristic of 
enumerative-listing style} 

29. pu>M6 rAp him oyecyncoN^ Ayco Nceoycuty an CMoy (E 93) 



, UNIT (V): THE ADVERB PREDICATED 

(sections 19-21) 


19.1 The adverb predicated in the durative pattern: personal pronoun, 
demonstrative. Proper Name or definite nominal theme 

19.1.1 Conversions 

19.2 The adverb predicated in the existential present: an indefinite 
nominal (indef. or zero-determinated) or pronominal theme 

19.2.1 Conversions 

(*)20.t The adverb predicated in the delocutive Nominal Sentence 
pattern 

{*) 20.2 The adverb predicated by the auxiliary in the tense base 
conjugation 

21.1 oyoei n- “Woe unto...!” 

21.1.1 Conversions 

21.2 na.<f “to him” predicated (modal-future possession predicated by N-) 


19.1 THE PRESENT: THE ADVERB PREDICATED IN THE 
DURATIVE PATTERN: personal pronoun, proper name or definite 
nominal theme (subject) (Table F4): 

* 

Like the durative infinitive and the stativc rhemes (sections 15-18), the 
adverbial rheme (predicate) — prepositional phrase or “lexical” adverb 
denoting spatial rest situations or relationships and their metaphorical 
semantic extension (see section 5: “on a hill”, “in your mouth”, “with 
me”, “against you” “outside”, “here”, “there”, “where?” — is predicated 
in the present tense. The adverbial rheme follows the theme (subject): 
prefix pronoun (Table A 5b), demonstrative, proper name or definite 
noun. Like the durative conjugation, the adverb predication is negatived 

by (£-)... an. 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 366, 371; Steindorff parr. 310; Till parr. 249-250; Vergote par. 
192(a); Lambdin parr. 18.1, 24.2; Polotsky, “Conjugation System” parr. 5-6, 
19-22, 28; Shisha-Havely par. 1.2.1.1 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


95 


1. q^NoyTonoc cqoyAAB (Wess. 9 171) 

2. ANON THN^OyN NNCNTOTTOC (III 24) 

3. q^NoyNod fieprACiA (Wess. 9 145) 

4. N<j 2 * 2 ™Y an N6iNeT<|)eoN6i epooy (III 136) 

5. qoyAAB Aycu q^AeooY W AN,€M€ 2 (Wess. 9 161) 

6. ntytuc ^NTMHTe Mneqo^e epeNeqecooy ujoon an may* 
a Ay (Ch. 159) 

_ _ » 

7. got€ nnNoyTe cnmmak Noyoeicy nim (III 101) 

8. nomine mficima neooy mttcima (III 79) 

9. TeTN^NTMHTe n^cnnoO MnpArMA eyoqj (Ch. 97) 

{NB: eyouj adnominal circumstantial present; otij stative of 

AcyAi} 

10. tnhit ep^HKe nAi rAp epoN NTooTq Mnacoic nexc neNTA* 
qp^HKG 6TBHHTN (Ch. 98) 

11. ntooy ?cuoy ncgmitboa. an nnkanion NNcrpAd>H (E 88) 

12. CMMAY (IV 18) 

13. C6MMAY TAP (A I 121) 

19.1.1 THE ADVERB PREDICATED IN THE DURATIVE PAT¬ 
TERN: CONVERSIONS (Tables Fd, G) 

(a) Circumstantial €-: eqMMAy / epenpeowe mmay “Hc/the man 

being there** (also adnominal; 27-30) 

Negatived e(N)qMMAy an / cwnpcuMC mmay an, epenpcunc 

MMAy AN 

(b) Relative ct-: ctmmay “who is there” 

eTqMMAy/€Tepenpa)M€ mmay “where he/you/the man is/are” 
(31-33) 

Negatived ereNqMMAy an, ctmmay an / eTCMnpcuMe mmay 

AN, €T€penpO)M6 MMAY AN 

(c) Second Tense c-: eqMMAy and eqMMAy ... **There he is” and 

“(It is...) that he is there” (34-38) 

(d) Preterite nc-: NcqMMAy / NepenpcuMe mmay (ne)“He/the man 

was there**, also in hypothetical (remote) condition (39-41) 

NB: note the two forms of the circumstantial and relative, according to 

the negativer (n- ... an or ... an): cn^mmay AN/eMnpcuMe mmay an, 
eTeNqMMAY an/ €T€MnpcoMe mmay an or 6<|mmay AN/epe- 
npcuMe mmay an, 6tmmay AN/eTepenpcuMe mmay an. 



96 


FIRST PART 


Bibliography: 

Steindorff parr. 374, 376, 459*460, 462*464; Till parr. 317, 329, 443, 462; 
Vfrgotf parr. 163(1), 164(1), 165(1), 166(1,3,4), 167(1,2); Lamhdin par. 24.2; 
Polotsk v, "Conjugation System" parr. 10-18 

(a) Circumstantial: 

\ 

1. kan eyujANqi NTCKine knatcdoyn oh ec^iatoic (III 100) 

2. npcuMe eq^LXHneqHA nnkotk NqNAUjcuiOT an mttogik 
■ MNnMooy (Rossi 2/3 8) 

3. Nee ag noy6aa.g GTeqoyepHTe cntg GpeNGqoyGpHTG 
mgn MHoq GNqeqjMdouje an (Ch. 87) 

4. (If they defile themselves) eirc ey^i-nqjMMo gitg eyzN^cyN- 
Arcorn (IV 120) 

(b) Relative: 

1. nMA GToyN^HTq (III 151) 

2. NUJAJCG NTCO<f>IA MTTNOyTC GTN2HTK (III 14) 

3. Ne^ooy gthmay (Ch. 105) 

4. ANAy GNGlOycUNCy GT^NTMHTG NNGCOOy... ANAy GNGIABOOKG 

gt^ntmhtg NNGi6pooMne (Mun. 105) 

5. npa»MG GTGpGTGTTAHrH ^icocoq (Wess. 9 138) 

6. NGT^HnKOCHoc Tiipq (Ch. 28) 

7. NGTJApCOK NMMAy (Ch. 27) 

{NB: mn* coordinates here the 3rd plural with the 2nd sgl. in 
2 ApcoK: “...and theirs”} 

8. NGTHMAy (III 160) 

[OBS. Contrast the use of the article n- as a general formal 
antecedent of the relative (“they that...”) with the specific lexical 
antecedent in text 3 above] 

9. fTGTepooy (IV 43) 

{NB: neTepooy: the preposition g-/c po** is used for the notion 
of owing or being indebted: the thing owed is theme (subject) or, as 
here, antecedent; the debtor noun/pronominal is governed by e-} 

10. ttma on GTGpeneriNA NAKAeApTON N£HTq (Wess. 9 97) 

11. neiBioc TGNoy GTGN^HTq (III 205) 

{NB: the theme here, following the relative converter, is the 2nd sgl. 
fern, zero suffix} 

{OBS. Note the placement of the adverb tgnoy, which (being 
enclitic) occupies the second position in the prosodic unit (ante¬ 
cedent + relative form), while qualifying the relative clause alterna¬ 
tively, it could be taken to qualify neiBioc] ... 


THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


97 


(c) Second Present: 

1. 6qT<ON nqfxxe (Ch. 166) 

{NB: t(un in focus; also in the following texts) 

[OBS. Note the immediate apposition of the postposed nominal 
theme after eqTCDN, unintroduced by n6i>] 

2. epeneNKeec tcun (A 1 212) 

3. epeioyAAG qjoon tcun tgnoy eq^NAMNTC (A II 53) 

4. tima 6Tep6Tq>€A.€€T mm ay eqMMAy n6 i nN ym <|> i oc (Ch. 138) 

5. epensAA. mm Ay gtbgnay ay<u ttmaa.x6 gtbgccdtm (Ch. 

102 ) 

{NB: gtbg- in focus) 

6. cpe^MnA^Hr 2 tuc- maay noymhhojg Ntyeepe (P 130.5 119 ro) 
(NB: 2 <uc- in focus) 

(d) Preterite: 

1. ngn^ntgiujaipc noycut nmmhth (III 220) 

2. neon gngy 2 * 2 thn (Ch. 83) 

{NB: gngy* relative (or circumstantial) preterite, qualifying neon) 


19.2 THE ADVERB PREDICATED IN THE EXISTENTIAL PRE¬ 
SENT : indefinite (indef. or zero article) nominal or pronominal theme 

oYN-oypcoMe/oYA/pcuMe mmay “A man/someone is there” 
MN-oYpeuMe/oYA/pcoMe mmay “No man/no one is there” 

For Bibliography, see section 15.2 

1. oyNKGKOCMOc ?Apoq mitai (Orig. 303) 

(OBS. £Apoq m- instead of the prcnominal form £A-; Z is 
treated as if containing an inherently possessed noun, which is 
combined with a nominal possessor by - q n-] 

2. MNNoae epot ... oy.A6 mmnkpima ^utHTcyNArcurH gtoyaab 

(HI 133) 

3. mn<5om mho gitai (Or. 165) 

{NB: mho# expresses in this extremely common turn of phrase the 
possession of the inherently-possessed (“inalienable”) <5om; simi¬ 
larly in the next text) 

4. oyRoyi T6 xyw mmnkibg mmoc (Ch. 148 = Song of Songs 

8 : 8 ) 

5. MH 0yNA£0 MTTGIMA (III 72) 

6. wri^Top ^cucuq epoq gtbmtoy nna2pmitnoytg (A I 61) 

{NB: CTBHToy = gtbhhtoy) 



98 


FIRST PART 


19.2.1 THE ADVERB PREDICATED IN THE EXISTENTIAL 
PRESENT: CONVERSIONS (Tables Ea, G) 

(a) Circumstantial e-: eoYN-/eMN-oYpu>Me mmxy “A man/no man 

being there” (also adnominal; 27-30); also epeoYP«>Me hmay 

(b) Relative ere-: €T€Oyn-/®t€hh-oypcoh€ mm*y “(♦••) where a 

man/no man is” (31-33); also CTepeoYpcDMe mm*y 

(d) Preterite Ne-: MeoYH*/NeMH- oypcomg hm*y “A man/no man 

was there”, also in hypothetical (remote) conditions (39-41) 

For Bibliography, see section 15.2.1 

(a) Circumstantial: 

v I 

1. OY-XAI€ eMMNHOOY N^HTq (III 174) 

2. ^ewpcoMe ^pAi m£Htn eiT€ jooyt Eire c^imc epe^eNujHpe 

t cy hm h ^enqjeepe cy«H (Iv 95) 

% 

(b) Relative: 

1. NiceZcooN €T€Oyn'|'Y xh n<dn£ h 2 hto Y (RE 10 164) 

2. N6T€MNniT mmooy (III 143) 

3. neTepeoYCHqe HTOOTq (Ryl. 67 p. 395) 

4. n€tnnoyt€ €T€oynbaa hhooy (Mun. 107) 

5. neTCOYNOYON epoq (A I 96) 

(d) Preterite: 

1. NeMNTTNA Jl€ N^HTOY (A I 37) 


(*) 20 Non-situaliona! adverbs, not predicated in the dura live pattern 
arc found as rhemes in the dclocutive Nominal Sentence or (for other 

» 

tenses than the present and in a non-durative mode of action) introduced 
by means of the auxiliary p- into the tense-base conjugation. 


(*) 20.1 THE ADVERB PREDICATED IN THE DELOCUTIVE 
NOMINAL SENTENCE PATTERN (see 3.2, 3.2.1) 

# adverb (rheme) + ne, Te, Ne + noun (theme) # 

Bibliography : 

Till par. 248; ♦Siiisha-Halevy par. 1 .2.1.2 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 



1. 6fT.XIN.XH NAY T€ T€ Y2Y nOMONH (IV 46) 

2. qjAneiMA T€ T6TNMNT-2HT NOyOfT NMMAN (P I30.I 135 333T.) 

3. HTei^C ON N6 N6C|K6TT6TOyAAB THpoy (III 103) 

[OBS. Nrei^e is the adverb most common as rheme of the 
Nominal Sentence] 

4. NTGI^e ON T6 N£OIN6 2PXI N£HT6N 6AyTCABOOy 6^€NTCXNH 

MNNCATpey6l 6^0 YN (IV 163 f.) 

5. KATAneqeiNe ne neine NNe^BHye (Wcss. 9 110) 


(♦)20.2 THE ADVERB PREDICATED BY THE AUXILIARY p- 
IN THE TENSE-BASE CONJUGATION (sections 6-11) 

Bibliography : 

Siiisha-Halevy par. 1.2.1.3 

1. amtiapa<|>YCIC p-£ix.cuq (Wess. 9 171) 

2. Aice^An p-epoc (IV 12) 


21 # NOUN + n-/na- (“to”)#: modal possession or attribution 

(“...be to...!”) 

21.1 oyoei n- "Woe unto...!” 

Bibliography : 

Vergote par. 183; Shisha-Halevy p. 37f. 

1. oyoei nan Jt.6ANAMeA.ei (A II 374) 

2. oyoi nai oyoi nc xeMnneiO) eeox wneN^HT ^hcnkilku 

MNNCNJCCUeM gpAI ^NOOT6 MflNOyTC MNNUJAJte NNerpA^H 

(III 199) 

{NB: nc: 2nd sgl. fern.) 

3.. oyoi Nrenoc nim Npcuwe eNq^Ape? an CNenpocTATM a 

Hnacoeic (Wess. 9 160) 

[OBS. The adnominal circumstantial qualifying noun + him shows 
nim to be quantifying-distributive rather than defining and to mean 
“any...” rather than “all...”] 

4. oyoei nn6tnam 6CT6-NeT^iToycuoy enx.iN.XH ^pAi n^htn 

(III 154) 

{NB: Ner^iToytooy see Toyu>««} 



100 


FIRST PART 


5. oyoei mmgto Nca.se Nay Mayaay z? xi njhtn (III 159) 

6. oyoei nai oyoei nmhcaoc MnacuiMa eTepeneitpcoNe 

n^htoy (A II 39) 

21.U oyoei S- CONVERTED 

(a) Circumstantial eoyoei ii- 

(b) Relative eTeoyoei n- 
(d) Preterite Me oyoei ii- 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. ceNaujcune eoyoi way HHay (IV 4) 

(OBS. ajeurre as auxiliary supplies oyoei n- with tense characteri¬ 
zations other than the present] 

2. Natp n^e Tenoy eo-foi aw nnctcuik NNeyqpHy e^pai 
eNi^ieiT eTHMay NKaice ^i6ocm (A II 155) 

(NB: this is the circumstantial replacing the Second Tense as the 
‘‘that...” constituent in a Cleft Sentence, following the focus naq; 
N^e “How (is it) that...?”} 

[OBS. On the circumstantial as the topic constituent in a Cleft 
Sentence, see Shisha-Halevy pp. 84-87] 

(b) Relative: 

1. TiKAipoc ereoyoi nay N£Hrq (IV 94) 

2. oyoi Nay an Nee CTGoyoi NNeiKooyc (A II 11) 

(d) Preterite: 

1. neoyoei nai jceayjcnoi ptu aycu MniMoy ?noh (Wess. 9 142) 

2. weoyoi way ne ^Mnicaipoc ereNaiAToy w^HTq (IV 94) 
(NB: eTewaiaToy relative of naiat«* “blessed is...” (section 

23.1)] 

21.2 neooy n- “Glory be to...” 

This modal-future predication of possession is a text-final fixed formula. 

1. nexc 7c neNxoeic nai neooy naq ujaeNe? (HI 224) 

[OBS. nai neooy naq “He, to whom...” — there is no relative 
conversion of this pattern] 

2. kcmamaat nwoyTe neooy Naic MimeitujHpe etcmamut 

(Wess. 9 146) 

» 

3. neooy NTerpiac CToyaai neitUT MimqjHpe MNnenni 
eToyaaa wpeqTAN^o enTHpq aycu n^omooycion (IV 197) 


UNIT (VI): SYNTHETIC CONJUGATION FORMS WITH 
SUFFIXED SUBJECT: PRESENT TENSE, NARRATIVE PAST 

(sections 22*26) 


22 THE ADJECTIVE VERBS 

22.1 The PRESENT: the Adjective Verb n*noy»*<| “(He) is good, 

fair” 

22.2 The PRESENT: the Adjective Verb meytu-q “(They) arc numer¬ 

ous” ”(Hc) is plentiful” 

22.3 The PRESENT: the Adjective Verb “(He) is great” 

22.4 The PRESENT: the Adjective Verb weeto-q “(He) is beautiful/ 

ugly” 

22.5 The Adjective Verbs converted 

23 The PRESENT. miAT-q “Blessed is (he)” 

23.1 q converted 

24 The PRESENT: (efeN* - q “(He) is willing” 

24.1 (e)^NA - q converted 

24.2 “be willing” in various conjugation forms outside the 

present 

25 Me<yx~ “(You) do not know”, “perhaps” (in the generic 2nd 

person sgl. tnasc.): AORIST 

26 ne.x*-q “(He) said:” PAST NARRATIVE, introducing direct 
speech 


22 THE PRESENT: ADJECTIVE VERBS or “conjugated adjectives” 
(Table H): 

This is a formal group made up of five or six synthetic conjugation 
forms, all beginning with we- or na-, all having their theme-“actor” 
(noun or pronoun) attached at the end, all predicating a present quality 
of the theme (they are thus, in a functional sense, complementary to the 
durative present predicating the stative, 16.1-2). They are main-clause 



102 


FIRST PART 


forms, fully convertible and negated by ...an. Some have a special 

ft 

ft 

pronominal alternant form distinct from the one preceding the suffix 
pronoun theme; the nominal theme, introduced by n6i-, may follow the 
3rd person pronominal one. 

Bibliography : 

Stiirn parr. 308-310; Stiunoorit par. 297; Till par. 284; Vhrgoth par. 169; 
Lamddin par. 29.2; Polotsky, '‘Conjugation System” par. 36 


22.1 The ADJECTIVE VERB NANoy-q “(He) is good, fair”: 

NANOy^/NANOy- (NANG-) * 

1. eUJJCCNANOyi KOINCONGI NMHAI G (y-XGNANOyi AN MnpKOI- 

NCONGI (III 30) 

2. NANOynGTNOypOT CO MMGpATG (III 27) 

3. NANOyN6K6KIBe N^OyG GTTHpTT (III 53) 

4. NANoyc nan €Hoy N^oyo ecuN-j ^N^CNOAi'j'ic (Wcss. 9 174) 
[OBS. NANoy*», with the neutric feminine “it*’, is common for “it 
were better that...” and the like; it is then complemented by the 
infinitive or by erpcqciUTM (section 9.1 b)J 

5. NANoyc A.e gOmtiujing hngcnhy gt^hc^ ^n^gnojcong (P 
130.2 102 22) 

6 . NANoynNAy nbcok gtgkkahcia’ HnNoyre nanoytnhctia 
NAN oyncHy NencpArcye mhok gtgkc^img NANoygcoB nim 

NTGI^G NANAFKAION ... NAHOynOyCOM NANOynTAMOC A6 ON 

(IV I74f.) 

7. NANoyNei^pooy an G*fccoTM epooy (Wess. 9 87) 


22.2 The ADJECTIVE VERB NAu;cu~q “(They) are numerous”, 

“(He) is plentiful”: NAcyco««/NAcye- 

1. NA^eNCKAOOAe (HI 31 ) 

2. NAcyeNTBNooye eTujoon nay mming nih NAcyenNoya 

NAtpenzAT NAqjeNeyzYiTApxoNTA THpoy (IV 22) 

3 . NAUJCUOy ON NdlNAprOC (III 115) 

[OBS. nau;co«* n6i- is post-classic, a by-construction for the 
Scripture Coptic NAcye-] 

4. NACyCop N<5lTT6TNBGK6 6T<yOOfT NHTN ^NNGTN^ICG TMpOy 

(III 179) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


103 


5. NAcyoioy ’rap aiNNcyopn 91^11 eTCNoy Ndi^eNeioTe 

€AnNoyT€ cocyqoy (IV 28) 

6 . NAUjtuoy rAp N6iN€NTAyp<yMMO ennoyre (G 83) 


22.3 The ADJECTIVE VERB NAAA^q “(He) is great”: naaa-/ 

NAA- 

1. H NGTti;OOn NAN MH NAAAy AN CNATeXHpA €T£NCAp€nTA 

(III 72) 

2. T 1 AIUJT NAAACJ 6 poi (Orig. 807) 


22.4 The ADJECTIVE VERB Neccu«* q / nedtu <* q “(He) is bcauti- 
ful/ugly” 

1. neccuq NoyHp eqoN? ^httccuma mna^pn- neTNAy epoq 
Nedcuq A€ ^cucuq NoyHp NNA^pimeTNAy epoq eqnooyT (A 

1 374) 

2. C6KOCM6I Aycu Neccuoy (IV 189) 

3. NeccneyitocMoc (Zoega p. 600) 

4. Nectt) TAcyaeepe eic^HHTe we ecu (III 52) 

5. eic^HHTe NANoyK nAcoN Ayo> ncccuk edoxyr epoK (III 

53) 


22.5 THE ADJECTIVE VERBS CONVERTED (see Tables H, G) 

(a) Circumstantial cnanoy** “(He) being good”: usually adnomina! 

(27-30) 

(b) Relative eTNANoy- “who is good”, “whose... is good” (31-33) 

(c) Second Tense eNANoy* “(It is...) that (he) is good” (34-38) 

(d) Preterite weNANoy- “(He) was (/used to be) good”, also in 

hypothetical (remote) condition (39-41) 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 311, 405, 408; Steindorff parr. 374, 461 ; Till par. 284; Vi-rcotf. 

par. 171; Lambdin par. 29.2; Polotsky. “Conjugation System” par. 37 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. oygeoa CNANoyq (Ch. 37) 

2. oyNod NKpiMA eNAcycoq (Wcss. 9 165) 



104 


FIRST FART 


3. ^eH^BHye eNANoyoy an (P 131.7 40 ro) 

4. mn6€?icc on eNAAAq eneTNAcytune NNeT^i^eoyp (III 222) 

5. ^eNpHeiooye eNAupcuoy (III 164) 

6. 2 eNHI eNectwoy Aycu eNANoyoy (P 130.2 7 89) 

7. oyeioiT oy nonon Jteeqqi ^AneTO nnogik eTequpeepe 

aaaa eqp^oye-Me mm oq Aycu oqo NAq Ncysp- oycun £icu) 
eqNA eqNHy ^Mneqm Nee Noyupupe h oycoN cnaupgngt- 
cu)B€ Nccuoy (Ch. 170) 

(b) Relative: 

1. nup cue eTNANoyq (Wess. 9 167) 

2. nicycuNe eTeNAupereq^Mne (IV 19) 

3. TeTNATATIH €TNAUpU>C €£OyN CpOl (HI 13) 

4. a up ne ttk€6cunt Ayto mceicepAyNoc ctna AAq citai (Ch. 

122f.) 

5. nai eTNeccuoy m€n MneysoA 2*2°Y N Ae oyArAeoN ue 

eTMatooy e^oyo erAyooy (IV 3) 

6. TUDNe n<5a€IG h eTNeOcoq (Wess. 9 110) 

i 

7. nexc CTeNAupeneqNA (RE II 16) 

8. T^oeiTe MMNT^HKe eTeNAupecoyNTc an (IV 162) 

9. tbcd NJtoeiT eTNeccuc eNAy epoc (Ch. 152) 

10. MNneTNAAAq epoq (Ch. !35f.) 

{NB: epoq comparative: “than Himself”} 

(c) Second Present: 

I _ _ _ 

1. eupAceNANoy^eNupupe upiiM an eyiccu Nctuoy m ne tn up a jcc 

CNANOyTN NOy MTOITN €T€TNTCTO 6BOA NNOyi (IV 96) 

{NB: Soy in focus) 

2. mANTtuc eNAAq ^MnTAio Mneooy (Orig. 807) 

\ 

{NJB: eNAAq = eNAAAq; ^m- in focus) 

3. 2'WNoy eNAAAy eNeVepwy (Ch. 135) 

{NB: £iTNoy in focus) 

[OBS. This may be a case of the circumslantialand not Second 
Tense conversion; the circumstantial is used as the “that...” consti¬ 
tuent of a Cleft Sentence after its focus: see Shisha-Halkvy pp. 87- 
94) 

(d) Preterite: 

1. N€NAUpGNU>N6 6TMII6MTO 6BOA. (Ill 27) 

2. ^abh rAp Mnooy NeNAupeN€TA2tioy Mnerjtoce (Ch. 124) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


105 


3. oyuzxz NpcoMe NeNLNoyoy cmltc MnAToyApxGi GAyeo 
ag enejoyo MNNCATpcypcsoyciA (Ch. 134) 

4. gngnaujcdoy an n 6 ingtnap*oa ... Neoycpine an ne MNoy- 

N 06 NG 6 NNGTGNCGNApBOA epOC AN (Ch. 173) 

{NB: this is the circumstantial preterite, cnc- used as (he suppo¬ 
sition of a remote hypothetical condition (“irrealis”)} 

f . 


23. THE PRESENT: naiat* q “Blessed is (he)” 

Bidliograimiy: 

Stern par. 198; Till par. 284 Obs.; Veroote par. 183 

1. naiatoy nngtnajyttomging jtiNNopopn oyoei ag nngt- 

NAApNA NOG NNGNTAyApNA JLINNUJOpn (Orig. 651) 

2. OyOGI NNGTMGGy6 G£GN,XtN<50NC ... NAIATOY ON NN6T- 

MGeye g^gnttgtnanoyoy zijcnngyma nnkotk (Ch. 100) 
(NB: 2 ®NnGTNANoyoy indefinite nominalized relative of the 

Adjective Verb nanoy «*} 

3. NAIATOY NNCT6NC6UJMUJG AN N^GNKGNOyTG (Ch. 109) 

4. NAGIATOy NNAIKAIOC GNTAyMOy N GTNLMOy ^NTGyMNTMG 

(HI 151) 

5. NAIATq NOypCOMG NAIATC NOyC^IMG NATCOOyN... OyOGI 

ag NoypcoMG oyoei Noyc^iMG GAycoyNic Gp^mey^iH 

Gpee NTApxH mttih! (Young 4) 

{NB: cp-©G “be/bccomc as”} 

23.1 naiat- CONVERTED (Table G) 

(a) Circumstantial gnai at ^ q “He being blessed” (28.1) 

(b) Relative gtgnaiat** q “that (he) is blessed” (31.2) 

(c) Second Tense gnai at * q... “(It is...) that (he) is blessed” (34.1) 

(a) Circumstantial: 

I. OyOGI NAN JtCANAMGAGI GNAI ATOy NTOOy NNGTOyAAB (A 1! 

374) 

(OBS. NTooy rcinforcer: “they, on the other hand”] 

(b) Relative: 

1. TAI T6 OG GTGNAGIATOy NN6 TNA6NOyfTAppHC IA MTlNAy 
NTANAfKH (III 68) 



FIRST PART 


106 

(c) Second Tense: 

1. CNAIATq r*p AN MTTGTK AOHKGI .XGAqJtCD N^eNU^AJCe OyTG 
GNAIATOy NN€TOYKA0HK€I HMOOy JCGAyCCUTM GNGyU^AAG 
AAA A GNAIATq MTTGTK.A0HK.6I CqU^AN^ApG? GNGTqAU) M- 

Hooy Ayco naiatoy nngtoyk aohicgi hmooy GyqjANTMnA- 
pA»A NNGToyccDTH Gpooy (Cl. Pr. 33 I) 

«{NB: (he Second Tense puls (he xe- clauses in focus: “It is 
because... that...", “It is nol because... that...”} 


24 THE PRESENT: (g^na- q “(He) wishes", “(He) is willing” 
Negatived : (n-)^na- an 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 198; Steindorff par. 295(4); Till par. 283; Vergote par. 170(6); 
Polotsky Rev. Till p. 231 f. 

1. AAHGUJC e^NAy AN GTpCAAAy NpCUMG MAKApiZG HMOOy 

enTHpq (III 161) 

2. g^nan ei* nhtn HneyArreAioN mttnoytc mmatg an aaaa 

NGNK.e'J'yxH (Ch. 109) 

3. z x Z Neon g^nan eKseneNAAC CTienene GAqpee mttgt- 
OJOB^ Ayto qK AT AAA AG I H TNKATAAAAGl N^HTq (IV 23) 

4. gujag-g^ng an g^cgtH eroyccuNe ^cuc- tyap-p^euB ... gig 

NTO H NTOC CAJOBTN GBOA H ANAXCUpGI NHTN (A I 73) 

(NB: g^ng 2nd sgl. fern, person) 


24.1 (g)*na* CONVERTED 

(a) Circumstantial g^na * q “(he) being willing/unwilling” (also 

adnominal; 27-30) 

(b) Relative gtg^na** “who is willing”, “what (He) wishes” (31-33) 

Bibliography : 

STpRN par. 407; Till parr. 198, 468,483; Vergote par. 171, p. 225 

m 

\ 

(a) Circumstantial: 

1. ANTNNOOyq CyApCUTN MfTGIKGCOTT 6N£NAq AN (P 130.1 131 

328) 4 

2. 't'NAJCOU AG NAK HfTGU^AJCG GN^NAI AN GAOOC (A II 191) 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 


107 


3. Lytu euntune nctmmay N6TMeeye e^eNneeooy 6^oyN 

€foi €TpeyMccTU)i enjciNJcH e^Hiy h ntoc| eNreydoM an 
T€ ... (Ill 131) 

4. eycyANdNoyptoMe ?pAi n^htn znngtaiakonci h nto<| ite- 
oyA cqo natccutm h eq*t*T<i>N oyB 6 neia)T NncroyH^ 
^MneiMA Noyoeiqp him eN?NAq an cccotm h cbcuk Hn^cDi 

h NecsHye ... (IV 50) 

5. eTMTpeneqArAooN tpume KATAoy^rop aaaa e?NAq (A I 2) 

(b) Relative: 

1. nTuucy eTe^NAq (E 69) 

2. neTe^Neneq^HT (BM 8810 p. 391) 

3. »iee eTe^NHTN (III 82) 

4. TeiMiNe NpcDMe eTen^NAy an cccutm (A I 61) 

5. NeTe^NAy an ecA^ouoy esoA ntccbo) eeooy Noyoeiuj 

nim (Orig, 365) 


24.2 p?na* “be willing” in various conjugation forms outside the 
present 

Bibliography: 

Till par. 283 Obs.; Vergote par. 170 ( 6 ); Lambdin par. 20 . 2 ( 4 ); Polotsky. Rev. 

Till p. 231 f., “Conjugation System” p. 402 

1. Ayp^NAy eTpeyqjome eyo na6phn (IV 29) 

2. weTNAp^NAy an ngi e^pAi (Ill 200) 

3. NT€TNAP2NHTN AN CNAy (A II 278) 

4. p^nak h oycoty (A I 83) 

(NB: p^nak and oyeuep are imperatives) 

5 . 0yN2eNK.ee1.A0c eMeqp?NAq n 6 ittt 6 Xnithc ckaay e^pxi 

(P 130.2 104) 

6. Hnqp^NAq emcreye enexc (CH. 142) 

7. Mnep^Ne eei egpAi h boa ^nnoykakia (III 200) 

(NB: 2nd person sgl. fern, actor and possessor; boa for cboa) 


25. MecpA«*q “(He) does not know”; in the generic 2nd person sgl. 
masc., Me<j)AK “perhaps” 

Rarely also in the relative conversion: 6T6Meq)A~ 



FIRST PART 


108 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 268, 527; Steindorff par. 295(2); Till par. 285; Vergote par. 
170(2) 

1. H€U)Ai jce-eiNJoce-oy (Wcss. 9 66) 

(NB: cinajcg- Second Future, putting oy in focus: “What is it I 
shall say’*} 

2. moujak nciXcuon ujiim €tmhjiy eT^NNeAKO) eujAyujtuu) 
HHT1THY ^MnTpeYnCDU) MTT€AICU> (III 48) 

(NB: etyAy*: Second Aorist} 

3. Meuje jc€nih He h oy N€ (A I 76) 

{NB: 2nd person sgl. fem. actor} 

4. (Even if he docs not give alms to the poor because of his callousness 
or misanthropy,) moujak qNA*f cTBeoy^Hy (III 65) 

5. H6q)AK juJO^ oiwe n6onc n^htthytn Mnieme (Wcss. 9 164) 
{NB: mtii- — €Hni-, circumstantial neg. perfect} 

6. m€U)ak pco oyS^eNU )xxe n^htoy an eTpepcune 

ccoth epooy (IV 72) 

{NB: Zyuje = ecytyc circumstantial) 

7. neujAq mfina y eTqNAKcu Ncooq mttikocmoc (BL 8800 (A) fol. 
6 ro) 

8. iioe on €TeMe<ye enreuty mtt^ht NTenceoyei ... (Lcyd. 
411) 

{NB: Meu)e 2nd sgl. fcm.} 

9. N6T€H€<yAN epooy accoy no (IF apud Diet. 201) 


26. neaA<*q NARRATIVE PAST: “(He) said introducing 
speech or quotation, especially dialoguc-in-narralion 

neat*- may open, conclude or be inserted parenthetically in the 
reported speech. When initial, it is followed by ace-. 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 308-31 1; Steindorff par. 294; Till par. 282; Vercote par. 170(1); 
Lambdin par. 20.3 

1. neacAq ateANpcone MepenicAKe N^oyo enoyoeiN Mruptooc 
JceAywepenoyoeiN N^oyo citkakc (Ch. 17) 

2. neTMe hmo i neatAq qNA^Ape? enAU)A.xe (A 1 38) 

3. ei^Mooc zucNoyTooy neoceneTJcco nnai Ainay eyxcooN 

(III 44) ' * 



THE FORMAL-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM 109 

4. ^ewqjAqTe THpoy ne.x.Aq N€ (II! 118) 

5. nejeennoyTe NAq ocenAeHT ceNAqi nt€K'|'Y xm ntootk 

■ 

NTeioycyH (III 111) 

6. MMNp-xcy € c^oon nnaccbhc nejtenjtoeic nnoyTe (Ch. 169) 

7. ne.x*q rAp iidininocTOAOc a.€nai ereneyMoyTe ne 
2HToy (Ch. 110) 

8. Aqoycucyi xeoy ne Ap a npip ne ne.*Ai jccmmon AqTAye- 

s ^_ 

^eNKOoye on JceMHTi NTOoy ne nejcAi JceMMON neocAq 

jceeie oy ne nejtAi JcenNose ne tbotc Mnjcoeic (Ch. 105) 

9. nejtHTN Jc.e-NTAN<j;AJce nccuk £Noy (Wess. 9 90) 

{NB: ntan<j)ajc€ Second Perfect, putting ^noy in focus} 

10. nejceoyA h joinc jceeraeoy aoai h nai nu>T e boa ntei- 
nine rip tune (A I 60) 

11. nexH Noya>£M JceMirpq^AJte nmman ^noynujot (A I 74) 
{NB: 2nd sgl. fern, actor} 




SECOND PART (Units MV) 
TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 

UNIT I: CONVERSION (sections 27-41) 

UNIT II: THE CONJUNCTIVE (sections 42-43) 

UNIT HI: CONDITIONAL COMPLEXES (sections 44-48) 

UNIT IV: THE INFINITIVE OUTSIDE CONJUGATION 

(sections 49-51) 




UNIT (I): CONVERSION 


(A) THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL CONVERSION: ADNOMINAL 
(ADNEXAL), ADVERBAL. PREMODIFYING 


27.1 Indcfinite/zero noun, indef. pronoun expanded by the circumstan¬ 
tial (adnominai. circumstantial) 

27.2 Non expressing time expanded by the circumstantial (adnominal 
circumstantial) 

27.3 A noun/personal pronoun predicatively expanded by the circum¬ 
stantial (adnominal adnexal circumstantial) 

28.1 A clause followed (expanded) by the circumstantial (modifier 
[“ adverbial*'] circumstantial) 

28.2 A verb of incomplete predication (“descriptive verb”) expanded by 
the circumstantial (adverbal adnexal circumstantial, as predicative 
complement) 

28.3 The circumstantial preceding the main clause (premodifying cir¬ 
cumstantial) 

29.1 The circumstantial carrying on a relative or preterite conversion 
30 Some special thematic roles of the circumstantial 


(A) THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL CONVERSION. 

e- + clause (conjugation form or Nominal Sentence): sec Tabic G 

The adnominal circumstantial expands (qualifies, describes) an indefinite 
noun or pronoun or a nominal expression of time or occasion (27.1 -2). 

The adnexal circumstantial expands and adjoins a predicate (rheme) to a 

definite or indefinite noun or any pronoun, which is thus expanded 

« » 

predicatively (27.3). 

The modifier or adverbial circumstantial expands a clause, modifying it 
by referring it circumstantially or both predicatively and circumstantially 

to an act or state (28.1-2). 



SECOND PART 


114 


Bibliography: 

■ 

Stern parr. 406-408, 410, 412, 415-416; Steindorff parr. 375-379, 457-458; 
Till parr. 328-333, 368, 370, 404, 417, 425, 453, 475, 486; Vlrgote parr. 165, 
172, 210, 211(1), 212(6), pp. 225f, 227r., 228f., 2301V; Lambdin parr. 23.1. 24.2, 
30.9; Siiisha-Halevy 19 If. 


27.1 INDEFINITE/ZERO-DET. NOUNS or INDEFINITE PRO¬ 
NOUNS EXPANDED BY THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL (adnominal 
circumstantial): “a man who../', “one who...” 

The relative converter docs not occur as an expansion (qualification, 
description) of indefinite nouns or pronouns: the circumstantial is the 
form found in this role. 

1. oyMA eqcorn eNANoyq eupnpe £iupeepe (IV 29) 

2. ^cNnApeeNoc nco 6 we ewNToyNe^ £NNey2NAAy MNNeyAAM- 

ttac (IV 47) 

3. emeu eq^opqj (IV 154) 

[NB: the zero-det. feminine noun is resumed by a masculine 
pronoun in the circumstantial form; in fact, the zero article is 
resumed, not the lexeme: zero is resumed by the masculine as a 

gender-indifferent (“neuter”) form. See Shisha-Halevy, Chapter 5] 

4. CBCU NAM6 eqJCHK e boa. (Ill 93) 

5. oyNoy^coB eiNA.xooq eoy^oVe ne (Wess. 9 168) 

{OBS. oy^ore “fearsome” (“one of fear”): sec Polotsky, “Nomi- 
nalsatz und Cleft Sentence” p. 418f., Shisha-Halevy p. I42IT.] 

6. •fcooyN Noy^tuB ern^tm an ewcABeoy (Ch. 33) 

7. ainay eyicuoN eq?ArTAHp eqMiupe mnaczcuon eq^i-AMnicA^ 

(III 44) 

8. xpeiA nih NpcoMe equpuiNe (HI 71) 

9. oyNKe^cua ac on eApeAAq eNreom MMoq an JteoyNoee 

ne (III 201) 

(NB: e-Ape- a variant 2nd sgl. fern, form of the circ. perfect) 

10. AT€TNH€eye e^eNqpoacNe NTeTNAqpTA^ooy an (Leid. 296f.) 

(NB: NT6TNA- = eNT€TNA-} 

11. 2 *>IN€ CAypeeNNOO NA£6 qpANTOyp^AAO 6MATG geNKOOye 

eAyHoy eycosic (III 44) 

12. oyA eqicuiT MNoyMHHqpe eyqpopqpp Ncu>q (IV 94) 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


115 


27.2 NOUNS EXPRESSING TIME or OCCASION EXPANDED 
BY THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL (adnominal circumstantial): “the time 
when..." 

1. nioynoy 6nco>oy 2 enpAN nic (Ch. 156) 

2. T6i<yoMTe noynoy eqoqT enuje (III 37) 

3. monay eneipe n^cdb nih naikaiocynh (IV 102) 

4. neon h ne^ooY oncooy^ ejoyM (A I 123) 

[OBS. Contrast the stalive here (“when we are gathered”) with the 
infinitive in text I (“as we gather*’)) 

5. neon 6 N€Y 2 ^thn (Ch. 83) 

{NB: €N€y* circumstantial (or relative?) imperfect: section 39.1.1} 

6. HnNAY €T€TN**f Aoroc nihcoyc (Orig. 372) 

7. TTMe^UJOMNT N^OOY €AqBU)K €£pAI CNCqMA Neptune €TOY' 

aab (Orig. 347) 


27.3 A NOUN or PERSONAL PRONOUN PREDICATIVELY 
EXPANDED BY THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL (adnexal circumstantial): 
“(I found) him/the man/a man sitting”. The noun/pronoun is normally 
an object of a verb or adjoined to another noun by means of ii-. 

1. AqKAAq eqoN? (Ch. 32) 

2. kan 2Ape^ eMMeAoc Hirexc cyoyojc (III 115) 

{NB: ^Ape^ imperative} 

3. tnnay epoN €mhtan<5€ma wnioT (RE 10 164) 

4. -foY^ojOY cyoyaab (IV 97) 

5. nFnay an encyHpe ujhm eu^Ay-xnoq eqKCUTe ncatkibg 

taxy (Wess. 9 140) 

(NB: a rhetorical question} 

6. N€T€THJttt) MHOOY 6AIAAY (IU 25) 

7. xqdNTq eqcH? xe ... (Ill 21) 

8. ceNAOiNe HntyHN cthmay eAYnopxq (111 141) 

9. ^HnN^y MnoYoeiN MNnNAy wnpH eqNAnipe (III 87) 

10. Nee N6Y2A eyeso\ ?naaam tg xyw ecetNe naaam jn^ujb 

nim (Leyd. 347f.) 

11. riee NNeTOYew-Aq Spip ^izcjdmin epeNey^NAxy THpoY 
toam (III 177) 



116 


SECOND TART 


28.1 A CLAUSE EXPANDED BY THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL 
(modifier or “adverbial” circumstantial): “He came here wishing to 
speak to me”, also resolved in English into “.../as/when/whilc/although 
he wished 

NB: the practical difference between the adverbial, adnexal and adnominal 
roles of the circumstantial is at times tenuous and their distinction 
difficult. 

1. xqqpcojce nmmai eqoycuu; epeoA. (Ill 39) 

2. 'fNATAMoq ^cutUT GN'I'tyine an (Ch. 103) 

3. MecyxK aiju^oging nOonc n^htthytn ennieiMe (III 139) 

4. oyatAi nan neNHepiT ngicdt €tcmamaat eKGipc Mnew- 
Heeye (III 13) 

5. 2^NpcoM€ eyAico hmoc ate mnt anu^hpg goyntay^a^ Ayco 
eAyacne^A^ (Or. 153) 

6. ATGTNCyN^ICTA MHCOTN ^CUCAIKAIOC GNTGTN^GNUJ AqTG 

(III 135) 

[OBS. The circumstantial Nominal Sentence has typically an adver¬ 
sative meaning: “whereas”, “although”) 

7. ATTNoyTG NAy enGyMKA^ CAqj* NAy N^enq^Hpe (IV 27) 
[OBS. A narrativc-continuative use of the circumstantial perfect] 

8. Mnqe<y6H(5oM epooy gy^ntmhtg nbabyaujn (Ch. 76) 

9. Ayncor ntoot gijci HHOoy n<5onc ^cdctypannoc (III 145) 

10. oyc*|*a>26 Noycur nica? tgtgo^ntaic cip£U)B n^htc con 
ecpAiao epoc Mni6po6 con eq^Aiaco epoc nniKeoyA (Ch. 

99) 

{NB: Cleft Sentence (“It is a single ... that I have”), section 33} 

11. KCMAMAAT GK.TCOCUBG AyOJ GKNATUUDBG HTI6KAAOC KATA- 

TGyNNTGyCGBHC MMIN6 HIM (RE 10 101) 

12. MnpCCDTM NTOK GpOl GIJC<JU NNAI (Ch. 102) 

[OBS. This may alternatively be interpreted as an instance of the 
adnexal circumstantial, 4 predicativcly expanding the first person 
singular object pronoun] 

13. NOG GNTAPIGZI CU)B? GNqCCUB^ an tai re 0G nngtangagi 

hnncA neAnncM a ety Ay untune nakaoaptoc (A II 395) 

14. 2 €Npu)MG eyp^oTG jHTcj HnNoyTe Noyoeicy him gaycot- 

noy €bo\ oyTG^A^ e^GNqjHpG ojhm an ng eyp^oyo ghatg 
^NTA rAnw MNTGcnoyAH (Miss. 282) 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


117 


28.2 A VERB OF INCOMPLETE PREDICATION (“DESCRIPTIVE 
VERB") EXPANDED BY THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL (adnexal 
adverbal circumstantial, "predicative complement”): “He stopped 

speaking”. The circumstantial present is the normal form with most 
descriptive verbs. 

NB: (I) Note especially the use of the verb epeune “conic into being” 
"happen, take place” which, followed by the circumstantial as a 
predicative complement, is used suppletivcly, to combine various tenses 
with the durativc pattern, Nominal Sentence or existential statements. 

(2) The verb oy<o means “have already done” when occurring in a 
main clause conjugation form, "finish doing” when in a dependent-’ 
clause form. 

1. eye untune eyc^oyopT ^NNeY^BHye thpoy ... (others) ey- 

eujame €yoy**b cboa ^nnca^oy thpoy ctch^ (III I55f.) 

2. TNNiqpume eoyNoyNod nkpima ^ijccdn (III 158) 

3. Mirpcpcone eoyNTK^AS nc£IM€ (A II 61) 

4. ty ame ereTNTNTCON enNoyTe (A II 27) 

5. junyixe cy cone eq£op<£) na<| Aycu enqoyAcyq an (Ch. 93) 

m 

6. Hnpcpcune exeipe mmok naikaioc mayaak (A II 503) 

7. N't'NA^iD AN eiAUJA^OM €£pAI 6JCCDK. (RoSSi 2/3 43) 

8. ANCABG OyO) eyNOei NNeNTANJCOOY (P 130.4 99 vo) 

9. MnpjtnoYOY AiteoyA oyw eqatNoy mhooy (III 20) 

10. €Y<y^NOYtD eYTCONC NTGTMOOyT eyNAOJAHA (IV 63) 

11. eyNABCUK. €20YN €N€YHI NCecdpA^T MHOOY CMAT6 U)AN- 

toyoycd €YP2U>b mmay (IV 69) 

12. Mnj»Ao exeipe wnneTNANOYM (Rossi 2/3 71) 

13. wnqAo eqo njcogic epooY (Wess. 9 132) 

14. etcu^ANdcu exeiBiHy cenAMepiTK ^iTMTiNoyTe mnnpcdmc 

(IV 41) 

15. C€MAOYU>N2 €BOA eyTMAIHy (III 138) 


28.3 THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL PRECEDING THE MAIN CLAUSE 

■ 

(premodi ficr circumstantial): "Even though he could not work, he came 
with us”, "As long as you are here, I feel safe”. 

I. ei^Mooc £f.xNOYTOOY nejceneTJccu nnai ainay ey^woN 
(III 44) * 

{NB: neTJccu n- definite relative present: "the one who...”} 


118 


SECOND PA RT 


2. jreTcyujNe eoyiSOoM HMoq eqi MApeqqi (IV 78) 

« 

3. ^Keipc TAp MTTAI KNATOyXOK MNNeTCOJTM €pOK (III 145) 

4. Ckcoaca mch MirpcuMe exMneNTAyMooyTq nngkxooc 
, NAq JceneqA^e ne (III 43) 

5. KAN eA.riGKJCA.Xe H NGTNXAXe XI0OA eptDTN KNA2<UM H 

TeTNA^cuM exNneyMAK^ (A I 131) 

6. eTBenAi canficdt cboa 2 hto Y MApiipujA 2i«XMnKA2 2Noy- 
tbbo HNoywe (Wcss. 9 141) 

7. GAKXI 6e NOyApXH GBO A 2ITMnNOyT€ JLAK NpHHAO N^HTC 

2 N 2 €N^ 8 Hy 6 eNANoyoy (Ch. 85) 

8. zotan eyNA6en-oypcuHe ctyAycow^q ^Neqdix MNNeq- 

oyepHTe (Ch. 72) 

{NB: 2 OT * N eyNA-: “Whcnercvcr”; eqjAy- Second Aorist, 
putting in focus} 

9. npcoMe eq^iJCMneqHA nnkotk NqNApNOBe an (BM 8800 3 ro) 

10. n^ocon epenexc cpoon nmman NqoysHN an (Ch. 70) 

11. gn^ocon ecNcuiN eTHpNoae MnpTpeNccucy NTexApic (IV 

24) 

29. THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL CARRYING ON A RELATIVE or 
PRETERITE CONVERSION 

1. TT^HKe GTGMNTAqAAAy OyA€ GNqNAy AN €AAAy NOyNOq 

(Rossi 2/3 70) 

2. neToyoN^ €boa THpq ^NNeq^BHye Ayco epeNeK2»Hye 
THpoy oyoNjf gboa n^htk (RE 10 161) 

(NB: this is addressed discourse} 

3. NeTNNoyTe eTeoyNBAA HMooy nccnay cboa an Aycu eyN- 

MAAXe HHOOy NC6CCUTH AN AyCD eyNTATTpO HMOOy CHey- 

9 AX 6 (Mun. 107) 

4. Nerrpo<f>HTHc NNoyx NTAyMecTtuoy cboa 2 ,TO °Toy nnc- 

» 

npo4>HTHC NAIKAtOC AyCU eAyHCpiTOy 6BOA 2»TN2€NpCUHe 

natccuth Aycu NpeqpNose (III 171) 

5. neNCUUT mntcnmaay eNTAyxnoN Aytu eAycANoyqjN (IV 

129) 

6. neNTAqxcuj h e a 2 €nta*|*A€ 2© €XNNeq 20 iTe (Wess. 9 113) 

7. npcuHe €tko> N2THq enxoeic Aycu epenxoetc naojcottg 
NA q N 2 €Anic (Ch. 161) 

8. NecccuBe h ecpAcye (A I 53) 

9. NeperTNoyTe nano y6c epcuTN h epe^eNiroNHpoN mao; tune 

(III 86) 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX I 19 

(♦)30. SOME SPECIAL THEMATIC ROLES OF THE CIRCUM¬ 
STANTIAL 

The circumstantial is used as theme (subject) in certain special Cleft 
Sentence (“It is... that.../who...“) patterns, in which it marginally 
overlaps with the relative topic (see section 33). The focus, invariably 
initial in this pattern, is either an adverbial or a nominal syntagm. 

Bibliography: 

* Shisha-Half.vy, chap. 2, par. 2.5 

1. oypcuMe ne ne-XAcj eoyNTAq mmay NoycpHpe xyw tpcepe 

CNTG (III 96) 

(OBS. This is a narrative (here parable) opening role of thc.CIcft 
Sentence; cf. Lc. 15:11J 

2. eTsenii pu> eAnjcoeic mgctcuoy n^mg Sponne (III 133) 

3. NAOJ N£G TGNOy COyOl AN NNGTCCDK NNCyepHY C^pAI 

GNI^IGIT 6TNHAY NIC ARC £ldoCM (A II 155) 

4. 2*2 mcn nujajcg ganjrooy Ayco anca^oy GTaeneacno 

MnCCDTMp A YU) T€(|MNTNOY*T€ (Cat. 42) 

m 

5. NAcy n^€ goynobg nan an ttc (Miss. 278) 

6. OY»P NiyAHA ^INHCTGIA ... €p€€ipG MMOOy (HI 199) 

7. ujantgoy <5e a; tone gncostg nan mtuccd^t NTre^GNNA 
(Rossi 2/3 43) 

(NB: cyANTGOY ujoone, followed by the circumstantial, is the 
Coptic idiom corresponding to “Until when...?” (oy “what?“)} 



(B) THE RELATIVE CONVERSION: ADNOMINAL 
(ATTRIBUTIVE) 


31.1 The antecedent: definite article, demonstrative pronoun: determi¬ 
nated (definite) relative 

31.U1 The formal antecedent n-: nominalized (“lexcmic”) relative: 
“one who” 

31.2 Antecedent: definite noun syntagm 

■ 

* 

32 The relative conversion carried on 

# 

33 The Cleft Sentence with relative topic and pronominal/nominal focus 
“It is he/the man who (whom)...” 

33.1 The focus: noun syntagm, determinated relative, demonstrative 
and interrogative pronouns 

33.2 The focus: personal pronoun 

33.2 The Cleft Sentence converted 

GTC- / 6T-, 6TG-, GTGpG- / GNT-, NT- / 6- + clause. Table G 

The relative conversion marks an adnominal attributive status of the 

I 

clause (c.g., marks the clause as expanding and describing a noun or 
pronoun): it always follows its antecedent ( = expanded noun/pronoun, 
nucleus). 

NB: (I) the relative does not occur after indefinite or zero determi¬ 
nation. ; 

% 

(2) The two basic constructions of the relative verb clause are: 

(a) antecedent + relative (actor of verb = antecedent : “the man who 
heard”, “the man who. will come”); the antecedent is resumed only 
where the conjugation pattern has an obligatory actor expression, 
i.c. the base-conjugation and adjective verbs. 

(b) antecedent + relative + resumption of antecedent (actor of verb 

not — antecedent: “the man whom I heard”, “the man to whom I 

■ 

will come”, lit. ”... who I heard him”, ”... who I will come to him”). 
Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 400, 401-405, 409, 411, 414. 417, 419, 424, 426-427, 428-429, 432- 
434, 436, 438-439; Steindorff parr. 454-455, 459-482; Till parr. 461-474, 476- 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


121 


486; Vergote parr. 166-168; 172, 189(7); Lamddin parr. 3.1, S.l, 12.1-3. 13.2. 
19.1, 21.1, 25.1, 24.2, 28.1; * Polotsky, Mjw. Transposition , (A) 


31.1 THE ANTECEDENT. DEFINITE ARTICLE, DEMONSTRA¬ 
TIVE PRONOUN (definite determinated relative) 


n-eT- (etc) “he who ...”, t-gt- (etc.) “she who ...”, n-gt- (etc.) “they 
who”: The definite relative form functions to all main purposes as a 
definite noun syntagm or proper names (sections 1-4). There is no 
restriction of tense or predicate; the dcf. article varies freely: masculine, 
feminine or plural; the whole expresses either a specific or a generic 
substantival relative clause. 

Note the three main constructions: 


(a) article + 


the 


ft 


antecedent 


actor), with the actor not expressed in the conjugation form (c.g. 
affirmative durative present); 

(b) article + relative + resumptive pronoun (“the one that listened”, 

‘‘he who had”, “he who is not listening” “that which is good”: 

actor) where the actor is expressed in the converted 


antecedent = 

conjugation form (e.g. tense-base conjugation, negatived durative present 
and future (ere-Nq-... an) existential possession, suffixed-aclor forms 
such as the Adjective Verbs); 

(c) article + relative ... -f resumptive pronoun ( antecedent not = 
actor : “he whom I am listening to”, “he whom I saw”, “that which he 


has 


»♦ 44 


he whose house I shall see”, “he about whom they say...”) 


Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 246, 404; Steindorff parr. 476-477; Till parr. 476-481; Veroote 
parr. 125, 168; Lambdin par. 3.1, 27.2; * Polotsky, Nom. Transposition parr. 
51-57, 61-62; Qukcke “Relativsalz”; Shisha-Halevy p. 1 14 


1. tightA qoyeiNe AqoyeiNe (III 222) 

2. NGNTAqAAy XINTApXH MTTCCDNT MNNGTqNAAAy ^NTCyNTG- 

AGIA MTTAKUN (P 130.2 85 VO) 

3. TGTCOOq T6TA.OBG (Ch. 78) 

4. TfGTMMXy (IV 113) 

5. NGT^MITGN^HT (III 108) 

6. NGNTAynAtAGye ^NNcrp a<J>h cecooyN mttbcda nncicpajcg 

(Wess. 9 151) 

7. NCTGTGyCyNMOGIA TIG MIUJ6 NMMAK (Ch. 37) 

8 . flGTGNOyq N6 flGTNANOyq HIM (A I 236) 

9. nGTGncuq ne itgtgtudi an ne (Ch. 77) 



122 


SECOND PART 


10. neTencuN neTewncuN an ne aaaa NAneppo nexc Ne (III 

69) 

11. N€T6NC€COOyN an MnNoyTe (Ch. 78) 

12. N€TeajAp€N€TMe MtiNoyTe HNneqjTc Jtooy THpoy (Wess. 9 
148) 

13. qc^oyopr NOineroyjttD epoq jceoyeitor ne MNT€Toy.xa> 
epoc JceoyHAAy Te eyujANJci-neywTON HAyAAy (IV 153) 

14. Tc nNoyTe Aycu nujHpe wnNoyre neTeMnqtco CTAAq 

^ANCNNoee (IV 42) 

15. neTOYNAOjoyonq (P 130.5 HI ro) 

16. ceTAyo HneTeNcecooyN an JteqNAu^tune (P 130.4 97 ro) 

17. NeNTAq.xi6oA epoN n^htoy (Ch. 94) 

18. Neeooy MNNerNANoyoy (IV 35) 

19. NeTeoyNTAynoeiK (Ch. 120) 

20. nAi eTMHAy NTATeTNMecTooq (Jcl.) 

9 

21. ^Tooy ncabbaton rppowne nai €NTAneNeitt>T KAAy nan 

eepAi (IV 120) 

{NB: Tppowne see poMne) 

22 . Nu^AJte, ntco<J>ia HnNoyTe ctn^htk. tai eTepeTAiKAio- 

CyNH NHy 6BOA N^HTC (III 14) 

23. (Can I hide) npH ^Sme hnitoo^ mnncioy nai eTKtpMupe nay 
(C h. 43) 

24. nim ne nAi crepe nexc cpAJte ^TBHHTq (Ch. 135) 

25. N€T6MNn€TO njcocic epooy NHAy NCAnNoyTe (A I 164) 


31.1.1 THE FORMAL ANTECEDENT n-: THE LEXEMIC NOMI- 
NALIZED RELATIVE 

neT- “one who...” 

The nominalized relative functions as a lexeme-equivalent zero-determi¬ 
nated noun, and is preceded by any of the determinators (section I). 
Both tense (present only: durative and Adjective Verbs) and predicate 
(mostly quality: slative and Adjective Verb) arc restricted. The element 

n- is in this case not the definite article: neT- is the invariable form. 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 246, 404; Steindorff par. 478; Till parr. 480-481; Vergote parr. 
125, 168; Lambdin parr. 3.1, 27.2; * Polotsky, Norn. Transposition parr. 74-79; 
Quecke “Rdativsatz”; * Shisha-Halevy p. 114 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


123 


1. neTNANoyq nim (A 1 133) 

2. aq.xeneeooy (III 104) 

3. scntigtnanoyoy (HI 33) NeYneTNANOYoy (A 11 471) 

4. oyneeHn (III 88) ^eNneeHn (III 49) Necneneenn THpoy 
(III 57) 

5. MNTreeooY na^cdn epooy (RE 10 164) 

6. cycune Nu^Hpe NrenneTJcoce (A II 452) 

7. €Y<ilANpneTNANoyq (IV 3) 

8. N€YMNTAC€BHC €TOY€ipe NMOOY ^MTineeHTT (IV 2) 

9. oyneTeujtpe (A II 256) 

10. cn*y HnGTNANOYq (P 130.4 93 vo) 

11. ^GNKoyi ?5neTNANOYOY (III 206) 

12. NiMNT^cesHC HNNinerq^oyciT (Orig. 414) 

13. Tutoetc HNNcqnGToyx ab (Orig. 390) 

14. H€CT€*nneoooY ngtgtnmcpg- nneTNANoyq (Orig. 202) 

$1.2 THE ANTECEDENT: DEFINITE NOUN SYNTAGM 

m 

DEFINITE DETERMINATOR + [noun lexeme] + RELATIVE CONVERSION 

Note the three main constructions: 

(a) article ,+ relative (“the one that is listening”: antecedent - 
actor ), with the actor not expressed in the conjugation form (c.g. 
affirmative durative present) 

(b) article + relative + resumptive pronoun (“the one that listened”, 
“he who had”, “he who is not listening” “that which is good”: 

A 

antecedent * actor) where the actor is expressed in the converted 
conjugation form (e.g. tense-base conjugation, negatived durative present 
and future (ete-wq-... an) existential possession, suffixcd-actor forms 
such as the Adjective Verbs) 

(c) article + relative ,.. + resumptive pronoun {antecedent not = 

actor: “he whom I am listening to”, “he whom 1 saw”, “that which he 
has”, “he whose house I shall see”, “he about whom they say...”) 

NB: (1) the resumption is by means of a 3rd person pronoun (“he”, 
“she” “they”) unless the relative expression is addressed (“vocative”), 
when a 2nd person resumption (“you” masc./ fern ./plural) is idiomatic. 

(2) The resumptive pronoun is normally absent when the antece¬ 
dent is a time-expression or place-expression noun (“the time when ...”, 
“the place where...”). For place expressions, mm Ay “there” and cm Ay 
“thither” serve as resumption of the antecedent. 



124 


SECOND PART 


1. TOprM 6 NTAC 6 I CACDN 6 BOA ^ITMneNTAqTAMieiTTHpq HNOy- 

re nn 6 om (III 222) 

2. nMA €TKNABtt)K 6 MAy (III 173) 

s 

3. n 6 NTH<J eu^iyMoy eyujANoyoMq (RE 11 15) 

4. TiKxeApToc NcyNArojrM eTMMiy (Ch. 123) 

5. N^Noyrrcyajce nta^jcooc nano yN 6 NTANenpo<]>HTHC ac 

2 U)oy on Jtooy (P 131.6 73 vo) 

6 . T€lfyXH ENTArTCATANAC AAC NBAAH H AqCpMptUMC (HI 210) 

7. au; ne nicAipoc ETeNNApnArAooN N£Hrq (IV 179) 

8 . U) NpCDMC CTepe*|*CHH A1761 AH GptUTN JC 6 N 6 BOA ^NOy'f'TCDN 

(Ch. 47) 

9. neqcNoq mhin MMoq eroyAAB (Ch. 175) 

10. NinAeoc 6 TCH<y (Ch. 163) 

1 1. TieN^HT CTO NKAK .6 ^NOy^BA (WcSS. 9 173) 

12. ^(ub nih eTeqjuje eAAy (IV 43) 

(NB: the resumption here is in the object of the infinitive} 

13. See Mneyxoeic eTeMnq^cu epoq eaccneeooy en^m^aa 
HIT 6 XC (Ch. 189) 

14. ^eeNoc nih NpcuHE eTeMnoycoyNnHoyTC (Ch. 180) 

15. Nee eroyAtyc Nee ntayjcooc (Ch. 49) 

{NB: GToyAUjc = er-oy-oyAujc (3rd person plural actor)} 

16? ceNA'f' NAq HnoeiK eTenAi ne nnonoc MnnoyTe (Ch. 127) 

[OBS. eTenAi ne “namely”, “that is to say”] 

17. ANONNujHpe NoypcuMe NoyoiT eTenNoyre ne Ayco anonn- 
ujHpe NoyHAAy NoycoT eTceiAHM Sme ne (IV 129) 

(OBS. 6 T 6 *... ne occurs after definite or indefinite antecedents in 

the sense “that is...”, “namely”] 

■ _ _ 

18. N^ooy eTecooyN h eTeTNCOoyN JtecyAtei ujApcoTN (III 21) 
{NB: eTecooyN 2nd sgl. fern, actor of the present} 

[OBS. The absence of resumption is typical of time-expression and 
place-expression antecedents, in adverbial relation with the verb 
expanding them; so also the next text. However, in texts 7 and 11 we 
find full resumption of time antecedents] 

19. TApXH NTAqCCONT MnpeuMe (IV 34) 

{NB: TApxH used as a time-expression} 

20. NeNneoooy eenn (A l 451) 

{NB: a nominalized relative with the possessive article serves as 
antecedent of another relative conversion} 

21. ITHA eNTATTGT€COOYN AN J£€NIM ne KIH NTeqAne 6 JCO) 

mm Ay 2 Noy 6 cuNT MNoyopm (A I 78) “ 


TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


125 


(NB: a “Chinese box” construction: mmay resumes tima (the 
external relative), ne resumes it- in neTecooYw; neTecooyN 
2nd sgl. fern, actor; eactu preposition, 2 nd sgl fern, form} 


32 THE RELATIVE CONVERSION CARRIED ON 

Constructions: 

(a) definite relative - a.y< d/h - definite (or undctcrminatcd) 
relative (all conjugation forms) 

(b) relative - (ay<d/h) - relative (all conjugation forms) 

(c) relative - (xyw/H) - circumstantial (ail conjugation forms) 

(d) RELATIVE - (AYU>/m/0) ~ UNCONVERTED CONJUGATION FORM (only 

perfect) 

Bibliography: 

Steindorff par. 475; Till parr. 482-486 

1. neTpHC Aya> CTpoeic (III 74) 

2. n€NTA<|TAMIOOY Ay<D n€TNA*t’6oH NAY (III 68) 

3. tail a© Ape i a eToyeipc mmoc h eroyNAAAc (IV 48f.) 

[OBS. This is an example of the well known “tautological’' figura 

Sinuthiana in which a lexeme is repeated in a more or less different 

grammatical characterization] 

4. rreNTA<|p2HreM(DN cohbaic Aycu eAq^AyroycTAAioc epA- 

xoTe (Ch. 108) 

5. niNod HHHHqje N'f'AeiHC CNTAydoiAe epoN h gayoyujz 
JMITMA wnpo (III 69) 

6. neTqjoon ay<d neTNAUjoone (III 41) 

7. Noeitc eNTAqcMoy epooy NTAyoyiDM Aycei eaox n^htoy 

(Ch. 158) 

8. N6NTAY2® ^ApATR AK^CUM G-XCDOy (Ch. 29) 

9. NeTNKoric Aycu erTA^e ^mitc^ooy (IV 180) 

10. NeTNATIApABA H N€THAK(UHuJ NCCOOy (IV 47) 

11. TeNTACHoy aytoynocc (Ch. 194) 

33. THE CLEFT SENTENCE WITH NOMINAL/PRONOMINAL 
FOCUS AND RELATIVE TOPIC: “It is I who speak to you”, “It is 

God who will provide”, “It was not John whom I saw” — a construc¬ 
tion used to put a noun or pronoun in focus with a complete verb clause 
as its topic. 



126 


SECOND PART 


Constructions: 

(33.1) (a) # noun (focus) + tt-/t-/n- - relative (topic; the form of 
the topic in agreement with the gender of the focus) # 

(33.2) (bj) # personal pronoun (focus) + relative # (focus: present, 

future) 

(b 2 ) # personal pronoun (focus) + n- relative # (topic invari¬ 
able; all forms) 

(b 3 ) # PERSONAL PRONOUN (focus) + TT-/T-/N- - RELATIVE # 

(topic in agreement with the gender of the pronominal focus) 

# 

Negatived : # (n) FOCUS an Topic # 

l 

NB: of the two main constituents of this pattern, the first (noun or 
pronoun) is always the focus (marked predicate), the second the topic 
(verbal logical subject). 

Bibliography: 

Lamddin par. 13.2; Polotsky, “Nominalsalz und Cleft Sentence”; * Nominate 
Transposition , parr. 94, 97-106, 112-120, 132-134; Shisha-Halevy, “Discovery 
Procedure”, 167 ff. 


33.1 THE FOCUS: PROPER NAME, NOUN SYNTAGM or DE¬ 
TERMINATED RELATIVE, DEMONSTRATIVE, INDEFINITE or 
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 


1. qcooyN N*roq Jce-nNoyTe ncTqNAy epoq (Orig. 432) 

2. MMOHiXOC N6THn €pNHCT€IA (Ch. 102) 

3. TTNoyre neNTAqTpeyujcune (III 47) 

4. oycMoy naoj naihc neT^i^KcuN (III 37) 

5. noyoeiN neqjAqqi hhay httkakc nqAAq Nee MneTenq- 
t <yoon an (P 131.4 157 ro) 

6. neKCTAypoc neNTAqK im citka^ THpq (RE 10 163) 

7. HnpcoHC an nerKTo hhoc (i.e. the sword) (IV 12) 

I 

8. nerepenpeuM© rAp NAJtooq nAi OHncT<jNAO^cq(BKU 180.2) 

9. NAI ON N€ CTCJCOJ HHOC CpOOy ^UKUC JC€ ... (ill 53) 

{NB: nc et- a variant of nct-?} 



10. oy rAp natagon neTennenNoyTe TAAq nhtn (Ch. 97) 

' Hn W ' 


i 


.1 Y 




coo on jcenoyq an nc (Ch. 97) , < i » 

hctnana nih neTNAcyN-^THq ^ANcywpe NKpONOC (Ch. 156) 


I 


¥Um ** '• « tm 

r,NAIABOA.OC,neTNAUJ+ OYBHC H NIK 

i e?oyN epoc (IV-75) . 


TANAC.TT6TNA- 

?? • * t v ; ‘ 


1 

I 



% > 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


127 


14. neT<joYA.u}q neNTAqAAq (Cat. 42) 

[OBS. The focus here is a definite del. relative; similarly in text 15. 
In text 8, a del. relative is extraposed to the Cleft Sentence] 

15. nerq^AJce an neTNA-f^An epcoTN aaaa nexc neTNA'f^An 
epcoTN (Leyd. 333) 

16. ciNoyoioc niCAAXiCTOC figtc^ai MneqMepiT ngicot 

N 660 <t>IAeCTXT 0 C Ay<JL) HMAKAplOJTATOC AnA TIMOOGOC 

(Mun. 95) 

17. uj€noyt€ neTC^Ai nta^com (III 21) 

[OBS. In texts 17-20 we find the Cleft Sentence (with a Proper 
Name as focus) in the role of a letter-opening self-identification and 
narrative-opening construction] 

18. oyppo neNTAqoYtoq; gkcot NoynoAic h oyHi NNeqn ato i 

(A II 462) 

19. oYpcone neTeoyNTAq mm ay Nqjupe cnay (Ch. 103; cf. Lc. 

15:11) 

mm 

20. qjoNTe ncttico NArAooN ngtkh e^pAi 2-X2 TNN€ Y e P H Y (M 27) 

21. ^gncmoy NCTNAqjcone N£HTq (Young 3) 


33.2 THE FOCUS: PERSONAL PRONOUN 


1. NTCOTN 6 TCOOYN (III 24) 

2. NTOK GTCOUJ NTOK CTCCOTM (III 104) 

3. anon neTTTHT iiccoq GHooYTq (Ch. 70) 

4. 6 NTO AN neNTAnMOY NNOBC NIM €1 60 OA £ITOOT€ (P 


130.2 67 178) 

(NB: €NTO = NTO } 

5. ntcotn rAp N€Tepenq;AA€ .xco mmoc epcoTN ate... (Ill 48) 
[OBS. contrast the alloculive (2nd-pcrson) resumption in texts 4. 5, 
9 with the dclocutive resumption of a 2nd-person focus in 8] 

6. N6NTAYMOY HNneXC NTOOY NGTNACON^ ON MNTT€XC (IV 4) 

7. ntcotn NCTeHneneY^An CA^coq cboa mmooy JtiNNujopri 
Ayco NneneYCNoq cotyM esox (A II 107) 

8. NTOK TieNTAKpq>pn-M€plTN (RE 10 162) 

9. ntooy €Tpco<ye (IV 98) 

10. ©NGNTOOY' n€NTAYPNOB€ ©TTNOYTG JtNANON T7CNT ANpNOBG 

epoq(III v 38) ; 


> -j t i, (NB: 6Ne< interrogation mark) 

5 ' ** 


1 L$ ntooy. Nctnaaan nhttoja noymjl nmton (Ch. 156) 

>^W**+^ **V4P*‘ - ■ ... 


12..itnoyt« N*roit ©tnakotk nFtan^on (IV 74) 


13. NToq n©TeoYN6oH MHoq gbcdk e?pAi camntg (A I 193) 


128 


SECOND PART 


33.3 THE CLEFT SENTENCE CONVERTED: circumstantial (e-), 
preterite (ng-) 

1. AyecuK on GTcqxAptc tgtp 2 MM 6 mhooy (HI 87) 

2. NNGyecyJClOY^NAAY eoyOHej NTOOTOY NNCTJUAKONei 6NA- 
NOK AN TTGNTAITAAq NAy (IV ! 13) 

3. (He saying:) Jiroq neNTiqnopKT gboa. NA.NA2 2NTCyNAro>rH 
GNANOK AN TTGNTAIITOpKq GBOA. (III 141 f.) 

4. (There being four Gospels only) gnai NGTpoyoGiN ennocMoc 
Twpq (Wess. 9 143) 

5. GNeoy'l'yxH an n^cuon tgtn2htoy ngynacuu) an ne xe ... 

(Ill 220) 

{NB: cng- ... NGyMA- ... hypothetical (remote) condition and 
result: section 41 1 circumstantial preterite conversion of the Cleft 
Sentence} 

6. Neoy TTGTcyoon (Orig. 334) 

7. 26 Npo)H€ eneyA 2 e nGNTAqattuit gboa. (A I 43) 

8. NOG ON CT6AMNTG fTGTNAK AHpONOMGI NNGTNAMOy 2P AI 

2nng ynoBG ... (A I 232) 


I 

\ 

t 



(C) THE “SECOND TENSE” CONVERSION: THE FOCUSSING 

MARK 


34.1 Cleft Sentence with initial Second Tense topic, non-interrogative 

adverbial focus: eqAzepATq htic iMA “It is here that he stands’' 

34.2 Cleft Sentence with initial Second Tense topic, interrogative adver¬ 
bial focus: eqA^cpATq mttgima ctbcoy “Why is it that he stands 

here?” 

35 Cleft Sentence with initial (mostly interrogative) adverbial focus: 
ctbcoy cRatio mmoc “Why do you say it?” (“Why is it that...”) 

36 Cleft Sentence with interrogative or non-inlerrogative nominal/ pro¬ 
nominal focus, Second Tense topic: ckjccoy “What do you say?”, 
ntaoy ipionc “What happened?” (“What is it that...”) 

37 Cleft Sentence: the Second Tense (Second Present) focussing its own 
predicate adverb: cqnoN “Where is he?” (“Where is it that...”) 

38 Cleft Sentence: the Second Tense focussing its own lexeme: ckaobc 
“Y ou arc crazy!”. The Second Tense in rhetorical questions. 

C-/NT-, CNT-/CTC- + conjugation form: Tabic G 

The Second Tense conversion marks the conjugation form in the 
following ways: 

■ 

(a) (in the presence of other elements than the verb) as of lower 
predicativity than other, non-verbal clause constituents, thereby putting 
the latter into focus (focussing or emphasizing them); the English 
equivalent would be a Cleft Sentence (“It is... that...”; French “C'est... 
que...”), with the Second Tense its “that...” component; 

(b) (where only the conjugation form is the pertinent unit) as einpha- 

♦ 

sizing or underlining its own adverbial verbal or predicate: “He did go 
(indeed)”, “You are (truly) crazy”, “Will I sin?” (rhetorical), “There he 



130 


SECOND PART 


Bibliography; 

Till par. 303; Vi-rgote par. 163; Lambdin parr. 14.1-2, 24.1-2, 25.1, 28.1-2; 
Polotsky, Eludes pp. 20-68; ‘‘Conjugation System” parr. II, 30-32; * Nom. 
Transposition, parr. 121-136; * Shisiia-Hallvy, Chapter 2 


34.1 The Cleft Sentence with an INITIAL SECOND TENSE TOPIC 
followed by a NON-INTERROGATIVE ADVERBIAL FOCUS: ‘‘It is 
there that he sat” 

# second tense + adverb # (see Table G) 

Cleft Sentence Negatived : # (n-) Second Tense an adverb # 

4 

NB: As “adverb” here count all lexical adverbs, prepositional phrases, 
dependent clause conjugation forms (7.1-7.3), circumstantial conversion 
(28), final clauses (ace- or xckxxc with the Optative or Second 
Future, 6.4, 17.2). 

1. rrei^cua ntainay epoq 2 mtt€bot €nHTT (iv 198) 

2. TTeTNioycou) eMoyoyT NoyApAKtuM G<yAqpA?Tq eTeqAne 

(Ch. 73) 

3. neToycoqj gccutm MxpeqccoTH xyw NTAqctUTM Nxq MAy- 

xxq (III 165) 

4. 7c q)ooti nmmay an € a) xeqeyoorr on eqeyoon ^HneyAxc 
(IV 24) 

5. neyNoyTe an ne ic aaaa eyo n^m^aa mpim ammcdnac (Cli. 

• 109 f.) 

6. ei<yA.xe epoi nmmhtn (III 184) 

(NB: nmmhtn adds “you” (pi.) to the 1st sgl. in epoi} 

7. N€TJtoce eyatoce erseNeynpASic NAfAeoN (IV 4) 

8. eqjJteoyNrq- oydoM rxp on eoyNTAqc ^nngtkama NAq 

n^htoy (HI 85) 

9. noth a rAp eywA xeeqNANA nay (Ch. 98) 

{NB: the final (purpose) clause is here put in focus} 

10. nai A€ eixu> HHooy eiTAeio an hmoi mayaat aaaa 

eiTAMO MMCDTN (III 35) 

{NB: two circumstantial present forms are here in focus; the 

negator negatives the Cleft Sentence, not the circumstantial: “It is 
not..., but... that...”} 

11. eqiAYqm^HBC hmay eptyANnoyoeiN ei e^pAi (IV 20) 

{NB: the conditional is here in focus} 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


131 


[OBS. The sense “as soon as...” or “no sooner... than...’* is 
idiomatically conveyed by the combination of a Second Tense with 

a circumstantial or conditional] 

_ _ _ ^ \ _ 

12. NTAfTAIKAIOC I CDS ppMMAO AN ^MTTNOyTe 6TBCN6CJMNTNA 

Hxyixy xwx eTBeNKecyowe (III 78) 

a 

(OBS. Of two (or more) non-inierrogalivc adverbial adjunts, it is 
usually the last that is put in focus by the Second Tense] 

13. NNeyccuae an N^eNtcooye xwx eyctuae HMooy h Ay a Ay 

(IV 5I)_ 

{NB: nn€<|" ... an is a frequent form of the negatived Second 
Present construction] 

14. NTAicoycuNe rAp an Nappe xwx 'fcooyN mho atiNNq;opn 

(HI 21) 

15. nta yt* NAq-n^AT rAp an JteeqeTOMcq ^mttk A£ (Lcyd. 311) 
(NB: T constitutes a compound verb with na-*, which governs here 
an immediate direct object (ti^at)) 

16. mh ecyApenMATOi an oepo eNeq.xA.xe ^NNeqeoTaeq MMiupe 

(III 200) 

17. MH NCNlUCp AN NNtrpA<|>H NOytUT H TICIMyCTHpiON AN NOyOJT 

neTNJci eaoA ^HT<j (III 221) 

(OBS. Note the combination of two complementary focussing 
patterns: a Second Tense construction with a Cleft Sentence with 
nominal focus] 


34.2 The Cleft Sentence with an INITIAL SECOND TENSE TOPIC 
followed by an INTERROGATIVE ADVERBIAL FOCUS: “Where is 
it that he sat?” 

t 

a 

# SECOND TENSE + ADVERB # (SC€ Table G) 

NB: the focus here is an interrogative adverbial, mostly a prepositional 
phrase containing an interrogative pronoun: “why?” “where?”, ‘‘whither?’* 
“in what way?”, “how much? (adv.)”, “in which house?” 

1. 6T6TNA8CUK 6TOJN (III 74) 

2. epecoTn nto cnim (P 130.2 6 87) 

3. eqNHy epoy (IV 94) 

(NB: here the adverb in focus is an infinitive (p-, sec eipe), 

attached with €~ as adjunct (“in order to...”), with the interr. 

■ 

pronoun as direct object) 



F 32 


SECOND PART 


4. epecyoae noy nto eNpeqpnoBe Tupoy ntapaikaioc N^oyo 
epooy £Noy (III 207) 

5. eNMceye eoy de Tenoy gmttnmgtanoi gjcnngnnobg h nkcu 

N^THN GNIM H N6(Uti;T GBOA £HTq NNIM €Tp€yf?pO<|)HT€Y€ 

NAN NKCCOn (IV 183) 

(NB: nkcju, n6 cd cy t = gnk.cu, eNOcocy*?) 

6. ey6oNT epooy MAyAToy Soynp eTBeneNTAyAAq (IV 6) 

7. h eicNAcyoycyoy mmok NA<y njc niNOHOc mioyjlai (A II 385) 

8. N-fcooyN an JteeNNHy gjpai €Neq6ia NAcy Nje (Ch. 156) 

9. nih neTMAnpocexe. an .xeeqoycDM NAcy N^e (IV 156) 

(OBS. Note the combination of the two Cleft Sentence types: the 
first with pronominal, the second with an adverbial interrogative] 

10. NToq eTCooyN JteNTAqjcirq njcna? eTBeoy (IV 60) 

11. eyo NAcy n^g.tgnoy ^nmmok^c €TO yN 2 HToy (IV 6) 

35 The Cleft .Sentence with an INITIAL (interrogative or non-intcr- 
rogative) ADVERBIAL FOCUS followed by a SECOND TENSE 
TOPIC: “Why is it that he sits here?’*, “That is why he said this” 

# ADVERB + SECOND TENSE # (Table G) 

C 'left Sentence negatived: # adverb an + Second Tense # 

NB: As “adverb” here count some lexical adverbs non-interrogative 
prepositional phrases, dependent clause conjugation forms (7.1-7.3), 
circumstantial conversion (28) and very characteristically two interroga¬ 
tive prepositional phrases: naoj n^g “how?” and gtbg-oy “why?” 

Bibliography: 

* Shisha-Halevy, par. 2.4 

1. erseoy eKNAacnecyHpe NJtioye to npcuMe a yen nto zcucdtg 

tgc^img (Or. 153) 

2. NAcy n^g eyoyGHNOBG an (A II 337) 

3. MH ^CDC-AGHT AN GperfAl TAMO MHO (A I 113) 

4. NAcy rAp n^g h gtbgoy epcic NApoyHi h oyTonoc no)mho 
G poq (A II 8f.) 

5. it a a cue 6e eyoyecy TTAqGNGBicu (III 46) 

6. GTBGTIAI NTAqJCOOC JtG ... £ITMITAI NTAyJtOOC NdtNGrpA<f>H 

Ate... (Wess. 9 144, 152) 

7. GBOA TCDN NTA^euptreNHC CCUOy^ G^OyN NOyACyH NcyAAte 

mmntaaP (Wess. 9 131) ~ 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


133 


8. jmttai on eyTHM n<5incybaa (Wess. 9 128) 

9. eyMocTe mmcutn an eyxw nhtn nnai (Wess. 9 158) 

{NB: an negates the preposed circumstantial focus: “It is not hating 
you that...”; sim. in text 12 (conditional focus)} 

10. ^pAi n^htc eyNA+^An eoyoN nim NcexpiNe NoyoN nih 
GBOA JITOOTC (IV 17) 

11. eTBenxi NTAneiNod NCA^oy ei g?pai GJCMnei^HreMcuN 

(Mun. 96) 

12. epq^ANTBAiyop AtyKAK GBOA AN ... GpGnNoyi Tppe (Ch. 38) 

13. MH 6TBGNANOBG AN NTAKM ACTITOy MHOI (A 1 81) 

36 Cleft Sentence with (mostly interrogative) NOMINAL or PRO¬ 
NOMINAL FOCUS and SECOND TENSE TOPIC: “What is it you 
say?”, ‘‘What is it that has happened?” 

The focus occupies here the normal place of the non-focal actor or 
object. The actor following the conjugation base in the base conjugation, 
the Second Tense converter in the durative pattern, the object following 
the infinitive. 

Bibliography: 

* Shisha-Halkvy, par. 2.3 

1. NTOIC ^CDCDK GKOyCDMNOBG AytD Oy£p6 AN (A II 509) 

{NB: oycuM orthographic variant of the construct oyen-} 

2. eq^JCGAuceoyu^AJCG ntai JtGne't'CooyN mmocj (Wess. 9 171) 

3. GpGTlNOyTG NApOy NAI GIUJANpNOBG (Ch. 71) 

4. ginatOa'ig-au; mmgaoc ntakaau; h eiNApJuy hhgaoc 

NTAAAinCDpOC NTAMAKApUG NACp (A II 512) 

{NB: nta- 1st sgl. of the conjunctive (42.1): “and ...”} 

5. CINAJCGOyHp TGNOy (A II 510) 

6. NTATIHI poy MITONHpON (A 11 150) 

7. NTGTNCOOyN AN JtGGyJtGOy (P 130.2 111 vo) 

8. eiNAoycMoy (Ch. 105) 

9. CpGNIM NANA NAN GpGNIMNAC£)OnN GpOCJ (P 131.5 4 VO) 

10. NTAN1M NO^(JUC GN6£ KANGCOOy JMnO^G AyCU TUJAipG 

2HnTp6qHoy (A II 18) 



134 


SECOND PART 


37. THE SECOND TENSE PUTTING IN FOCUS ITS OWN 
ADVERBIAL PREDICATE: “Where is it that he is?” 

For adverbs which occur also as predicates in the present pattern 
(section 19), this construction differs in the degree of locality: the 

Second Tense marks the adverb as higher on the scale of focality (“there 

« 

he is” as contrasted with “he is there”). Others, notably tcun “where?”, 
occur only in the Second Tense conversion. 

NB: eqTcuw “where is he?” is special in that a nominal theme, if 
postposed, is immediately adjoined to it and, unlike all other conjugation 

I _ 

forms, is not introduced by i56i-. 

Bibliography : 

Polotsky, “Conjugation System”, par. 30; * Nominate Transposition par. 122; 
♦Shisiia-Halevy par. 2.1.1 

1. eqTU)N TT6KUT h tmaay h nq^Hpe h ficoN (Leyd. 410) 

2. eCTCDN TCNITA.ANH MNT€NMNTUJAqTC H CqTCON TTCnOoA. 

HNTeNHNTNoyjc MirreN^ynoitpicic (Leyd. 316) 

3. ecNccuN epNose Aycu eTMeipe (Ch. 65) 

4. epeioYAAC qioon Torn Tewoy eq^NAMNTe (A II 53) 

5. hh ew^NTeieicKAHciA hoy cut Ayco reicyNArcorH NoycoT 

(III 220f.) 

6. TIMA €Tep€TqjeA.€€T MM Ay eqMMAy N(5inNyM<f>IOC MNN6T- 

NMMAq (Ch. 138) 

7. epenpeuMe ntootc (IV 12) 


38 THE SECOND TENSE PUTTING IN FOCUS ITS OWN 
PREDICATE VERB: “You are crazy”, “He (docs) sin” 

Note especially: 

(a) the use of the Second Tense in rhetorical questions; 

(b) the antithetic Second Tense (second member of antithetic figures); 

(c) the use of the Second Future as a jussive, instruction form (“let him 
hear!”) or 3rd-person imperative) 

Bibliography : 

* Shisha-Halevy, parr. 2.1.2-2.1.7 

1. MnenAiKAioc Moy aaaa eqnicoTK (Ch. 207; cf. Lc. 8:52) 

2. AN't'Tpeyncupeic MneieNTH<$ ... NTAyTxoOe MMoq NToq 
Ay a? AyTCoq (IV 157) 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


135 


{NB: TTCDpen * ntopic} 

3. eiq^XHJcooc nc eipNoae (K 926) 

4. eyqjANoytu eyTtDMC NTeTMooyT eyH^pm (IV 63) 

5. epeneitDT NNeicyNArturH NicnoyAixe eTpeycOpA^T 

2 <uoy N2^2 Neon ^NNeyHi (IV 50) 

6. oyoN A6 nih ctnaci e^oyN cyApoN epMONixoc eire 
^ooyT eire c£tMe eyNAA.noTJk.cce ntyopn N^Nixy nih 
eTeoyNTAycoy (IV 71) 

7. epenNoyTe natako nta'I'YXh (III 20) 

8. (He violated his oath) esoA. an aceeqp^OTe h eqcyine (AI 131 f.) 

9. hh ecfNAtfioyOeptuB e?pAi epoi h €C|naaat n^hkc (Ch. 70) 
10. mh eyNTANti^AJcc hh Ay €jcu> (BM Cat. 94) 



(D) THE PRETERITE CONVERSION: THE OFF-PLANE/OFF- 

PACE PROJECTING MARK 




39 In NARRATIVE 

39.1 Narrative detailed (“slow motion”) description: progressive view 
of action, recurring action, state, circumstance: the Imperfect. 
Projection onto the historical plane. 

39.1.1 Converted imperfect in narrative: the Imperfect in adnoniinal 
status 

39.2 Framing action in narrative: verbs of saying, perceiving, feeling 

_ « 

39.3 Background, anteriority in narrative. Narrator's interposition: 
interpretation, background information or personal-altitudinal paren¬ 
thesis 

40 The Imperfect in dialogue or exposition: Past stale, habit, durative 
action. 

41 The Preterite converter expressing remoteness from reality or 

HYPOTHETICALITY 

41.1 The remote condition (“irrealis” protasis): circumstantial 
preterite 

l* F 

41.2 Remote wish: ?amoi 

41.3 Remote consequence: past future. Imperfect, past nominal 

SENTENCE 


N€- H- clause: Table G 

An off-plane, off-pace projecting mark, the preterite converter indicates 

■ 

a deviation in time, pace (“tempo”) or actuality from a mainstream 
frame 4 0f reference. In narrative, this means a change in narrative pace 
(esp. from historical narration to description or detail-rich recounting) 
or in time perspective (background, anteriority) or in both. In dialogue 
or exposition, this ''gear shift” expresses past state or habit, or speaker's 
past perspective. 

A second important function of the preterite converter is to convey 
remote hypothclicality, notably in remote hypothetical condition and 
result (“irrealis”), also in remote wish. 

NB: The morph ne following the preterite forn\_seems to mark its 
backgrounding role. 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


137 


Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 303, 373, 376, 391, 428-429, 630; Till parr. 307, 317-8, 327. 456; 
Steindorff parr. 329-333. 374, 481-6; Lamddin parr. 21.1, 24.2. 25.1, 28.1, 
29.1; Polotsky, “Conjugation System” parr. 16-17 

39. THE PRETERITE CONVERSION IN NARRATIVE 

# 

I* 

• 9 

39.1 NARRATIVE DETAILED DESCRIPTION (“slow motion”): a 
progressive view of action, recurring action, state, circumstance: the 
Imperfect. Projection onto the plane of “history”. 

NB: note the frequent combination of the Imperfect with the perfect, 
with the caractcristic predication of state (statives and adverbs) in the 
former vs. act (infinitives) in the latter conjugation form. 

1. Aq?e eyupcuNe ndinnod Nu>Hpe xyw NeqcxpicopT chatc 
A ycu NeqKiNAYNeye eq?HN e^oyn enMoy e^oyencuN^ 

(Mun. 96) 

2. NToq xpHcmnoc neq^NTnoAic miNoc ^NNesooy NTANqi 

NNiJciucuMe THpoy jnnHi mtiiatnoytc (III 32) 

{NB: tdoaic Tnawoc = Panopolis (“Pan’s city”, Akhmim in 
upper Egypt)} 

3. kai rAp Aypneyatocic Ayno>T mtoot eeixt MMooy n<5onc 

^CUCTypANNOC AyBCUK CITMA eTG^NAy ANOK A€ NGIO 

MnAjeoeic an ne GTpAneuT ntootoy nngtjci mmoi n6onc 

(III 145) _ 

4. AqpiMG MTT6CMTO GBOA ... NTOC A€ NGCCCUBG H GCpAUpG 

ecpooyr mmatg (A I 53) 

5. NGpGNTGA<DNHC AC THpoy MNNpeqpNOBG 2 HN €2°Y N €poq 

(A I 265) 

6. Neiq,>A.xe ac mnzgnkooyg eHAcycooy ngujanaay ne Aycu 

Ne<i?ANA.ooy eNoytuu; eneiee nng i a©ht ctmmay Aycu 

■ 

NCMeNeujnetec MMooy ne (III 149) 

7. (They drank from the rock) merpA NecoyH^ Sccuoy (A 11 
465f.; cf. I Cor. 10:4) 

8. neJtAy on eTseNeeHpioN ctmmay MnoNHpoN .xcngy^inc 
Aycu Ney^OT^CT eTpeyNAy .xe-ceNAdN-oyeAs (A II 170) 
{NB: xe- (usually .xcnc- i.e. jee-ene-) “whether”} 

9. AAZApoc oymonon aceMNTAq ef aaaa NeqpniceenioyMei 

on eci ^NNecyAy^e cboa 2 NTCTpAneXA (Ch. 38) 



138 


SECOND PART 


39.1.1 CONVERTED IMPERFECT IN NARRATIVE: THE IMPER¬ 
FECT IN ADNOMINAL STATUS 

Circumstantial or relative Imperfect, predicating a stativc or an adverb 

(i.e. STATE) 

NO: following a definite time-expressing noun, the form ewe- is 
ambiguous: it merges circumstantial and relative conversions (Table G, 
and 27.2) 

1. ^Mneoyoeicy mpq GNGyqjoon ^ixmitka^ (A II 539) 

2. ITTCOqj €NCIN2HT<j.(III 117) 

3. N©e €N€KO MMOC ^NTGKMNTTBNH MfUTKei 6£OyN GNGITO- 

noc (IV 95) 

[OBS. -o mho ••: this is the pronominal form of -o n- (“being in a 
stale of’), with the pronoun resuming the antecedent ee “the 
manner”; the whole would correspond to English “as you were”) 

4. Mncon gngy^a^thn (Ch. 83) 

5. itgia eTMnpHC miihi MneweicDT n^aao afta n<yoi itmx 
eneqeyoon N^HTq (IV 120) 

6. Te'j'yxH eTNeco NATKApnoc Noyoeicy tgnoy Ae acaujai 

^NNCirpASic NXrXOON (IV 186) 

{NB: 6TNCC' = gtgngc-, gngc-} 

7. AqrrcoT n6iacut ^nmtioaic GNeqN^HToy JceitNeqTXKo mn- 
Npcune ncoaoma MNroMoppA (Mun. 98) 

8. neNTAqTAMienTHpq gboa ^MTiGTGNGqcyoon an (A II 418) 


39.2 FRAMING ACTION IN NARRATIVE: VERBS OF SAYING, 
PERCEIVING, FEELING ("verba dicendi et sentiendi") 


1. MTTOyUJN^THY 


102 ) 


2 . npeoMe Aqcycune eqo n^ba Soynaxyc ^itqjAXG eNTAq- 
cotmoy Aycu Neqxtu mmoc xgnanoyc nai CTpAqi N^oye- 

AnoTACce (A I 453) 

3 . neacAy ate ... ^eNKOoye ag Neyxco mmoc xg ... Aycu eyxu> 

NNAI GBOA xeMnoyMCKMOyKOy (III 118) 

{NB: eyxeu: Second Present) 

4. Neqtccu tap ri^THq gttgtnhy cboa ^rtpcui (A II 520) 

5 . MH €NGyCOOyN AG ON AN TIG XGTTNO6NG6 MNTAyTIH MIT AI ... 


if , -naktooy;ncggi eepAi excuoy (A II 2f.) 

L...: •! • ,! >$i». *.t* «: ■ > }'•{ • _ ___ 

1 





TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 139 

{NB: €Ney- Second Imperfect, marking the question as rhetorical} 

6. (Of Jacob and his parents) NeqccuTM Nccuoy wdmujHpe etna- 
Noyq (A I 225) 

7. aspa^am newei cut Neqoyuxy ne eTpe^eNujHpe cycune 
NAq eaoA gitcAppA Ayo> CAppA wecoytou; ne erpe^ew- 

q^Hpe upHM cycune nac cboa znabpa^am Aycu tai tc ee 
NTATiNoyTe i* SoyqjHpe nabpa?am jMTeqHNT^AAO cAqacno 

NICAAK 6BOA £NCAppA JNTeCMNT^AACU AqtyCDne NAy NOy- 

<ywpe MHepiT (IV 26) 


39.3 BACKGROUND, ANTERIORITY IN NARRATIVE. NAR¬ 
RATOR’S INTERPOSITION (interpretation, background information) 
or PERSONAL-ATTITUDINAL PARENTHESIS 


Imperfect, Pluperfect (Ne-Aq-/N€-Mnq-), we- + Nominal Sentence 


1. NeyHeeye rAp ne HnAToyei cboa enoyoem -xeNeytyoon 
SN^eNTAMiON eyH€2 NoyoeiN (III 48) 

{NB: wnAToy- * eHnAToy-} 

2. £Aoh rAp Hnncopjc Nwecooy mnnba AMne Ney<yoon £M- 
neiMA nhoon€ SoycuT Necoyo ae mnotcu^ ^omoicuc 
N ey^i-neiJcNooy SoytuT Aycu ntbt eT£ooy mnnt5t gtna- 
Noyoy Ney2HneiHOoy SoycuT Aycu Aydonoy ^wreiABtu 

NoycuT (A II 352) 

3. (The destruction of the Deluge descended upon them) oymonon 
jceMneoyA woyde eoyA aaaa JceneypnicepAtye ^ntmnt- 

accbhc (Wcss. 9 86) 

{NB: -pnite- “do also...”; lexeme premodificr} 

4. tai T€ ee NTcyNArcum nnioyaai wec'fcoeiT ne Aycu 
NANoyc €Hat€ JteccooyN MneNTAqTAHioc Aycu cujHcye 
NAq (Ch. 122) 

(OBS. Note the use of the present conjointly with the Imperfect] 

5. NeAqonc rAp ateoyANAncAioN ne €tmkaay ecyAJte (A II 


44) 

[OBS. -c neutric feminine, pronominally heralding the xe- clause] 

6. (The Sword returned to its sheath) cboa an xe Accel aaaa 
ASMeAcfco ne (IV 11) 

7. Ne^eKpcuHe Ne AypoycuNty Nee NNiKooye Ne^eNArreAoc 


8 


Ne eAypAAiMcuw (Ch. 72) 


N6AiacenAi 



on etenAiNoy HMoq xe NeAqAgep a rq Z N ~ 


* 



SECOND PART 


140 

» 

\ 

T6K.tCA.HC I A. ty ANT6T7 MHHCy 6 THpq OyCU 6Y-XI CBOA £NTe- 

mmm 

npOC<J>OpA CTOyAAB N€OyNO<S MMHHCy6 MMAy ne aiocooc 

NAq ntgi^c ace ... (Ch. 133) 


40. THE IMPERFECT IN DIALOGUE OR EXPOSITION. PAST 
HABIT, STATE, DURATIVE ACTION 

1. (Confessions:) Hei?NTno\ic mnnim neio mhitoi mnnim 

(A I 184) 

{NB: nih indefinite, not interrogative} 

2. N6IHOKM6K TAp £PAI N£HT JC60yAT60M ne CTpeptOMe OCpO 

emu h eArreAoc NTenNoyTe (III 39) 

3. amok a€ Neio MnAocoeic an ne eTpAncuT ntootoy 
NN6TJCI MMOI N0ONC (III 145) 

4. Neioycocy nn necNHy eTpeTeTNpcABe (IV 93) 

5. £AeH TAP HnATOypKO INCONI A NMMAN NGNp^OTG AN JC6N- 

Neyqi-TN^oiTe Socioye (IV 105) 

6. NeiocicyoocNe nai mayaat oceNNAtycone on nckanaaaon 

nnai NTeiHiNe ^Mnence^cuB (III 147) 

7. Netoyaxy M6N ne eTAcyecyAace epoq (i.c. about David) 
k at An eqHncy a aaaa jcgkac nngncdck znnai ntmamcag i 
eTKASHrncic nngntayoujoy epow tnnakton tgnoy gng- 
rpA<|>H eToyAAB ntnu;ajcg epooy (Ch. 209) 


41 THE PRETERITE CONVERTER EXPRESSING REMOTENESS 
FROM REALITY or HYPOTHETICALITY 

41.1 THE REMOTE-HYPOTHETICAL CONDITION (" ir real is " 

protasis): CIRCUMSTANTIAL PRETERITE 

■ 

eNeqccoTN (... ne) / eNe(N)qcu>TM an (... ne), “If he heard/did not 
hear...” 

€N€NTAqccuTM (... ne) / eweMncjccoTH (...ne) “If he had (not) 
hcard/had he (not) heard ...” 

€Ne- + Nominal Sentence: “If (he) were, had been...” 

NB: the most common result clause has the past future NeqNA... ne, 

see 41.3 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


141 


Bibliography: 

Stern par. 630; Steindorff parr. 486-489; Till par. 456; Vergoti: par. 212(3); 
Lambdin par. 29.1; Polotsky, "Conjugation System" par. 17; Young. "Unful¬ 
filled Conditions" 

1. 6M6T€THCOOYN NNepptDOy H€T€TNip20T6 2 MTO Y AN ne 

(Mun. 102) 

2. eNeoyiidoM NoyA ecMiNe noybaa. nt€oy2M2Aa. NTAq Neq- 
NATAAdoq an ne (III 36) 

3. eNeyo rAp natcooyn eNeyMNTATqpAy Neoyupine NAy an 

ne (HI 75) 

4. €Ne2GN6BOA rAp n^htn nc h eNeyHe mmon name ncyna6u> 

nhman ne (F. 87) 

5. eNe^NoyMNT^A^ nujajc€ NeyMAqpdMdoM an nadata wncT- 
poeic (IV 94) 

(OBS. The protasis here is an adverbial phrase, with no verb] 

6. €NeMneiq;iBe NCTeTNAApxei an on ne eKer-nyproc 

(III 21) 

7. €N€mmon NeqNAJeooc an ne Jte ... (Ch. 179) 

8. eNeMNBApBApoc upoon oy ne nTAeio MnMATOi Aycu neq- 

upoyqpoy (Ch. 70) 

9. eneoyNod an t€ tcianohia wepenNoyTe NAC?oyep-KAeiN 

an ne (IV 157) 

10. €N6MnencATANAC upcone peu Nepepcune nih n a up cone 

CNANoyq ne (A I 393) 

11. eNCNqcHoy epoc an (i.e. the well) NecNApcoupe epooy an 

eTpeyceMooy (III 70) 

12. eNeNTAKeqp-coKoy pen eNToy e^pAi eNCKBOTe Neoy 
epoK ne eTpex*]* oyeHy 2 N 2 €n<J>antacia (Ch. 29) 

(NB: eNToy see erne] 


41.2 THE REMOTE or HYPOTHETICAL WISH 

£Amoi ene-, ^ahoi nc- "Would that...!" 

Bibliography : 

Stern par. Steindorff par. 491; Till par. 456 B2; Vkrgote par. 201(3) 

1. £AMOI eNCANroyHAI^OMT an (Ch. 77) 

2. 2 AHOI ON NAMe N€yNA+Aoroc 2 a P°°Y NdlNei atccdtm 

eTMHAy (Mun. 100) 



142 


SECOND PA RT 


3. 2&M°f eNepeneTO n^m^a httma.mhcdnac narco nay n^gn- 
ujbhp ^nnbto n^m^aa. Mneic ^Noywe (P 131.8 94 ro) 

4. £Amoi on Neu;ATeTN6(U nrei^e ne (HI 83) 

5. ^amoi on eNeyAOKiHAie mhooy 5q;opn ne (IV 66) 

6. ^amoi ncanonoya hhooy (IV 92) 

7. 2AHOI 6 6 eNeHNpCDMe NKOTK H TA£€ NCANCTNKOTK 2N- 
vTeyqjH Aycu Neo yn^natao on eNAuptooy NAopcone nnc- 
TOyH^ 2NTOIKOyH€NH (IV 180) 


• • 

41.3 THE REMOTE or HYPOTHETICAL RESULT following a 
remote protasis (41.1) 

Past future (n€<jna~), ne- + Nominal Sentence; ... ne is the rule. 

1. eNeoypNpAq; an ne eqAMA^Te eatNroprH Mneq6u>NT Neq- 

na?u> an ne (IV 19) 

2. eNeycooyN eNeT?MneN?HT NeyNAAAy MnATNTAMOoy e- 

pooy (III 108) 

(NB: HTIATN* eMTUTH'l 

3. co eNepewHApTypoc onj nmhan THpoy ncnnac iMe ne 
aceeydoNT epon Noywp (A I 102) 

4. NCABHA CTBHHTq AyCO JC€N€NO MneNJCOCIC NCNNAOcO AN 

ne (IV 96) 

{NB: ncabha is the approx, equivalent of a negative remote 
protasis: “Were it not”) 

5. eNeoyNToy-^NT rAp eeiMe Necpcoqje rAp epooy n6ita- 

noA€i)ic MnAnocTOAoc (Wcss. 18 128) 

6. ?amoi eNeNTAyHoyp NoycoNe Ncnce eneywAK^ nccoh- 
coy wnnexiroc noaaacca Aycu NecpNoqpe nay ne mn- 
nK6ioyA.AC N^oyo eTpeyMepencA^oy (IV 9) 



UNIT (II): THE CONJUNCTIVE 

(sections 42-43) 


42.1 The conjunctive extending (continuing-and-rcprcscnling, extending, 

» 

“carrying on”) preceding conjugation-forms 

42.2 The conjunctive extending (continuing-and-finitizing, “carrying 
on“) preceding infinitives 

43. The conjunctive as a “that*’ clause form: in construction with 
preceding adverbial (“conjunction”), nouns or clauses. 


42.1 THE CONJUNCTIVE CONTINUING-AND-REPRESENTING 
(“CARRYING ON”, EXTENDING) CONJUGATION FORMS 

Form: n<|cujtm. Nominal, demonstr./indef. pronoun, 2nd person sgl. 

fern, actor: ht€- ... ccutm 


The conjunctive (7.4) serves to express a special, closely-knit kind of 
coordination (“microcoordination”) to a preceding verbal clause 
amounting to its extension. It is in this role cither preceded by xyw 


“additionally”, “and”; h “or”; xwx “however", and other conjunc¬ 
tional adverbials, or it may be conjunctionlcss; in the latter case it 

usually expresses directed coordination (“and then...”, “and so...”. 

■ 

“so that...”). Note that, while its verbal semantics (tense, mode etc.) 
arc wholly induced by the conjugation form "carried on” or extended 
by it, its actor may cither resume the actor of the extended conjugation 
form, or a new actor (noun or pronoun) may be asserted. Similarly, its 


negativing (by -tm-, 7.1-4) may either be induced 
precedent clause or be asserted as a new negation. 



a negatived 


Illustrated below are the constructions of (a) the conjunctive extending 
specific conjugation forms, (b) the conjunctive extending various protatic 

clauses (“if...” clauses). 

■ 

NB: (1) note the prevalence of subcoordination following imperatives. 

(2) The 1st sgl. form of the conjunctive is mtx- (for the micro- 

coordination function) or tx - (for subcoordination). 


Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 440, 443-445. 447; Steindorff parr. 368-369; Tili. parr. 321-322; 
Vergote par. 161(1); Lamrimn par. 25.2; ‘Shisha-Hai.evy. Chapter 7 



144 


SECOND PART 


(a) The conjunctive extending specific conjugation forms: 

1. i*NATOA.M* AC NT A A <1> MfTClcyAAC NNA^pNNACNHy (III 123) 

2. TCDOyN NTNMCTANOCI (III 181) 

3. CNAq;tDne ntctnmcctcdi (Ch. 93) 

[OBS. The neutric c “it” with eyeone “happen” is typically 
continued by the conjunctive as a content-clause (“that...”)) 

4. oytDM Nrccu (A I 206) 

5. cep^oTe ^HTq wnArreAoc A6NNcqnATACce MMooy Ayo> 
NcjHooyToy (IV 21) 

6. UJApCTBABIAC NCOyO MOy NCpKA£ NTCTpOOyC Cl C^pAI 

' n^htc (A II 191 f.) 

7. NCyNAANCXe MMOOy AN nc ipANTOyNOAOy C£pAI CTtKCD^T 

a yco e^PAi enMooy Aycu ncepA^Toy cttka^ (IV 24) 

8. V |'NATAHCDTN CNCNTAqAI 6oA CpON N^HTOy NTATC ABCDTN 

CNCNTANC^AICOy NAq (Ch. 94) 

9. ao; hma NCTqwAnApArc MMooy m NqBCDK c^oyw epooy 
NqTHN-nocc NTcq'l'yxH (Ch. 56) 

{NB: n- sec cinc} 

10. epenexc nachoy epooy Noywp Aycu Nqteooy NAy (Ch. 85) 

11. AAK NCAAXICTON £MTTd; AAG NTCKTAnpO NrAAK NATNOCI 
2MTMHTG NNCABGCy (IV 41) 

12. MApoyAico anc Aycu NCCCCDTM (Ch. 163) 

13. cicbc^acdi ntaau;a20h (III 183) 

14. HnpTpeNAAN n<j;mmo CTTNoyTC MNiieqxc eTBeoyoyNoq 

HNOyCOACA NNOyA Ay CD MMNTACCBHC Ay CD NTNCyCDnC 

naaac CNeqncToyAAB (IV 5) 

15. o;n2th 2*P° hayaatc TcynArcDm ntcccdth ncattu; aac 
CTCM2 (III 191) 

16. KAAT TATpCNCCNIiy poyANAU; NAI (III 16) 


(b) The conjunctive extending prolatic (“if...”) clauses: 

1. e<ycDne oyeicDT mnoymaay eoynTAy hhay N^eNcyHpe 

MN^CNcyeepe Aycu ntcja^ n^htoy e^pAi ^NoyqjcNe... 
(P 130.2 41 160) 

{NB: coyNTAy: the circumstantial is governed by ecyome “If it 
be the case that...”} 

2. oyatOoh ne CTpenAiABOAoc TpepcuMe pNose Mneneq- 
oycDu; peyopn cnHCcye mtiaiaboaoc h Nq^oTp nmm Aq 

(Ch. 63) 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


145 


{NB: Hire- = gmiig- “unless”} 

3. him itctnapitai CMnenNOYTe pqjpncA^G-ncq^o gboa 
HHOoy Aycu NqAAy nu^mho eneqnNA (P 130.2 75 ro) 

4. £amoi eNeyqjoon nmman renoy NCCTMnGZNGN^ociTG 

2UO)N (A I 202) 

5. ^ewpiDHe cmntay MHiy N^eNc^Mpe h NToq eywrAy ncga- 
noTACce MMooy (IV 3) 

(OBS. The circumstantial (gmntay) as protasis] 

6. neTCiDTe mmon Nq^yrtoMiNG (Lcyd. 355) 

[OBS. The definite relative present (“the one that...”) as protasis- 
equivalent) 

7. neTeoyNTAqcoy NqTMNA n^htoy (Ch. 195) 


42.2 THE CONJUNCTIVE CONTINUING-AND-FINIT1Z1NG 
(“CARRYING ON”, EXTENDING) INFINITIVES 

Here the conjunctive, extending the infinitive (actorless), also supplies a 
finite actor (pronoun or noun), i.e. finitizes it. The pronominal actor 
used is either one in agreement with the context, or the generic “you” 
(2nd person singular masculine). 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 447(g); * Siiisha-Halevy. par. 7.2.5 

1. oyiidoM MMooy € up aha cattoi NTenacoeic kcd nay cboa 

(III 135f.) 

2. NANoyc nan epco<)>oc ntnkahponomgi Mneooy N^oyo 

epAOHT NTNCCDTn NAN NOyCODO; GqJCOCG NANOyC NAN Goi- 
BION NTNJtl NOy^HOT GBOA 2ITMTTJC06IC N^OyO GpJCACI^HT 

ntgitnoytg 'f oybhn (P 130.4 38 vo) 

% 

3. Neioyonji hn ngcnhy gtpgtgtnpcabg Aycu ntgtncoyn- 
NGTUjoon nhtn Gycooy (IV 93) 

4. < 9 <y€ eqjtne z HTO Y mngngiotg gntaynkotk NTN^yno- 
hing (III 118) 

5. OyMNTHAKAplOC ne t Mn^MKG NqTHJtl NTOOTq H GAKJtl 
ON Nr 2 CO GpOK GTCpiseiCU NNGNT ART A Ay NAq (III 65f.) 

[NB: h gar- ... on “or, even having...”} 

6. MnattUK AN GBOA MTTNOMOC TIG MGpCnGT^ITOytUK. NPHGC- 

TGnGKJcAJce (III 65) 


146 


SECOND PART 


7. JujepHT nay ON eTpeyoyajH Ncecco nmmacj ^utNTeqTpA- 

neu (Ch. 131) 

8. 't'FIApAICAA.61 NTeTNHNTpMN^IIT eTMTp€T€TN20M€A.ei A AAA 
NT€TNJC»2PHTN €NU)A.Xe €TOyAAB (111 31) 

9. ^MfiTpeqpoyA NoycoT MNnertNA 6ToyiiB Aytu NTencma 

eToyAAB poyA NoytPT NMMAq (A II 403) 

10. HNNCATp€K*t*CBtt) NAy NOyCOn AN OyT€ CNAy AN AA.AA 

N^A^ NCOn €NAT€ AyCD NCCTMp^NAy €COJTM (III 169) 

11. eiq^ANTHTpcnKA^ oyiDN Npcoq NqoMtcoy (III 131) 


43. THE CONJUNCTIVE AS A “THAT”-CLAUSE: IN CON¬ 
STRUCTION WITH PRECEDING ADVERBIALS (“conjunctions”), 
NOUNS or CLAUSES 

Note especially the conjunctive following cimhti “unless”, ^cuctc 
“ so that” and its negative MHrroTe “lest”, mopic “hardly”, ^amoi 
( and reNoiTo) “Would that...”; the Nominal Sentence KCKoyi 
ne ... “It is but a step...” and similar; NANoyc, “It is better” 

t 

Bibliography: 

i 

Stern parr. 443, 611-616; Steindorff par. 371; Till parr. 323-324; 416; 
Veroote parr. 161(1), 209(4,5), 211(3,4), 212(5); Lamddin par. 30.10; *Shisha- 
Haluvy parr. 7.3-7.4 

<rt 

1. N+NAryoyaiH an oyre N’fNAcyceMooy an eiHHri ntaOn- 
rrecyAioyoMcj Aycu neujAicooq (Ch. 158) 

2. oy rAp rrcr'f* oyBHN € 1 hmti NTN'f oytHN hayaan (III 107) 

3. cepAupe eacNNeTeipe mttaik. aion ^wcte Ncecwoy epooy 

(Ch. 85) 

■ 

4. ujAiei <yApcoTN ^nau; ntihcupia ^cocre HTene^pooy 

NT€TNHNT6tDB HC^n'fHe eTeTNN^HTq (III 21) 

5. N'j'NAy AN €K€A.AAy NCATpA'fCBCO KATAn6*f*HCCy€ epoq 
GBOA ^NNerpA<J)H MHTTOT6 NT A cy CD (DAG H TABAATTT6I MTTAI 

(A I 52) 

{NB: (nca-)tpa- 1st sgl. of -Tpeq- “(other) than that...”} 

[OBS. Note the different function of nta- (following conjunctions) 
and ta- (microcoordinating)] 

6 . KAAOJC N^oyo €NCyANCA^CON 6BOA NN€NNOB€ HHFIOTC 

NTGOyMKAJ N^HT UJCOne NAN MNOyA<y A£OM (III 222) 

7. AMOy 6BOA ^NMFTOAIC NTANOMIA MHITOT6 NCeJCITK NHMAy 

€2PAI STOOTC NTOpfH (III 169) 


TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 147 

8. ncAem ecyAqBCDK aw epATq SoyoN him 2 AnA.o>c epnA2pe 
epooy None rAp ncjbcuk epATq MnApxtDN h npHHio (Ming. 

84) 

9. xwo NTeTMn^HT jciaaay JceqcycuNe aaao TpeKA.NxrKA.2e 
mmok nApANCNTAneK^HT tyonoy (IV 85f.) 

(OBS. Note the variation of the conjunctive and Tpe- as “ihat"- 
forms] 

10. oypuce <^HM ne NTenpcoMe cycune Ntyttpe nnNoyTe h 

Nqcytune SqjHpe httaiaboaoc (Ch. 68) 

11. NKeKoyi an ne Nroycu^w oysenpeqccDNT (P 131.5 79 84) 

12. renoiTO xe NqToyaco nn€ tuning Nccuq cboa 2* neeoo Y' 
nih Aycu Nq^Ap€2 cneqHi xytv Ncqm cboa 2Nu;Toprp nim 

(Wess. 9 88) 

13. 2* mo1 NcerHpBOTe MFiNoyre h ncctmaay nbotc (IV 164) 

14. nnanoyc an NTNpoy^ooy h CNAy h oyeBOT h oypoHne n 
neNA^e THpq enqi e^pAi 2*£€NKoyi nbacanoc n 2°Y° epoc 
eTpeNcycune eypcuKj nnon ZT±* 2noyko>2T (Wcss. 9 158) 



UNIT III: CONDITIONAL AND RELATED CONSTRUCTIONS 

(sections 44-48) 


44.1 e<|U) anccotm generic-eventual condition: “If and when...”, 

"Whenever...” 

44.2 eqqjAN-: ”As soon as...”. “Immediately when ...” 

45 ecy-X<s- argumentative, topical condition: “Granted that...”, “Given/ 
supposing that...” 

45.1 2<jdc equate- “as if...” 

46 ecyanie, ran disjunction of alternative cases: “Whether ... or...”, 
“Re it be it...” 


47 ewe- remote or hypothetical (“unreal”) condition: see 41.1-3 

48 Concessive “conditions” (“Even though...”, “Even if...”, “Even if 
(as is usual/apparcnt) ...”: kan, ety.xe- 


44.1 eqqjANCcuTM, GENERIC-EVENTUAL CONDITION: “If 
and when ...”, “Whenever...” (7.3) 

Note the use of the Conditional in general (also gnomic) statements, 
with the aorisl as a typical apodosis 

NU: eqTMCtUTM is a rare form of the negatived Conditional (nor- 

^ __ 

mally eqcy^NTM-) 

Bibliography: 

Stern parr. 420-421; Stlindorif par. 492; Till. parr. 447-448: Vlrgote parr. 
161(5), 2(2(2); Lambdin par. 29.1; Wilson pp. 90-95; Young, “ Esope" 

1. AXHOttlC €tcyANM€€ye CBOA €NeN€IOTe NApXAIOC <yAlj>ee 

M.neTeMnqcoYNnNOYTe (IV 22) 

2. ^pujanttnoytc j>2NAq cewirupAKC (III 31) 

{NB: ttapakc = TTApAre} 

3. NU)AHONOMA^e NIC GNONOMAiC NTGTpiAC GTOyAAB (WeSS. 

9 136) 

{NB; NtyAN- = GNqjAN-} 

4. CNcyANJCOOC AeANON TNCOOyN AN NA A A y TNCOOyN AN 
NA Me NIM TTCTNACyCOyNn^HT Mrutoeic (Ch. 68) 

5. eccyANcycurre ae ntcnccnhy eT^NTcyNArcum mttima 2 ^- 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


149 


thn bcdk Noy^ooy eTcyNArcorn <y hm ... oy^cuB eNANoyq 

6 MATe ne NcyAace ^NNe^iooye (IV 69f.) 

6 . ontcdc oynoHHpoN an ne ep<yANoypcuMe eqMe nnexc 
Micye MNoyma eNANoyq eqqjANoytDN') NAq eso\ e<yAq- 
MepiTq NToq N^oyo Aya> NqpA<ye e^ccwq (III 40) 

7. Tetyrmpe THpc ne epcyANoyA MepeneqcoN e*rqNAy epoq 
Aycu NcjnepenNoyTe eTewqNAy epoq an (III 153) 

8. (Let no one hit a man in my name...) cion^ Aycu on eicyAN- 
Moy (IV 98) 

9. epqjANTMnpcDMe mka^ n^ht eoccoq mmin mm oq NA<y N^e 
eqNAAynei NxeoyA (A II 41) 

10. oyi^eN^Bnye ep<y ANTMnpcuMe epHT mmooy mnnobc epoq 

(A II 60) 

11. p<y antmti^ht MnpcuMe pco jccd^m MeqpNOBe oyTe epcyAN- 
TMTeq v | / yxH AtucoMe ^ntakabapcia MeqpATecoTM (A I 147) 
{NB: pq?AN- = ep<yAN-} 

12. eqTMpoeic MNNe^snye rmoBe NAtyoAq (A I 178) 


44.2 ^otan eq<y anccdtm “As soon as ...”, “Immediately when 
“Only when ...“; “Whenever...” 

1. £OTAN A6 €p<yANnCATANAC n€ITNA NAKAOApTON 6NMA 

2 Mnpo)M€ qNAMA^q NCAoyN NNoyac (Wess. 9 141) 

{NB: cAoyN = cooyH, an Akhmimicism in Shcnoutc’s idiom} 

2. £otan eqcyANei NdincyHpe MnptoMe ...tote qNA^MOoc 
e^pAi eacMneopoNoc Mrreqeooy (III 219) 

3. £otan ey<yANeme encupjx n^cdb nim ^Noytopjc n(jimmaay 

€T2»*XO)oy ^MnMA eTMMAy eyNAC^Aicoy NceTNNOoycoy 
NAN (IV 159f.) 

4. £otan epcyANnpcoMe MepenNose <yApenNoyT€ T^om 

MnNOBe e^pAi eaccuq (Ch. 68) 

5. (It is a great perfection that a man should cut himself off from his 

* 

brother or son or daughter of father or mother for the sake of 
God) £otan eytyANpNOBe eneNTAqTAM i ooy (IV 128) 

6. (The order of solitary prayer or meditation:) ;>otan eptyANnAi 
ei eirecHT NTenAi taao e^pAi taxh (IV 156) 



150 


SECOND PART 


45 ecyote- ARGUMENTATIVE TOPICAL “CONDITION": 

“Granted that“Given/supposing that...”, “If (as we know/as you 
will no doubt agree)..." 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 629; Steindorif par. 485; Wilson p. 98f. 

1. ecyjce-ANON^eNecooy tg<|>Y c,c nngcooy ne oyA^oy 

NCAncytuc namg itgxc (Ch. 65) 

2. etpxeNANoyzeNcyHpe ujhm an eykcu Nccuoy MrrGTNty aa.g 
M rrAToyNOGi pto gnanoytn Noy ntcutn gtgtntcto gboa 
NNpyi G ANGTNCK. I M A CL} A I (IV 96) 

3. ecyocGcy Apcn^Aiponicoc 6 g mntt£GA..\hn neupey gboa. 
NNGydioc h NCGqiToy g^pai ^Neynoicpicic xeey<A)\H\ gic 

N^AAATG 2 cjl> °Y CipG MTTAI N^A^ NCOTT GynOipU} GBOA 

NNGyTN^ (HI 45) 

[OBS. JXGcycyAHA.: the Second Present introduced by xe- 
conveys scepticism about the truth of the statement; approx, 
“allegedly”] 

4. GCyJCGAGI^POtp G£pAI GJtCDTN N©G NOyGTTTCU MTTpGrK AK6I 
NTCUTN N'^NACDCK AN GBCOK GBOA ^ITGTHyTN (III 145) 

5. COJXGqTAKO ^ITNNpCDMG GIG NAty N£G NqNAptUK^ AN 
GqUJANTOAMA GJCNArrGAOC (Ch. 76) 

6. GtyaccnoGiK tg^pg mitccdma qTAacpo mft^ht MnpcuMG 

noco) MAAAON TTOGMC MMG nOGIK M TTCDN^ GqNAT AXC.P O 
NOyHp Hn^HT NNGTON^ N£HTcj (Ch. I 19) 

7. GO^XCGOyNdOM NTCC^IMG GBOHOGI GnGC^il GTBGOy MN- 

6om mtt^aI GBOHOGI GTGqC^IMG (Or. 157) 

8. GCyXCGMNTAKTTICTlC MM Ay MNTAK^GAniC MMAy ^MnMyC- 

THpioN Aycu nacoGic mtt m ycTHpi on (Cat. 43) 

9. GeyacenpnMGeyG rAp mttno yTG naama^tg an MnpcoMG 

GTMpNOBG MMNANACy ON NAAMA^TG MMOq (III 16f.) 

I 

I 


45.1 £tuc gojjcg- “As if...” 

Bibliography: 

Till parr. 368, 459; Vergote par. 212(6) 

1. ANp£GNN06 MnGOOOy GNCDBCy MMON £U>C GtyiXG^NNOBG AN 

NG (IV 182) 

{NU: 2N « e^N-} 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


151 


2. oy 2<*>uxi ne 2 ^^ ecp-xeoyKAn NNoy2 ne (Ch. 30) 

3. tai tc ee eTeTNnHT eccooy2 enpAN MnNoyTe 2°^° 
e(pi€eT6TNnHT encpA (Ch. 155) 

4. NN€20IN€ CCOCOBG NCCON 2COC € il)X.G ANON26NMAI2HY NCpA.Oq 

(IV 73) 

{NB: ccocubg = ccose} 

5 . AiNAy amok eoyA ecpjceNTAqTA2€-oy2oq h oyApAKCDN 

(III 208) 

[OBS. ecpace- (without the preposition 2^°) has itself the rare 
meaning “as if’] 


46. eqjcone (... ecpcone ...), kan (... kan ...) DISJUNCTION OF 
ALTERNATIVE CASES: “Whether... or...”, “Be it..., be it...” 

In this construction (especially common in instructive and preceptive 
contexts) ecpcone and kan are often combined with the circumstan¬ 
tial conversion. 

Bibliography : 

Stern parr. 626-628; Young, “ Esope ” 

1. eqjcone oy20oyT ne h ecpcone oyc2iHe t€ h eyq^Hpe 
cpHM ne h eyqjeepe cpHM Te (IV 56) 

2. eepeune eyNo6 ne ecpcone oyKoyi ne (III 198) 

3. ecpcone mn ncpcuM ne ecpcone ag Tenpco tg (IV 110) 

{NB: mn = mgn} 

[OBS. Here, as in several other texts, the alternatives are expressed 
by the special “impersonal” (“It’s...”) Nominal Sentence pattern, 
in which the theme (ne, Te) resumes tho rheme: see section 3.5] 

4. Noyoeiqj Ae on nim eycpANNoy gbcok eccop nncco en- 
ccooy 2 ecpcone mgn ecpcopn ne gynabcok eypcpoMT... 
ecpcone Ae poy 2 e ne e ynabcok eypcNAy h oyA (IV 60) 

5. ecpcone mgn eANeipe nngtgcp epe ... eie ceNXTMAeioN 
ecpcone a€ NTANpNGTGMecp epe eie ceNA.T6A.ioN (IV 3) 

6. ecpcone eycpoBT kaacoc on (IV 109) 

7. eujeone eN2inujMMo h eNMootye 2^°Y2 ,H eNoyHy gboa. 

NTcyNA.rcorH Ayco NTeoycoype TopTp NToyepHTe NoyA h 

Teq6uc... (IV 123) 

8. kan oy 20 oyT ne kan oyc 2 iMe tg (IV 154) 

9. KAN ejeNpMMAO N6 H NTOC| G 2 GN 2 HKG NG (III 222) 



152 


SECOND PART 


10. kan eyopcuNe h cymotn (IV 153) 

11. kan GAyceoynpn h ntoc| eAyoyGMoyKoyi (IV 111) 

12. kan enc^Me N^ooy rre kan enNo6 mitacxa ne (IV 84) 


47 REMOTE or HYPOTHETICAL (“unreal”) CONDITION: see 
sections 41.1-3 


48 CONCESSIVE CLAUSES: “Even though ...” “Even if...”: kan 

etyxe- “Even if (as is usual/apparcnt)...” 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 628; Steindorff par. 496; Till par. 452 

1. NqNATCOOC AN H KAN eqJCOOC GqNA-XOOC NK6CMOT (IV 11) 

2. kan Aytypq^p^eNMA N2 HTO Y qiUKoroy (IV 19) 

i 

3. 2 eN l >CUM€ NcecooyN an ocgntok ne nNoyTG kan eyNTAy 
MnKOCHOC mpq MNTAyq rAp (III 90) 

4. kan eyNKOTK (i.e. the people in the house) epenoyoeiN Jtepo 

2 m?thgi cyAyKTOoy enAjoy (i.c. the thieves) (IV 25f.) 

5. KAN OypHNpAN ITG ... OyJCAACG n€ GTKOINCDNIA (IV 89) 

6. KAN ANpNOBG CNGNGpHy HH NNAGipG ON GnG O yC I ACTHp I ON 

(III 93) 

{NB: nna- = gnna-, Second Future in a rhetorical question} 

7. oyoei NAN JC.GK AN TNNApiTArAO ON AN ^MnGNOyCOCy GT- 

BGoy 2 nt< ^ om MnArreAoc eroyAAB oy monon jcgmttnpai- 

KAIOC AAAA MTTNC A^GDN ON G BO A NNI1T Ap A<f)yC 1C (Cll. 79) 

8. t° N-XAJK.G epooy NNe^ooy mttacdn 2 KATAneNTAyAooq 

N2A2 iicon KAN GICpAJCG NMMAY 2N2eNU^AA.G NGipHNIKON 
KAN GIO NOG MTTGTpAtpe NMMAy H GTCMOy GpOOy (III 40f.) 

9. kan eAqne 2 neq 2 HT miima gtmmay mim ttgtnaccdtm epoq 

(Ch. 198) 

10. oyrioycyA-xe kan N'1'oyeqj.xooq an T^^*xooq (Ch. 68) 

11. eqj.xeMrrecoycuNT qpAnooy AicoycuNG anok (III 21) 

12. ecyA.G2A2 ng Npo>MG Npeqqi'j'yxH Ncynpe 2 ,< i)eepe 2 ,CON 
2ica>NG NAcytuoy on n6ingtpogic eqjupe 2'<iJeepe 2 , cojng 

(IV 21) 


I 



UNIT (IV): THE INFINITIVE OUTSIDE CONJUGATION 

(sections 49-51) 


49 The infinitive as noun phrase: determination 

50 The infinitive as nexus constituent: actor of a conjugation form, 
rheme or theme in a Nominal Sentence, topic, focus of a Cleft Sentence 

51 The infinitive as object (governed) or complement of a verb 


49 THE INFINITIVE AS NOUN PHRASE: DETERMINATION 

In addition to the position following all determinators (1.1), the infini¬ 
tive occurs advcrbally after G-, n- (as object or complement, 50) and 
adnominally, after n- (attributively, 1.2). It is negatived as tm- + 
infinitive. 

Bibliography: 

Sti-rn parr. 456-460, 467-468: Stcindorfi-* par. 223; Till par. 348; Lamhdin 
par. 13.3; Polotsk y, “Conjugation System", par. 7 

1. n^G ... eaoA ^ntg^ih novtutyq ^mitnobc (IV 176) 

2. nKAJc-nAT (IV 67) 

3. nTM't'6coNT (A II 233) 

4. ttccd m nNGyM atikon ANonq eycto nccumatikon (IV 86) 

5. TAtflOpMH Mn't' €MHC€ (III 65) 

6. niojAi MnpcoK^ ^Noy^ico MNoyeiBe ^NoyacjoyG mnoy- 

Tcopn (IV 57) 

7. ^GNMGAGTA GNACp CUO Y TTMOKM6K GTNANOyq (WeSS. 9 172) 

8. ^noytako tnnatako (III 183) 

9. £Noy.xnio Ma.pNJc.nio NNGNGpHy (P 130.4 110 552) 

10. nNAy htcooyn £no NoycuM itma NoycuM katatmihg thing 
M ncpcONG ^MnGyOJCUNG NTCUty NNGNGlOTG (IV 53-56) 

11. £GNTOnOC N6 NCCOBG 2 , P2 eN 2 BH Y e NCCOBG £pAI N£HTOy 

2 ICK.OnTGI ^ItyAJCG MMNTC 06 (III 213) 

12. NANoymuy NK.An.xoi gboa cp^tOT NANoynNAy on mmoong 
GTGM pa) (IV 174) 

13. G^oyciA NoycuM ^icco Aycu gtmp£cjub (III 94) 



154 


SECOND PART 


[OBS. Note that the negatived infinitive is not coordinated like a 
zero-article noun, by £•- (section 2.1); consider also the difference 
in determination evident in text 20 between the “affirmative” and 
negatived infinitives] 

14. noycocy Mney 2 HT MNneyMTOH mmin mmooy (A I 23) 

15. enoycuN^ gboa. (Ch. 114) 

16. eKGMA^oy NpcuMe encuN2 eKeH^oy naioc ena>N2 (III 218) 

17. eK.NA. 2 A.pe 2 epooy cboa 2 ^ eyropTp nim (218) 

18. Aytycune rnpoy 2 Mneqoye 2 CA 2 Ne (A I 32) 

19. TexpeiA eA.Nepa>Me (IV 20) 

20. NANoyc e2<JU NTei 2 e (A I 55) 

21. cu rriTCDM N2 HT (A I 201) 

22. CTBeoycuM 2 ico> (A I 205) 

[OBS. The coordination by 2«- proves this to be true zero determi¬ 
nation] 

23. ttca20y h TTcyme h nnucuBe SneiNo6 nnobc (A I 118) 

24. ttnay rAp en 20 NoyArreAoe 2 NoypAuje (A I 165) 

■ 

(OBS. ttnay... e- note that the substantivation of the infinitive by 
determination docs not affect its rection] 

25. oyAoroc €tb€Bcjok €t€kkahcia Noyoeicy nih Aycu N 20 oy 
nim 2weoTe MnNoyTe (A I 197) 

{NB: this is a homily superscription or title} 

26. qp 2 (>Te rxp 2 HTq Mnqi e 2 PAi NNey6i.x (Z 462) 

27. con M€N NANoycyiNe tapnOinc- See eTCH2 con A.e on 

NANoynTMcyiNe N 2 oyo eojme (A I 37) 


50 THE INFINITIVE AS NEXUS CONSTITUENT: ACTOR or 
THEME OF A CONJUGATION FORM, THEME or RHEME OF A 
NOMINAL SENTENCE, FOCUS OF A CLEFT SENTENCE, 
TOPIC 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 453; Till parr. 336-337; Vergote par. 185(4); Shisha-Halevy, 
“Patterns” 

1 . NANoyacoK e 2 pAi e.xNoyrooy eqocoee ... NANoye 1 on e 2 pAi 
2iJCcnq 2<s A.e gboa 2 , *Atuq NFoycoqpq THpic nGT20oy (IV 
175) 

2. eq^AeNANoyncyine aaaa etyme 2HTq NoypcoMe eqoyAAB 
Ayco ecyine an 2 HTq NoypcoMe nakaoaptoc (Wess. 9 98) 



TOPICS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 


155 


3. Ancyme ^cubc exHn^o (III 213) 

4. npnMeeye rAp MnNoyie naama^tg an MnpcoMe gtmpnobg 

(III 16) 

5. TTGMKA^ N£HT MI7TAKO MNTICyCDA. €NTAyAA(J N^INOCA^G 
NTGKK.AHCIA pCDOpG eK.OA.AXG Mn^HT NNCABGGy (A I 59) 

6. oy epoi ne -xe-oy^coB eicooyN hmocj an (Wess. 9 171) 
(NB: ace- construct (prenominal) slate of aco>} 

7. MTTAI AN ne NO I NNGTpA<|)H KAACOC (IV 157) 

{NB: no i = nogi} 

8. TKOINCDNIA GTJCHK. GBOA nG cyome ^MNGICyCDUJ NOyCUT 

(IV 172) 

9. NGTeneyoycocy ne ccuoy^ e^oyN N^eNxpHMA ^lacMnKA^ 

(Ch. 86) 

10. Te^ycic NNecooy ne oyA^oy NCAncycoc Ayco Tey<J>ycic 
an tg eoyA^oy ScAnoycoNcy (Ch. 56) 

11. MnaCCDK AN GBOA MITNOMOC nG TM^OJTB AAAA nacCUK. GBOA 

HnNOHoc ne TMA^epATic oyBenneeooy (III 67) 

12. ^e mgn NCAnA^oy ne xez*2 Scon acca^cdc gboa MMoq 

(Ch. 122) 

(NB: ace- construct state of acu>} 

13. oycMoy MNoycA^oy oyopm mnoyna NGT2 Mnec20 cna y 
(IV 14) 

14. NANoynNAy nk. Anacoi gboa ep^cuT NANoynNAy on mmoong 
GTGM pco cdmc A.e ne nGT^ooy (IV 174) 

15. eupjceojine ne aceNAi cyme ne ccdtm epooy gig cyme 

NoyHp ne aay (BM Cat. 198) 

16. oyMoyN^cuoy eqo<y epAcye ne NAy GMeq6po6 (Ch. 183) 

17. oyeoTG ne nay epoc gctokm oypAcye ne NAy epoc 

gckto HVibc enecKco^ (IV 14) 

18. ncooyN Aycu nAoroc ne necaccup (IV 15) 

19. oycyme nai ne (A I 102) 

20. gbcdk mgn GNTonoc nmmA pTypoc ecy aha ecu<y g'I'aaagi 
gtSbok eqiTenpoct^opA znootg Mnexc NANoyq... eaccu 
a.g eoycuM gccjd gccdbg maaaon a. e enopneye Ayco 

eeTipCJUMG GTBGN'I'2 e MNNCnATAAA AyCU N'f'TCUN ^MMNTi- 
OHT NIH OyANOMIA TG (A I 119f.) 

[OBS. Note the difference between the masculine resumption in 
NANoyq and the feminine theme in oyanomia tg resuming the 
feminine rheme in the “impersonal" Nominal Sentence] 



156 


SECOND PART 


51 THE INFINITIVE AS OBJECT (governed) or COMPLEMENT 
OF A VERB 

The infinitive occurs as following a verb clause as direct object or 
introduced by e- or n- (according to the individual syntax of the 
governing verb). When in complement (non-governed, adjunct) status, 
the infinitive is introduced by the preposition e- (cf. “to” in “He came 
here to sec me”) 

Bibliography: 

Stern par. 454; Till parr. 340*341; Vkrgoth parr. 200, 202-204 

1. N<jlCU> MMON AN €f» NAI (Cg. 62) 

2. Hnqe<y6H6oM eoycucyi (Ch. 62) 

3. TT€TNAOYCO<i7 CCA^CDq €BOA MONOBe (Ch. 63) 

4. mn(5om MHoq eAMA^re (Ch. 63) 

5. NfeTMOTM €AAy (Ch. 82) 

6. NeTNAp^NAY gccdtm epooy e^Ape^ epooy eAAy (IV 204) 
7.. n€NTAq*t* nan NTeqcApi eoyoMC Ayco neqcuoq ecooq 

(Ch. 83) 

8. eTBeoy MnexpiNe htiai N^oyo gtmk AJcpon HnoycoN 

(III 204) 

9. Mnicci hjgtbp u)He (Ch. 28) 

10. 2 HTTTp€NApxei NCOOp €BO\ ... (Ch. 62) 

I I. N'l’MTTtyA AN MMOyT€ €pOI JtenekUJHpe JClNTCNOy (IV 132) 

12. qtpAAT N2POK H M17C0T €BOA MHO (A I 41) 

13. icoyeq;- Micye (Ch. 21) 

m 

14. N'l’oyccpjcooq an (Ch. 68) 

15. N€NTAypjcAie Ayco u>cuq (III 214) 

16. MiiATNa>CK rAp Nqi ^ANeucpHy Nee Mnatoeic Ayco neqxc 

MNNeqArreAoc €Tqi ^Apow jcintapxh MnccoNT (A I 29) 



THIRD PART: ASSORTED UNCLASSIFIED TEXTS 

(graded according to difficulty) 




THIRD PART: 

ASSORTED TEXTS OF ADVANCED SYNTAX 
(graded I-III according to difficulty (complexity or extent)) 


(1) 

( 2 ) 

(3) 

(4) 

(5) 

( 6 ) 

( 7 ) 

( 8 ) 
(9) 

( 10 ) 



GRADE I 


OYNoytp^e kxn N’foyecy.xooq an fNXJcooq (Ch. 68 ) 
NNepcune £pAi n^htn pANAcy AeNfNiNKOTic e6\o6 an 
Q)AN*t*MOY (IV 82 ) 

NcecooyN an jl€nim ne npconc NTAqei chay h jceoy ne 
Ne^BHye NTAqei ctbhhtoy (Mun. 101 ) 

MNAPAnH N^HTOy e^OyN €OyA NOytOT NNeT'f'CBtt) NAy 

(Wess. 9 162 ) 

oy netyApencAeiN AAq MnpcuMe eTepeTenAHrH ^icucuq 

(Wess. 9 138 ) 

oyoi NAN CD NAOJHpe CN<yANMOy ^NNCNNOBe HT 1 ATNM€TA- 

noi (P 131.6 28 8 ) 

oyNMNTJtAJte eqpNoqpe oyNeipHNH eqpeooNe (III 195 ) 
(OBS. Note the masculine resumption of the zero-article feminine 
antecedent] 

oy ne nwoee h A<y ne njtiNdoNC 6 ntaijcithytn n 6 onc 

% 

N^HTq ntcotn NpeqxpMpM NpeqdNApnce (III 144 ) 

AnoyA Hoy Aycu AqptcAice cbo\ JceqnooyT Ayco oyKAice 
ne CAnKeoyA Ae <dn£ eqNooyT Ayu) AqpoyoeiN eqo 

NKAKe (Ch. 69 ) 

nim neNTAqTAH ienpH mnttoo^ mnncioy mm nNoyTe an ne 


(A II 407 ) 

[OBS. The # noun - ne# Nominal Sentence “carries on" 
(resumes) the Cleft Sentence] 

NAcyeNCTNA ejoyN enHi HnNoyTe epeney^HT c6wp e- 
Heynpocexe Noye^cAgNe eToy^ojN hnooy etooToy 


(IV 38 ) 


nxoeic cooyN NNCTeNoyq Ne woyoeiqj nim Ayco mmhnc 
MHHN 6 (E 85 ) 

nbntoah HnNoyTe nai cn«Y 2 oa ® NNA^pAy egoyeneBicu 


2 Aoh MnATqpKAice epooy Ndmey^HT natcbcu TeNoy ac 


2 <vwq Aycuye NNAgpAy (E 84 ) 



160 


THIRD PART 


(14) eyeTAMON 2 NO Y MNTMe €itcntayna y cpoq jc.gk.ac eye- 

ujcune gycmamaat 2NNGY2 bh Y € THpoy Aycu ncggi e^pAi 
G-XCDOy n 6|NCCHOY THpOY €TCH7 (III 158) 

(15) nog rAp MnGTGMncpfrrexc ^tuuuq gng^ tai tc og mitg- 

TJCU> HMOC JCeq^lUMDT GNcj^lCDCOq an (A I 395) 

(16) iiGTNA^ApG^ g^gnkoy* NcjqjamG eqeN^OT cpooy qjAy'f*- 

£GNNO<> CTOOTCJ NCGTAN^OYTcj GpOOY (IV 113) 

(17) ojcdtig ntok miiictoc ckoyaab a you gkujanbcuk jA^THq 

knanay eneooy mttnoytg (IV 189) 

(18) NGTO NUJOpn AYP^AG CTBGTMNTATCCDTM NCTO N£AG AYP* 

u;opn gtbgtmntctmht (P 130.2 69 181) 

(19) MOOUJG NHTN GBOA NTOK Ay<*> NGNTAK JCOOC GpOOy -X.e- 

cgtSbhy g^gnatojay hg (E 67) 

(20) z x Z rA P Neon qjApon6cpH6 cupi G^oyn NNGTqMGeyG 

Gpooy eborroy Aycu NcjncuT e^pAi e-xcuoy ^NTGqdoM 

NqTA^ooY (HI 78) 

(21) HH MNplDMG Gpqj ANJICq^M^AA pBAAG H NTGKG^CDB GqO 

n6aig ujcottg MMoq HGqKAAq ggi HneqMTO gboa (Ch. 131) 

(22) MNpCUMGNAGlMGGnGT^MTT^HT (WCSS. 9 171) 

(23) OYHGTKNAAAq (Ch. 24) 

(24) aynay€boan6inbaagaypbaagn6ingtnaycboa (RE 11 17) 

(25) AqeiN6!OYOGiq?AY<DAY<xnoiqNHYN6ioYOYoeiuj Aycu'l'- 

nahoy (A II 449) 

(26) AqcoY^DNqjcenJcoGicnG (Ch. 69) 

(27) eiq;ANMOY2 a,BN,MeT€T NOYAqpoYAAY (IV 113) 

GRADE II 

(1) TNcyn^MOT NTOOTOy NN6CNHY GTCyn^lCG NHHAN NAI 

GTCCDTM NCArTGNCyAJC.G ^N^CDB N,M €TG0yN60M MMOOy 

6aA q ay*d ngt'I'hton n^ht nan £pAi ^N^ynoTAro N,M 
GYPZ 1011 enGYOY-X^i ^noy^otg mnoyctcdt (IV H5f.) 

(2) NN6N*f<yin6 NHTN NNAI A AAA CN'f'CBCD NHTN ^CUCCON HHG* 

PIT ACKAC NNGYT6a(ON MNTTKOCMOC AyCJL) JCGKAC GNGpBOA 

enqjAote Mnenpo<J>HTHC oc.ee ic^HHre fNoeiNe eotHnei- 

* 

aaoc N^eNneoooY Aytw eannKApnoc ntgymntatccdtm 

(IV 117) 

(3) ANGpilT N^A£ NCOn GpnATAO ON MTfGNAAq KATAnGMfTUJA 
MTTGNBIOC MFTNGpHT €pN08G Ay CD ANJCGK^A^ MnGOOOy 
GBOA TNCA^Oy HCN MITCATANAC TNGipG JiG NNGTcjoyA- 




% ~ 



ASSORTED UNCLASSIFIED TEXTS 



q)OY TNCHoy A€ ^cucuq ennoyTe ^mtiaac Aytu Tweipe 

NN€T<jHOCTe MMooy (E 95) 

(4) MNpcuMG eoyNTCNec^iooye nbcok e^oyN ujApooy Aece- 

COBT€ MAC N£6NMA NU^UmC JMneynei NApOpCU^ (IV 17) 

(5) ^CHBApBApoC 26NCOON€ ^CNMATOI 2€NpMMAO 

CHOC CNAtyCDOy AflNOyTC NA^MC epOOy NOyHHHCye 
Neon ^MnTpcqAATC NMTiqjA MnCIBIOC TCHOy €T€N2HTq 

Ayo) AqcHoy epo eTMTpeqjcucuT MnoeiK ^i^oire Z 1 ’ 

AAAy NNKA CnTMpq NTenXA2 XITNTAIKAIOCyNH NNOyCI- 

OTC CTOyAAB (III 205) 

(6) oypa>M€ TTcrcoyNTAq mmay NcyHpe cnay Aquja>a>T mti- 

MACC GTCANAtlJT noyA H€N Aq*f NAq NqTOOy HHCpOC 

nxcoyA Aq*t* NAq NoyMepoc Noyu>T nih N£Hroy fierce- 

poq epn^cuB MneqeuuT (Ch. 103) 

(7) NTOK €TO)cy NTOK €TCCDTM epCNCKpHeiOOyC CCUK GAN- 

NCKoyoOe eTBeNeNTAyAOoy THpoy e^oyn epoq n<5«- 

N6NTATKAKIA TCDM NNCyBAA MNneyjHT AyCON^q TAp HOC 
NOyAHCTHC 6TBHHTK ACKAC ^OXDK eyqpANMOpK GTBHHTq 

NNCKCKANAAAIXC (III 104) 

(8) MneqAOOc ac+natamio anok agkac eNNeqpnujHpe 

NAAAOTplOC €THNTpeqTAHIO OyAC MTieqAOOC ACTAHIO 
NTOK A6KAC CNNCqAAq HHIN MMOqNU)MMO en?U)B CNU^AN- 

noci Aenqjupe p^cuB MNrreqeicoT enpcuMe tnnaomg on 


AeqpgcoB NMMAq erne mntika^ Ayco npH hntioo^ mnncioy 

HNOAAACCA AyCO AHTIHOyC NMnHye MNNCTN^HTOy THpoy 

(Cat. 42) 

{NB: a- in AHnHoye — Akhmimicism for the standard Sahidic 
e- (preposition)) 

(9) epeqjTAM epo Hnpo NMnwye nana? MNNCATpeyo y<dn 
HM oq Ne NKecon eq<yoTM epo erseNNOBe ntoymntko- 
cmikon Ayco epeoycoN Ne Mnpo namntg nan a? mnnca- 
TpeycyoTHeq epo NKecon erBe^eNKoyi MneTNANoyoy 

GAAAy ^MnTpepHONAXOC eAAOOpOy €BOA TGNOy £N* 

Noy^BHye eeooy (HI 206) 

(10) Nee rxp eTeu^Ayqiooye Ncecycone natkapttoc h6i2€n> 

cyHN eypMT ^woyAAie cmmnmooy N^HTq TXt ON xe G€ 
eTeujAyujooye Ncecyume NATKApnoc NNA^pMnNoyTe 
Ndi^eNpcoHe natccotm cyKtu S^THy epooy HAyAAy 

jNTeyMNTCABe mmin hhooy (III 176) 

(11) nAAAC 6op<5 enpcoHe SencpATHC eqcooyN AeequjANA- 


-«•» * 



I 


THIRD PART 



nATA MMOq GOyCUM H 6CCD 2NOyKpOq MNOyHNTCAMKOTC 

MN^eNdoA. oyHONOH JceqNA.Jc.po epoq aaaa qNAMOoyTcj 

€TB€OY2pe MAyAAC AN XWX GTBCT6TIAANH HIT^HT (IV 


166) 

(12) eioyeupoy ntotthytn NCATpeTN'f2 H Y mmcdtn h eiupiNe 

ncaoy NCATpenjcoeic nNoyre cwoy epcorS mmnctn- 
qpHpe HNneTNHi TMpq (A I 207) 

( 13 ) ccutm Ay cd MApeNp^OTe 2«Tq MneTMoy2 Nine Aycu 

6TMOY2 MnKA^ xy cd GTP20Y6MOY2 HneqHi TApweine 


anon NeTepeney^tiT thh epooy JceNpooyup an NNeTNAy 
gngino 6 MNOi^e NTcnNoyTe ne Meeye gboa eNe^BHye 

htika^ (A 1 234) 

(14) ^ANoyTeycyH eToyoN^ gboa jc€tnmton mmon n 2 htc 

qcoTn A 6 on N 6 me 2 ooy 6 Bo\ Jce 2 MnTpeqq;A NOinpH 

<yAyccDoy 2 e 2 oyN NtimeeHpiON THpoy NTCcuupe ncgn- 
KOTK 2 NN 6 YBHB NTenptDMG Cl 6 BOA €neq 2 CDB AyCD STeq- 

eprACiA cp attnay Npoy 2 e (IV 176) 

( 15 ) oy neTicenieyHei epoq ntnoyupmmcd eMNTAKq ntntg- 

TeTCDK T€ Aycu nto 20 )cdt€ cd Tec 2 iMe oy neTepeqptNe 
NccDq NTNoycy mho encjupoon nc an HTHneteno) ne (Or. 


157f.) 

(16) ANAy jc€2N2A2 hma 2NNerpA<|>H ay2cdn gtootn cth* 

TpCNCDpK NAAAy NANAUJ 6IMHTI GTpG TlCNCy AJCG UptDne 

HMAT6 iice ce AyCD MMON MMON (III I 82 f.) 

(17) anok 't'oycDqp 2 mtta Z ht T Hpq Aycu 2 Nta6om THpc ct- 

pGTNupcune thptn €T€tnoyaab €boa 2Mn2An MnNoyTe 

CTqNAKpiNG N 2 »irq NNpeqpNOBe rupoy ntoikoyh€NM THpc 


(III 140) 

(18) mh MMNpcDMe eupAqnu>pjc e bo a HneqqpBHp eeooy 

2HnTpeqA.oiciHAZe MMoq NqpqpSHp enpcDMe eTNANoyq (P 


131.5 128 vo) 

( 19 ) namc riee eTeoyN 2*2 N 2 °°Y T eupAytyome NJccDcope 

KATAKAipOC AyCD GNAUpGNG^I OMG GTp6tDB OyN2A2 ON 
NC2IM6 eqpAypJCCDCDpG KATAKAipOC jyCD NCGJtpO NA- 

qpeN2°°Y T on 6Toyjcpo epooy Aycu cto n6cdb (IV 38f.) 

(20) NTOKneTCooyNnNoyreneicDTNNeNTAneKqpHpeeToyAA- 

BJcooy (Wcss. 9 180) 

(21) MNpcDMeNAeiMeeneT 2 Hn 2 HT (Wcss. 9 171) 

(22) OYONNIM2pAIN2MTNeypNOBeHeYNApNOBe2NOY^CDn2A2THN> 

H 2 A 2 T NTHyTNNTCDTNAycDNceTHJcenNOBeNTAYAAq eyeei- 

€2PAiejccDOYN6iNeiCA2oyTHpoY (IV 120) 



ASSORTED UNCLASSIFIED TEXTS 


163 


(23) NANOYTTC0BT6qiCCDTC6TnOA6ICAAAAGYTMpO6IC2l<XC0qC* 

GNAJCITCN6lNBApBApOCNeGNTGTGMNOYONMMOC • NANOyN- 

€2BHY€Mnpu)H6NAqeTq;n2iceAAAAeqTHpoe icHNNe 

> 

2BHyenNOBeNiq)o\<j (IV 24) 

[OBS. 6yth-, eqTH- are variant forms of the negatived conditional, 
for the usual gy< 4 >*ntm-, cqqjANTM-] 

GRADE III 

(1) kuwc 6e EYoyeu/nJiqeNeBia) ce*|* rxp nneq^ice tmep 
ptuoy MNNpCUHe KAA.U)C AC GyMG MncxpiCTt anoc q6y<t>- 

Pang rAp mitnoytc MNneqxc ^NNeq^BHye THpoy naikaio- 
cynh kaxojc eyqipooYU^ 2 xnxc J GHeB,cu 2 ,t nnpo>mg Ayto 
cypocic GyMoyoyT nnkgzcdon GT'f oyenq kaacuc eyqi- 
pooyqj 2 An€x P ,c TiANOc Ay cd eypoeic cpoq jiTNNArre- 
\oc (III 46) 

(2) mh gngccd nto gtai gntacpnobg mitgmto gboa wnHoyTe 
GAqKToq Aqqi ntootc wnecoyo Mnneccne^ HNnecHpn 

HNN€C20IT€ MNNeC^BCDCDC €AqTA^OC CpATC KATANC200Y 

mitgcmicg Aycu katanc^ooy gntacgi e^pAi n^htoy gboa 

2MT1KA2 NKHMC (P 130.2 6 87) 

(3) oy»aa rAp HnoNwpoc eqeipe hitccdha MirpcuMe nkakg 

ne neTNAcaiT eqi MTTCTCorn 2 Itgtpattg*a erpcqoYonq 
NqKO) A€ HnCTdOJCB HncT^iTOYcuq (IV 88) 

(4) eqcooyN n<5ihcdychc acewnpcuHe NAp^NAq an e*f mfig- 

TCHNTAq Aq6iup5 epoq ntgi2 g eqneiee HHoq CTpeq'f 
nn^Hice AceNNeqHOY ^HnTpeqceicneq^HT 2 , tnta<|>opmh 
H n'f* cHHce agkac kan ctyaeNqNAt an mtt6T2R agit 

GTBCTGqMNTATNA HNTGqHNTATTANOpCUTTOC H€CyAK qNA*f 

NAq GT^eOY^HY (HI 65) 

(5) GTGTNCyANTNNOOY NAN GTBGNGT'f'TtDN G^OyN 62PHTN 

2NT6YMNTATCCDTH H GTB66GA.AAY MnGOOOy TNNApCDUJG 

cpooY ne enAiAGyc HMooy Ayco 6TpcN*t*CBCD nay £N€- 

niCTHMH NIM KATAee 6T6TNCCDTH GNGTGipG HMOOY 2*2~ 

thn (P 130.1 135 333) 

(6) gtbgitai ecy^Gcycye gtpajccu MnixecyAJce nnAoycuq) 

H6N AN ne 2 OMa>c 6TBGTU>«|>6A61A NNGTCCDTM 'pNAJCOOq 

GIN 06 ng 6 HnJCAJCG Aycu “fN A j* UJIT16 ON NAq 2MniKG2CDB 

(Ch. 128) 

(7) oy **Ap nGTGpGn jcogic ttnoytg xiGooy N£HTq AN cqnA- 

taccg qjjGOoy cqTAAOo qJUGOoy cqTAN 2 o qoyu>N2 



164 


THIRD PART 


gboa NTeqdoM eqMoyoyT qoyciJNZ cso\ NTeqdoM qju- 

ft 

eooy eqccooyz G^oyN Mnecoyo ctaiioghkh qoycuN^ 
• gboa NTeq6oM eqpcuK? mtitcd^ qJOeooy £NNeNTAqAAy 
THpoy JtiNMnAicoN oyNo6 Te TeqdOM £nng tcjn a a a y Tupoy 

2ntcyntgagia (Cli. 115) 

( 8 ) TO) GTCD NTAKAOApTOC NCyNArCUTH GTMMAy NpGqAlOyA 

enecppo nexc mntgkkahcia tgnoy nn^gonoc gtcmoy 
epoq Aycu 6 T'|*Gooy NAq Aycu gt^omoaoi-gi ntgtpiac 
^NoyTAnpo fioycDT ^noy^ht NoyuiT ^NoyHG (Ch. 123f.) 

(9) Z X Z MeN NUJA-XG GANOCOOY Ay<D ANCA^OY GTBGFTGJtnO 

____ ♦ _ 

MnCCDTHp AyCD T€qMNTNOyT 6 AAAA GNTANJCCNIKGKOyGI 
GTBGNGNTAyUJING JCeNGqUJOOTT GHnATqu^CUTTG GBOA £M- 
MApiA OyNKGHNTMNTpe GCNJOT Ayu> 6 CO NN 06 GnGJOyO 
•iGNTTOCOGIC TTCCJDTHp qU^OOIT HNTTGqGIOJT £AOH NNAICUN* 
HIM riGTJtO) HMOC NNIM JCGMApNTAMIO NO ypCDMG KATA* 
TGN^IKCDN Ay CD KATATIGHGING MH TIGICDT AN nGTU) AAG 

MNTTGqU^HpG TTGqMONOrGNHC GTOyAAB (Cal. 42) 

(10) GOpJCeNITAGIO NTI2® cyOOn NNGT^MnrAMOC N^OOyT MN- 

ng^iomg eT^Apc^ enMA nnkotk eqTBBHy- 6160yHp nc 

ITT AG IO Aycu OyMNT-XCDCDpe NAUJ NAGIHC NG NG'j'YXH 
NNpCDMG 6TO MFTApOGNOC AyOJ GyoyAAB ^NOyMG GITG 
£OOyT GITG C^IHG- GCyJC€HN6oH 6 g MMOK GpiTApeGNOC 

cu npcDHG nog HnGTGoyNTAq mm Ay MniAcupoN* Aycu 

NTO ^CDCDTG 40 TGC^IHG GCyXeMNdOM MMO GIT AI NOG 
NTGTp^OyO N^HTq GIGKAN £01 6 pOK GTGKC^ING KAN £CD 

epo enoy^Ai (Or. 164f.) 

(11) TTGAAq NOlXOCCOpOAC ITKOMGC JCCTIAIABOAOC CCDCyT 

mmon Aycu q-p 6 pon nan NqKcu mmon an epriAi Ayco 

qAMA^TG MMON £NNGT6NOyq NG AlOyCDUji NAq JCCCTBGOy 
AKJCOOC JCGNCTGNOyq MnKAOOC JCGNOyN NMMAq NG GBOA 

JcepcuMG nim GTpnGoooy eqjciTo mnttgtmmay maaaon 

AG OyATdOM ne GTpGTTAIABOAOC TpGpUIMe pNOBG MfTG- 

neqoytucp pujopn gttmgg yG mhaiaboaoc h Nq^coTp 

NMMAq (Ch. 62f.) 

(12) CINOyeiOC nGTC^AI NBAKANOC MNNCTNMMAq* ONTCUC Al- 

onq JceoynoNHpoN ne eiujANTM.xu> nhtn ntmg name 
' f*MOK2 njht ^^P^tn ene^oyo GTBeoy h eocNoy n+na- 
aooc an* tOingi MnoyA noyA g^pai endue nnaoeic 

nnoyTe nnANTOKp atcdp NATpeqeiMG aceoy neTeu^cye 

epoq eAAq h gtmaA q eic iima kh NroprH Soe gtch^ 



ASSORTED UNCLASSIFIED TEXTS 


165 


ecycone 'f'NA.qpqi h eujAteoySOoM mmcutn ntcutn eqi 

2 Apoc eic tt 2 ajt nhjc emcoeic See €tch2 (Ch. 94) 

(13) •fMeeye .xeATeTSeme -xeeioyouN^ mita2ht epioTN jtuc- 

cyBHp AytD guild nnai eioycuty erpeTHpoeic jcgtgtS- 
^NTMHTe N^eNNod MnpArMA eyoq) exz±Z <U € S 2 ACI 6 n^h- 

Toy GAyfoce SSu)agng 2 GTBeNAnpocoyoGicy • oy rAp 

NineoN neTeMnenNoyTe TAAq nhtS Aycu anon THpS 

StSuJAAT NAAAy AN €IHHTI GpneqOytDU} GNUJANAAq TAP 

eNeipe HHoq nan- oy neTepenNoyTe cyme Sccuq StootS 
h oy ttgtujooti ACGNoyq an ng Noyq rAp ng mtthyg MNmcAj 
Aycu 6AAACCA HNNeTN^HToy THpoy (Ch. 97f.) 

(14) SCMOT TAP GTGCyAKBCDK. G^OyN N^HTOy U) ANGTGNOyK NG 

eypHc ntooy an ngtgu;ak.6i n^htoy ^^eNpAcoy gjcSnc- 
Tepe^TMy kh gic- GKcyANoyoNjic rAp gboa See SoyArre- 

\oc SweTeNoyK ng SceNAniCTeye nak an Scecooyn rAp 

an Stming SoyArrexoc Stgiucogic oy^p® SjlAimcdn tigt- 
oycooyN mmok S^HTq GKcy ANoyoN 2 K as gboa 2* n€K- 
cmot GNGrpoeic oy bhk eypHc kcooyn jcgcgnagimg 
epOK* oy neTKNAAAq- cyAKJU^P® ^cucArreAoc SoyoeiN 
Sna^PAY’ tiaain on cgtajo mmok 2mttai Ayco mgk2cdtt 
epooy (Ch. 23f.) 

(15) KCMAMAAT GKCMOy GKNACMOy ON GNGKArAOON MMING NIM 

STAKTpeytycDne THpoy JcmScyopn kcmamaat AKTpen- 
THpq cytune gboa 2^nGT6Nqcyoon an gkkocmgi HHooy 
THpoy noyA noyA 2nneqcA Tire wen 2N2€NpeqpoyoeiN 
TiAHp 2^2 eN 2^^ AAT€ eytuuj gboa 2ntgycmh 2mha nim 

Aycu 2° ,Ne ey2HA 2Mn.xice 2 €N * 00 Y € ®Y2 HA - 2 ,n€CHT 
Aycu riKA2 2*2 eN< £J HN mhing nim MSneyfoyco Aycu StH- 
Nooye 2MneyujiBe noyA noyA KATAneqeiNe MSneq-xno 
ttgtcaano; MTiTHpq 2 NTeqwSTxpiCToc* kcmamaat gacS- 
ngkatagon THpoy MSNeK 2 ®Hye THpoy naSkaipoc naS- 
poMne nangbotg mSng 200 y Ay cd Ney<yooye Mnpcu mS- 
ScycuM hattmoo y Stgmhpg GTeoyMO^e ne 2wnKA2 THpq 
Skhmg NAN2cuoy mSngicdtg naSthy mSnjlamh naSkbcd 

MNS 2 HM 6 NAlTAHp GTpNOqpG NAN<yAy GTAy^ANG SatAOON 


nim (RE 10 161) 

(16) AnNoyTe'fNANNOYXApiCMSoYCpqeeTpeNp2CDBeNe2®Hye 

MneNa>N2€OYMNTpMMAONAH-ANONN€TOYH22NNeqTOnOCe- 
TOYAABANep2CDBA.G2CDCDqeNe2BHY€MTTeNMOyAY<JDTT€NO- 
C€MHMSpCDM€€2NAqeeiGTGKKAHCIA GNcjOSeG ANGTBGNGq- 



THIRD PART 


£iceMNNeqMNT2H2XAeYKH2eneNMTON‘ANONAeNeT2:MnH!- 

MnNQYTeAYU>€TOYH22MNeqcYNAra>rHTHca)OY2 N * N€ 2°Y N “ 

NOY<ytuq2NHeNTA.nJtoeicJcooYote^icoYH2A2MMHTq;xq- 
TeNT€TIIYTN (E 94f.) 



TABLES 


NB: “X-” or “X-»” mean: “X is prefixed to the following element 
(either noun or demonstrative, indefinite, interrogative or number 

pronoun; or suffix-pronoun, respectively); 

”-X” means: "X is suffixed to the preceding element'*; 

“-X-” means: "X is infixed between elements”. 

Table A: Pronouns; Determinators: Articles, Demonstratives; Personal 

Pronouns 

Table B: Nominal-Sentence Patterns 

w 

Table C: the Base (“Tripartite”) Conjugation 

Table D: the Causative Conjugation 

Table E: Existential and Possessive Statements 

Table F: the Durative Conjugation 

Table G: the Converters 

Table H: the Adjective Verbs 

Table I: Lexical Verb Morphology: Infinitive/stative Formal Classes 



TABLE A 


PRONOUNS: De-terminators: Articles, Demonstratives, Personal 

Pronouns 



ARTICLES: 


Definite Indefinite Zero (generic, 

(“the”) (“a”, “some”) abstract, quality) 

singular, masc. n-/ne- oy- j 

singular, fern. t-/t€- oy [ 0- 

plurtil, masc. + fern. N-/we- ^cn- J 

% 


A2, DEMONSTRATIVES 


“THIS ONE” 

THIS— 

“THAT ONE” 

“THAT—” 

(emotional) 

singular, masc. it At 

rrei- 

nH 

ni- 

singular, fern. tai 

T6I- ( 

TH 

+- 

plural, masc. + fern, nai 
(“ these”, “those”) 

nei- 

NH 

Nl- 


A3. POSSESSIVE ARTICLES 



possessed: 

possessed: 

possessed: 

• 

masc. 

fem. 

plural (masc. fem.) 

• 

possessor: 

1st sgl. (“my-”) 

TTA- 

TA- 

NA- 

2nd sgl. masc. (“your-”) 

neK- 

T€K- 

NCK- 

fern, (“your-”) 

noy- 

Toy- 

woy- 

3rd sgl. masc. (“his-”) 

neq- 

req- 

weq- 

fern, (“her-”) 

nec- 

T6C- 

N€C- 

1st plur. (“our-”) 

new- 

T€N- 

NCN- * 

2nd plur. (“your-”) 

n€TN- 

T6TN- 

, N6TN- 

3rd plur. (“their-”) 

ney- 

Tey- 

Ney- 




TABLES 


169 


A4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 



possessed: 

possessed: 

possessed: 


masc. 

fcm. 

plural (masc. + fcm.) 

possessor: 

1st sgl. (“mine”) 

TTCOI 

TCUt 

Noyi 

2nd sgl. masc. (“yours”) 

nunc 

TCUK 

Noyit 

fern, (“yours”) 

nu> 

TO) 

Hoy 

3rd sgl. masc. (“his”) 

nuKj 

Ttuq 

woyq 

fern, (“hers”) 

ncuc 

TO)C 

Noyc 

1st plur. (“ours”) 

neon 

TOJN 

NOyN 

2nd plur. (“yours”) 

ncoTN 

TCOTN 

NOyTN 

3rd plur. (“theirs”) 

ncooy 

Tcooy 

Noyoy 

noun possessor 

ru- 

TA- 

NA- 


(“hc/shc/thcy of’): c.g. nAnnoyTe “he of (belonging/pertaining to) 
God”, tatiacon “she of (belonging/pcrtaining to) my brother”, 
NATne “they of (belonging/pcrtaining to) Heaven”. 


A5. PERSONAL PRONOUNS 

Class (a): “Suffix-Pronouns” 

(pronominal actor-expression in base conjugation; pronominal object 
after infinitive; pronoun following prepositions ; subject of Adjective 
Verbs). 


Singular 


Plural 


1st person (“I, me”): -i(-), -t* 

2nd person (“you”): -*(-) (masc.) 


3rd person -q(-) 

-c(-) 


-0(«), -e*-T€* (fern.) 
(masc.: “he, him”) 

(fern.: “she, her”) 


-n(-) (“wc, us”) 

-TN(-), *T€TH(*)i - 
-THyTH* 

(masc./fem.) 


-oy -y- 

(mase./fem.: “they, 

them”) 


* *r, -«/-T6 follow consonant* and ("kxxt") doubled vowels; -thytn final r and ihe 
prcnoiuinal form of the infinitive as well as some prepositions. 



170 


TABLES 


Class (aj): Objective Pronouns 

(pronominal possessed after possession verboid, see Table E; pronomi¬ 
nal object after certain irregular infinitives, c.g. c^ai “write”). 

Singular Plural 

2nd person (“you”): (masc.) -it 

(fern.) -e 

3rd person: (masc. “him”) -q 

(fern, “her”) -c (masc./fcm. “them”) 

-ce, -coy 


Class (b): Prefix Pronouns 

(pronominal actor in the duralive conjugation pattern (present, future 
& modifier predication): 


Singular 


Plural 


1st peison (“I”, “wc”)i*- 
2nd person (“you”) k - (masc.) 

T€- (fern.) 

3rd person q- (masc. “he”) 

( c- (fern, “she”) 

1 

\ 



t€tn- (masc. + fern.) 

ce- (masc. + fern, 
“they”) 


% 

Class (c): ‘Subject Pronouns: pronominal “logical subject” (theme) 
with nominal predicates). 


Singular 

1st person (“I am-”) anF- 

2nd person (“you are-”) ntk- (masc.) 

nt€- (fern.) 

-ne (masc. “he is-”) 
-T6 (fern, “she is-”) 


Plural 

an(n)-, anon- (“wc 
arc-”) 

nt€tn- (masc. + fern.) 

-Ne (masc. + fern, “they 
arc-”) 


3rd person 



TABLES 


171 


Class (d): Lexical (“independent”) Pronouns 

(lexemes for “I, you (masculine singular, feminine singular, masc./fem. 
plural), he, she, we, they”; also a; personal-pronoun predicates in the 
delocutive Nominal Sentence); 


Singular 


Plural 


1st person (“I”) 

2nd person (“you”) 

3rd person (“he”) 

(“she”) 


ANOK 

ntok (masc.) 
nto (fem.) 

NToq (masc.) 
ntoc (fem.) 


anon (“we”) 

ntojtn (masc. -I- fem.) 

ntooy (masc. + fem., 

“they”) 


Note the morphology of the Ist-pcrson pronouns: amok, anon — 
different from all others (nto *» + suffix-pronoun). 



TABLE B 


NOMINAL-SENTENCE PATFERNS 


BL The Interlocutive (lst/2nd person) Paitern 

anF- neq^M^AA. “l am ms servant”. mtk- oyiml ‘’You arc a spirit” 

Pattern: # lst/2nd person pronominal subject - predicate # 

Subject: interlocutive (lst-2nd persons) pronouns (A5, Class c) 
Predicate: definite, indefinite noun (not demonstrative, proper name, or 
zero-determinated noun) 

Negation pattern: # (n-) subject - predicate + an # 

Conversion: circumstantial: e + pattern (“I/you being...’*) 

1 preterite: nc + pattern (“I was.../You were...”) 

Topicalizedsubject: # anok anF- Predicate# (etc.) 


B2a. The Pelocutive (3rd person) Pattern 


nACON nc “He is my brother”, oynApecNoc tc “She is a virgin”, 
NAI NC “It is these”, ANOK lie “It is l” 


Paitern : # predicate 


subject 



(f); 


Subject: dklocutive (3rd persons) pronouns (singular nc (m.). 
plural nc: AS, class c) 

Predicate: definite, indefinite, zero-det. noun; Proper Name; personal, 
demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite pronouns 
Negation pattern: # (n-) predicate 4- an + subject # 

Conversion: circumstantial: c + pattern (“Whereas he/shc/thcy is/arc...”) 

relative: gtc + pattern (“Who, which is/arc...“) 
preterite: nc + pattern (“He/shc/thcy was/were...”) 


B2b. The Expanded Delocutive Pattern 


* % 


oyai*aooc nc nNoyTe “good is (He,) God", oy tc TCNjeAmc 
“whai is (it,) our hope?” tai tc ec “mis is (it,) the manner 
(“thus”) 


TABLES 


173 


Pattern: # predicate - pronominal subject * nominal subject # 

This is B2a, expanded: the nominal subject renders the pronominal 
(formal or “grammaticar) one lexically explicit. (Other features arc the 
same as for B2a) 


B2c. The Topicalization Delocutive Pattern 

nNoyTe oy.xnk.eoc nc “(As for) God, He is good*’, nai ^eNpeqp- 
Noae nc “(As for) these, they arc sinners" 

Pattern: # noun/pronoun topic predicate - pronominal subject # 

The topic presents an element familiar from the preceding text or 
beyond it as the basis on which the predicate is communicated; the 
pronominal subject refers back to the topic, and agrees with it in gender 
and number. 

Features as for B2a, except for conversions, which arc rare. 

NB (negation pattern): # topic - (w-) predicate f ah -f pronominal 
subject # 


B3. The Cupular Pattern 

neyNoyre ne pcone “Their god is man". neqpAN ne nxyAOC 
“His name is Paul, amok ne rxep iha. “I am Gabriel": an cqualional- 
idenlifying predication clause (S = P) 

Pattern: # subject - copula - predicate 

Subject: definite (very rarely indefinitc/zcro-detcrminatcd) noun, 
personal or demonstrative pronoun 

Predicate: Proper Name, dcfinitc/indefinitc/zcro-dctcrminatcd noun 
(especially infinitives) 

Copula: ne (tc) (we) (ne generalized) 

Negation pattern: # n- subject + am + copula - predicate # 
Conversion: circumstantial: e + pattern (“S being P") 

relative: ctc + pattern (“Whose S is P") 
preterite: ne + pattern (“S was P") 



174 


tam.es 


Pattern Overview (Bl-2a): *‘P” * Predicate, “S” = Subject 


subject 

SIMPLE 

EXPANDED 

TOI’ICALIZED 

1 NTF.RLOCUTI VE 

(“I am; we, 
you are”) 

“an?- P” 

— 

“anok, AN?* P 

Deukutive 

(“he, she is, 
they arc”) 

“P ne” 

“P ne, S” 

”S, P ne” 



TABLE C 


THE BASE (“TRIPARTITE**) CONJUGATION 

A vcrb-clausc pattern set, combining actor with verb phrase. 

actor: suflix-pronoun. Proper Name or noun/dcmonstrativc. indefinite, 

interrogative pronouns 

verb: base disconlinuously combined with any infinitive (here represented 
by ccutm “hear”) 

(I) The main-sentence conjugation 

Distinctive properties: (a) all arc independent clauses, (b) all are comple¬ 
tely or partly convertible, (c) all arc negated by special negative iiases. 

0(1)1. The Perfect: “AqccoTM" “MnqccuTM" 

(a) Affirmative base: 

a- q-ccuTM “He heard, has heard" 

A-npa>Me ccutm “The man heard, has heard’* 

Conversions: 

Circumstantial 

e- a-...ccutm “he/the man having heard", 

“after he/lhe man had heard", “...and hc/thc man heard" 

Relative 

(eNT- a ... ccoth “who heard, has heard", “whom, 

whose... hc/thc man heard, has heard" 

Second Tense 

(c)nt-a ... ccutm “It is... that hc/thc man heard, 

has heard" 

Preterite 

we- a ... ccutm “Hc/thc man had heard" 

(b) Negative base: 

hit- q-co>TM “He did not hear, has not heard" 

MTte-npcDMe ccoth “The man did not hear, has not 

heard" 


I 



nnnnnnnnnnnnf 


176 TABLES 

Conversions : 

Circumstantial 

(c-)nit ^/(e-)Mne- ... ccotm "unless, if nol hc/thc man heard, 

has heard", **hc/thc man nol having chosen" 

Relative 

CT€Mn<»/eT€* Mn6-... ccotm "who did nol hear, has nol 
heard", "whom, whose... hc/lhc man did nol hear, has nol heard” 

Second Tense (rare) 

etc*mti ••/eTe-Mne- ... ccotm “ll is... that hc/lhc man did not 
hear, has nol heard" 

Preterite 

mg- nn^/He-Mne-... ccotm “Hc/lhc man had not heard” 


0(1)2. Tm: Aorist: "ujAqccoTM" “MeqctoTM" 


(a) affirmative base: 

a)x* q- ctOTM 

UJApC- IipCOMC CCOTM 

Conversions: 

Circumstantial 

e- qjA-/e- qjApe-... ccotm 

relative) 

Relative 

etc- /e- q)A-/q>Ape ... ccotm 
whose... he/the man (usually ...) 

Second Tense 

e- q).\-/qjApe-... ccotm 
(usually...) hears" 

Preterite 

N6- cyA*-/t^Ap€* ... CCOTM 

(b) Negative base: 

mc - q-ccoTM 


“He (usually, by nature, by dispo¬ 
sition. as consequence) hears" 
“The man (usually, by nature, by 
disposition, as consequence hears” 


(after indcfinilc/zcro det. noun, as 

"who (usually...) hears", "whom, 
hears" 

"It is... that he/thc man 

"Hc/thc man used to hear" 

"He docs not (usually...) hear, 
cannot hear" 

"The man does not (usually...) 
hear, cannot hear" 


Mepe-npeoMe CCOTM 



TABLES 


177 


Conversions: 

Circumstantial 

e- M€«»/M€pc«... ccutm “while hc/thc man docs nol 

(usually...), cannot hear*' 

Relative 

eT€-/e*M€-/M€pe-... cu>tm “who docs not (usually...), cannot 
hear", “whom, whose... hc/thc man docs nol (usually...), cannot 
hear" 

Preterite 

Ne-we••/nepe-... co)tm “Hc/thc man could not, used not 

to hear" 



“Not Ym”: 


“MriATqCCOTM" 


Base : 

wnAT-q-ccuTM “He has not yet heard” 

MnATe- nptuMe cudth “The man has not yet heard" 

Con versions : 

Circumstantial: 

6- MnATf/e- wriXTe-... co)tm “before hc/thc man has heard" 
(usually preceded by the adverb “before") 

Relative: 

ere- MiiAT**/eTe-MriATe- ... couth “who has not yet heard”, 
“whom, whose... hc/thc man has not yet heard” 

Preterite: 

N€-HnAT-/Me*HniT€*...c(OTH “Hc/thc man had not yet 
heard" 


C(I)4. THE OPTATIVE (“THIRD FUTURE"): “eqecojTM" “mieq- 

ccuth" 

(a) Affirmative base: 

e - q-e-ccuTH “May he hear" (3rd persons). 

“Would you hear" (2nd persons) 
“May the man hear" 


epe-npcuMC ccutm 



178 


TAOLES 


Conversions : none 

Following ate and jccka(a)c: clauses of purpose or willed result: "... 
so that he (may) hear" 


(b) Negative base: 

NNC - t|- CCUTM 


NNG-npcune CCUTM 

Con versions: 

Circumstantial 

(C-)nN€- ... CCUTM 

clauses of purpose. 


"May he not hear". "He shall not 
hear’ 

"I will not hear” 

“May the man not hear", "The 
man shall not hear" 


rare, only after xgkx{x)c in 


Following ace and jccka(a)c in clauses of purpose or willed result: 
"... so that he may not hear" 


(II) The dependent-clause conjugation: 

Distinctive features: (a) all arc dependent clauses, (b) all arc non¬ 
convertible, (c) all arc negated by the negative infix -tm- preceding 

m ^ 

the infinitive (for a pronominal actor) or the actor (nominal actor). 



<p jlnt q- ccutm “until he hear (heard)'' 

cpjiNTe-npcuMe ccutm “until the man hear (heard)" 


C(H)2. The Temporal: “ntcpccjccutm" 

Base : 

NT€pe-q-/NTepe-npcuMe ccutm “after, since hc/thc man heard" 
Negative forms : 

NTepe «* q- tm- ccutm “after, since he did not hear" 

Nrepe- tm- npcuMe ccutm “after, since the man did not hear" 



TABLES 


179 


C(!I)3. The Conditional: “equine cdtm 


Base: 

€<* q- UJ AN- CCDTM 

epujAN- npcoMe ccuth 

» 

negative forms: 

e^q- ujan-tm-ccdtm 
epujAN- th- npeune ccuth 


“if (ever), in ease, whcn(cvcr). 
(eventually) he hears’* 

“if (ever), in ease, whcn(cvcr) 
(eventually) the man hears” 

“if (ever)... he docs not hear” 

“if (ever)... the man does not 
hear” 


The Conditional is often preceded by adverb kan which marks a 
concessive meaning (“even if.... although”) 


C(II)4. The Conjunctive: “NqccuTH” 

Base: with pronominal actor: n«* with special pronominal forms 

with nominal actor: ntc- 
Pronominal forms: 




singular 


PLURAL 

1st person 


NTA-, Ti- 


NTN- 

2nd person 

masc. 

Nr- 




fern. 

NTC- 

masc., fern. 

NTGTtl- 

3rd person 

masc. 

wq- 




fern. 

NC- 

masc.. fern. 

NCC- 


negative forms: pronominal actor: n«* q-TM-ccuTM 

Nominal actor: ntc- th- npeune ccuth 

The conjunctive: (I) continues a preceding verb form (normally not 
present, perfect or imperfect) as a special closely coordinated (“and”) 
verb sequence; (2) occurs after conjunctions and adverbs of Greek 
origin, especially £cuct€ “so that", negative hhiiotc, mhttcuc; 
etMHTi “otherwise”, Monc “hardly”. 



TABLE D 


THE CAUSATIVE CONJUGATION 
Dl. THE CAUSATIVE INFINITIVE: “TpeqccuTM” 

In conjugation : 

Tpe- q-ccuTM 

Tpe- nptuHe ccutm “to make (/let) him/the man 

hear” 

A fter prepositions : 

€-TpeqctuTM/e-Tpenpa>MC ccutm ‘Tor him/thc man to hear”. 

“that he (should) hear” or “so as to let him/the man hear” 
2Hn-/HNNCA-/ANTi-/Tpeq-/Tpenpa)Me ccutm literally “(in/aflcr/ 
instead...) that hc/thc man hear” 


D2. THE CAUSATIVE IMPERATIVE (“JUSSIVE”, “THIRD 
PERSON-IMPERATIVE’.’): “MApeqccuTM” 


SINGULAR 

1st person — 

Mnp 

2nd person — 

3rd person masc. MApeq- ccutm 

“let him hear” 

negative: Mnp- rpeq- ccutm 

“let him not hear” 

3rd person fern. MApec- ccutm 

“let her hear” 

negative : Mnp- Tpec- ccutm 

“let her not hear” 


PLURAL 

MApw- ccutm “lei iis hear” 

negative: 

Tpew* ccutm “let us not hear” 


masc. + fern. 

MApoy ccutm “let them 
hear” 

masc. + fern. 

negative Mnp- Tpey- ccutm 
“let them not hear” 



TAIUKS 


1X1 


D3. THE FUTURE (“CAUSATIVE") CONJUNCTIVE: “TApcq- 
ccutm" 

This form expresses the guaranteed result of obeying a command, also 
general guaranteed (desirable) result. In the first persons, it expresses a 
deliberative question. 


SINGULAR 


PLURA! 


1st person t a- ccutm 

2nd person masc. TApetc- ccutm 

fern, tA pe-CCUTM 


TApN* CCUTM 


‘shall we hear?'* 


masc. + fcm. tapgtn-ccutm 


and you shall hear" 


3rd person masc. TApeq- ccutm 

fern. TApec-ccoTM 


14 


and he/shc shall hear" 


masc. -f- fcm. TApoy- ccutm 

“...and they shall hear" 


• ♦ « 



TABLE li 


EXISTENTIAL AND POSSESSIVE STATEMENTS 


El. Tin- Existential St a if; mf: nts: 


oyw- “There is” (with indefinite noun/pronoun, number nouns. 

zero-det. noun* or determinated relative (ner) 

MMii-, mn- “There is not” (with indefinite noun/pronoun, zero-deter¬ 
minated noun or determinated relative (ner-) 


Conversions: 

Circumstantial: 

G- OyN-/e-(M)MN- (MMN-) 

Rf-:i.ativt.: 

GTG- OYN-/GTG- (m)MN- 


not 


% \ 


Second Tf.nsi; (rare): 

G- OyH'/CMN* 

Prhtiritf.: 

N6- OYN-/NG- (m)MN- 


“thcrc bcing/not being” 


“whosewhom there is/is 


“It is... that there is/is not” 


“There was/was not” 


i 

NB: for the Existential Durativf: Prf.dk ation, see Tame F. 



gic-. cic-^hfitg “Here is ... 


”. with nouns and lexical pronouns. 


E2. The Possession Verboids: oYNTAq “He has” 

(M)MNTA.q “He docs not have” 

PRONOMINAL POSSFiSSOR: 

SINGULAR POSSESSOR PLURAL POSSESSOR 

1st person oynt(a)i (m)mnt(a)i oyntan neg. (m)mntin 
(“I/Wc have, do not have”) 

2nd person, masc. oynt(a)k neg. (m)mnt(a)k. 

fern. oyNTe neg . (m)mntg 

(“You have, do not have”) masc. + fern. oyntgtn/(m)mntgtn 



TAM.US 


183 


3rd person masc. oyN*r(A)q neg. (h )mnt( a)cj 

fern. oynt(a)c neg. (m)mnt(a)c 
(“He/Shc has. does not have”), 

(“They have, do not have”) masc. fern. oynt(a)y/(m)mnt(a)y 

NOMINAL, DEMOSTRATIVE. INDEFINITE-PRONOUN POSSESSOR: 

oyMTe- neg. (m)mntg- npcuMG “The man has, docs not have” 
Possessed: nouns, demonstrative, indefinite pronouns; personal pro¬ 
nouns (the objective pronouns. Table A5 Class a t ) 

Conversions: 

Circumstantial; 

g-oynta We- oyntg- nog. g- mnta** (mmnta «*)/gmntg- (mmntg-) 
“he/the man having, not having” 

Relative; 

GTG- OyNT A <*/eTG- OyNTG- HCg. GTG(m)MNTA -/GTG-(M)MNTG- 

“who has, docs not have”, “whom he/ the man has, docs not have” 

Second Tense (rare); 

g-oynta- neg. e* (m)mhta •* “It is... that hc/thc man has. does 

not have" 

Preterite 

ng- oyNTA **/ng- oyNTG* nog. nc-(m)mnta(m)mntg- “Hc/The 
man had, did not have" 




TABLE F 


THE DURATIVE CONJUGATION 
(THE “BIPARTITE" PATTERN) 

Pronominal actor: prefixed pronouns (Table A5 Class b) 

Nominal actor : (a) duiinitu noun, demonstrative pronoun or proper 
name: (b) existential (oyN-, negative (m)hm-) + indefinite, zero noun or 
indefinite pronoun 

Predicates: the durativc infinitive; the stativc; stativc auxiliary (na-) + 
infinitive (future tense); adverb phrase 

FI. Predicate: DURATIVE INFINITIVE: Tin: PKKSiiNf ti-nsi: 
durativh (progressive) action 


"1 am hearing"; “You arc hcar- 


pkonominal actor: 

't'CCUTM, K.CCUTM, TECUITM ... 

ing"; “lie is hcliring" (clc.) 

Negatived: 

(n)Tccutm ah. nF/kccjutm an, (m)tgcojtm an, (S)q ccutm an ... 

"I am not hearing", “You arc not hearing", “lie is not hearing" (clc.) 


nominal actor: 

TTpOJMG CCUTM 
OYN-OYPCUMe CCUTM 

OYN-OYPeUHC CCUTM 

Negatived: 

(M)npa>M€ CCUTM AN 
(m)MN* pCUMC CCUTM 


Conversions: 

Circumstantial: 
pronominal actor: 

e-ICCUTM, C-K.CCUTM 


“The man is hearing" 

“A man is hearing" (existential: 
“There is a man hearing") 

“A man is hearing" (existential: 
“There is a man hearing") 

“The man is not hearing" 

“No man is hearing" (existential: 
“There is not [a] man hearing") 


“I hearing", “you hearing" (etc.) 



TABLES 


1X5 


Negatived: 

e-Ni*cu>TM an or e- iccotm an “I not hearing” (etc.) 

nominal actor: 

epe- npcoMC ccotm “the man hearing” 

eoYN-oypcDMe ccotm “a man hearing” (existential) 

Negatived: 

e- MirpcoMG ccotm an or epe-npcoMC ccuTM an “the man not 

hearing”, 

■ 

(e-) (m)mn-pcomc ccotm “no man hearing” (existential) 

The circumstantial conversion in all forms is also used to expand and 
describe an indefinitc/zcro noun or indefinite pronoun: oypeoMe 
eqccoTM “a man (who is) hearing”. 

Relative: definite antecedent only (inch definite articles. Proper 
Names and demonstratives: see circumstantial for indefinite antece¬ 
dents) 

(a) antecedent = actor of the conjugation form (ct-/€tc-): 
npcoMC ctccotm “the man who is hearing”, n- ctccotm “he who is 
hearing”, ncg. n(pcoMe) CTC-NqccoTM an /ct-ccotm an 

(b) antecedent = object/complcmcnt of the verbal predicate: 

pronominal actor (eT-/eTe-): 

npcoMC e*f*-/eTK-/eTq- ccotm mmoc| “the man whom I am/you 
are/hc is hearing”, 

n-€*f*-/CTK-/€Tq- ccotm MMOq 

“he whom I am/you are/hc is hear- 

ing 

Negatived: n(pcoMe) ctc- N*t*-/Nr-/Nq- ccotm MMoq an or h(pcomg) 
e*t*-/€TK-/eTq- ccotm MMoq an “the man/hc whom I am/you are/ 
he is not hearing” 

nominal actor (GTe-/€Tepe-): 

npcoMe CTepe-nNoyTC ccotm MMoq “the man whom God is 
hearing”, n-CTcpc-nNoyTe ccotm MMoq “he whom God is hear- 

• fl 

ing , 

n£coB eTcoyS- oypeoMe eipe MMoq “The work which a man is 
doing” (existential) 

Negati ved: 

n(pcoMe) GTC-MnNoyTC ccotm MMoq an or n(pcoMe) CTepe- 
nNoyTe ccotm MMoq an “the man whom God is not hearing”. 
ti^cob CTCMN-pcoMC eipe MMoq “the work which no man is 

doing” (existential) 



186 


TABLES 


Second Tense: 
pronominal actor: 

e- iccutm ... 

Negatived: 

(n)(n)c- ICCUTM AN... 

nominal actor: 
epe-npome ccutm... 

Negatived: 

(n) epe-npeuMe ccutm an... 


“It is... that I am hearing” (etc.) 

“It is not... that I am hearing” 
(etc.) 

“It is... that the man is hearing” 

“It is not... that the man is hear- 
mg 


The Second Tense conversion is used to emphasize a constituent of the 

1 

sentence, most often an adverb phrase. 


Preterite: 

pronominal actor: 

nc-iccutm (ne) “1 was hearing” (etc.) 

Negatived: 

nc-iccutm an (nc), (very rare) Ne-N't'ccoTM an (ne) “I was not 
hearing” (etc.) 
nominal actor: 

Nepe-npcuMc ccutm (nc) “The man was hearing” 

Negati ved: 

Nepe-npcuMc ccutm an (nc) “The man was not hearing” 


F2. Predicate: STATIVE: the present tense - passive state, condi- 

* / 

TION Or STATE OF BEING IN THE COURSE OF ACTION 

pronominal actor: fcoTii, kcotS, TccoTn, qcoTn ... “I am 
chosen”; “You are chosen”; “He is chosen” (etc.) 

Negatived: (n)'I'Cottt an, nF-/kcottt an, (n)tccottt an, (n) 
qcoTn an ... “I am not chosen”; “You are not chosen”; “He is not 
chosen” (etc.) 

nominal actor: 

npcuMc cott? “The man is chosen” 

oyN-oypcuMe cottt “A man is chosen” (existential: 

“There is a man chosen”) 



TABLES 


187 


Negatived : 

(M)npa)M6 COTTT AN 

(m)mn- pcuMC corn 


“The man is not chosen” 

“No man is chosen” (existential: 
“There is no man chosen”) 


14 


I being chosen”, “you being 


Conversions'. 

Circumstantial: 
pronominal actor: 

e- I COTTT, G- KCOTTT .. 

chosen” (etc.) 

Negatived : 

e-N*t , coTTT an or g- icottt an “I not being chosen” (etc.) 
nominal actor: 
epe-npcuMe cottt 
eoYN-oypcoMe cottt 


“the man being chosen”' 

“a man being chosen” (existential) 


Negatived'. 

€-HnpCUM€ COT 

being chosen”, 



n or epe-npcoMe cottt an 


“the man not 


(e-) (m)mn- ptuMe Tn 


“no man being chosen” (existential) 


conversion 


describe an indefinite/zero noun or indefinite pronoun: 
eqcoTTT “a man (Mio is) chosen”. 


CL) 


Relative: definite ^antecedent only (inch definite articles, Proper 
Names and demonstratives; see circumstantial for indef. antecedents) 


(a) antecedent 




r of the conjugation form (eT-/eT€-): rip cone 


ctcottt “the man fho is chosen”, n-eTcom “he who is chosen”, 
neg. n(pcuMe) e,Te-NqcoTTT an/ct- cottt an 

(b) antecedent = complement of the verbal predicate: 


pronominal actor ( 



7 





TTpcuMe e^-feTK-lerq- cotH (gboa zitootcj) “the man (by) 
whom I am/you are/he is chosen”, n-e’t*-/ eT ^7 eT ^ _COT ” (gboa 
2 >TooTq) “the man (by) whom I am/you are/he is chosen” 
Negatived : 


CD MG) 6T6-N+ 


+7 


£1TOOTq) or n(pCDMG) 

“the man/he ... whom I 


are/he 


nominal actor (eTe-/eTepe-): 

npcu mg GTGpc-TGC2IM6 cottt (gboa ^iTOOTq) “the man (by) 



TAIIIES 


188 

whom Ihc woman is chosen”, n-eTcpe-Tec^iMc corn (eeoA 
2«TooTq) ‘‘he whom the woman is chosen” 

Negatived: 

nptone eTe-HTec^iMe coTn an (gboa ^iroorq) or npcuMe 
€T€p€- recline cotH an (cboa. jiTooTq) “(he man (by) whom 
the woman is not chosen”. 

Second Tense: 
pronominal actor: 

e- icoTri ... “It is... that I am chosen” (etc.) 

Negatived: 

(n)(n)€- icotH an ... “It is not... that I am chosen” 

(etc.) 

nominal actor : 

cpe-npa>M€ corn ... “It is... that the man is chosen” 

Negatived: 

(N)epe- npcone cottt an ... “It is not... that the man is 

chosen” 

The Second Tense conversion is used to emphasize a constituent of 
the sentence, most often an adverb phrase. 

Preterite: 
pronominal actor: 

we* icotH (ne) “I was chosen” (etc.) 

Negatived: 

W 

Ne- icotH an (ne) “I was not chosen” (etc.) 

nominal actor: 

Nepe- npcoHe corn (ne) “The man was chosen” 

Negatived: 

Nepe-npeoMG cotn an (ne) “The man was not chosen” 

FT Predicate: STATIVH AUXILIARY I- INFINITIVE: present- 
based (imminent) future 

pronominal actor: 

'I'naccotm, knaccutm, TCNAC- “I’ll hear” (“I am going/about 
cutn. qNACCDTM... to hear”); “You’ll hear”; “He'll 

hear” (etc.) 



TABLES 


IK 1 ) 

Negatived: 

(nJ^naccuth an, nF-/knaccuth “HI not hear" (“l am nol going 
an, (n)t€naccuth an, (n)c|na- to hear”; “You'll not hear"; 
ccdth an ... “He'll nol hear" (etc.) 

nominal actor: 

TTpuiMe naccuth “The man'll hear’’ 

oYN-oyptoMe naccuth “A man'll hear" (existential: 

“There's a man about to hear ') 

Negatived : 

■ 

(H)npcuHe naccuth an “The man'll nol hear" 

(m)mn*pcum€ naccuth “No man'll hear" (existential: 

“There isn’t a man about to hear") 

Con versions: 

Circumstantial: 
pronominal actor: 

e-iNACcuTM “1 going/about to hear” (etc.) 

Negatived: 

e-N^f naccuth an or €- INACCOTH an “I not going to hear” (etc.) 

nominal actor: 

epe-npeune naccuth “the man going/about to hear" 

eoYN-oypcuHC naccuth “a man going/about to hear" 

Negatived : 

e-HTTpCUMC NACCUTH AN OR CpC-TipODMC NACCUTH AN “the man 

not going/about to hear’’ 

(€-)(h)mn- peuMe naccuth “no man going/about to hear" 

(existential) 

The circumstantial conversion in all forms is also used to expand and 
describe an indcfinitc/zcro noun or indefinite pronoun: oyptoHe 
cqNACcuTH “a man (who is) about to hear”, “a man who will hear". 

Relative: definite antecedent only (incl. definite articles. Proper 
Names and demonstratives; see circumstantial for indef. antecedents) 

(a) antecedent =• actor of the conjugation form (CT-/eTe-): 
n(po)Me) ct-naccuth “the man who is going/about to hear, 
who'll hear", “He who'll hear’’, ncg. n(pcune) ctc-n^naccuth an / 

6TNACCUTH AN 

(b) antecedent = objcct/complcmcnt of the verbal predicate: 



TA BLUS 


190 

PRONOMINAL actor (€T-/€T€-): 

npcuMe ei*-/eTic-/eTq-NACOTMcq “the man whom 1 am/you arc/ 
he is going/aboul to hear, will hear”, n-e*f-/ €T ^’/ €T 9 ’ N * COTM€< l 
“he whom I am/you arc/he is going/about to hear, will hear” 

Negati ved: 

n(ptuHc) eT€-N'|'-/Nr-/Nq-NACoTMeq an or n(pa>Me) ef-ferK-l 
€Tq-NACOTMeq an “the man/hc whom I am/you arc/hc is not 
going/about to hear, won't hear” 
nominal actor (eT€-/eT€pe-): 

TTptDMe eTepe-TiNoyTe nac oTMcq “the man whom God is 

going/about to hear, will hear”, n-eTepe-nNoyTe NACOTMeq “he 

whom God is going/about to hear, will hear” eTeoyN-oy- 

pcoMC NAAAq “the work which a man is going/about to do, will do” 
(existential) 

Neguti ved: 

npcoMe CTe-MnNoyTC NACOTMeq an or npa>Me eTepe nnoyTe 
NACOTMeq an “the man whom God is not going/about to hear. 

won’t hear” 

Second Tense: 
pronominal actor: 

€* i nac co tm ... “It is... that 1 am going/about to 

hear, will hear” (etc.) 

Negatived : 

(n)(n)cinaccotm an ... “It is not... that 1 am going/ 

about to hear, will hear” (etc.) 
nominal actor: 

ep€- npcuMe naccoth ... “It is... that the man is going/ 

about to hear, will hear” 

Negatived : 

(n) epe~ npcoMe naccotm an ... “It is not... that the man is going/ 
about to hear, will hear” 

The Second Tense conversion is used to emphasize a constituent of the 
sentence, most often an adverb phrase. 

PRETERITE: 

pronominal actor: 

N€- inaccotm (nc) “I was going/about to hear”, “1 

would hear, would have heard” (etc.) 



TABLES 


191 


Negatived'. 

N€- inaccdtm an (ne) “I was not going/aboul to hear". 

“I would not hear, would not have heard'* (etc.) 
nominal actor: 

Nepe-nptuMe nacootm (ne) “The man was going/about to 
hear", “The man would hear, would have heard" 

Negatived: 

Nepe-nptuMe naccutm an (ire) “The man was not going/about to 
hear”, “The man would not hear, would not have heard” 


F4. Predicate : ADVERB-PHRASE PREDICATION PRESENT 
TENSE 


pronominal actor: 

-f*MneiMA, KMTieiMA, TCMneiMA, “Pin here”; “You’re here”; “He's 

cjMneiMA here (etc.) 

Negatived: 

(5) 'f’Mnc ima an, NrMneiMA an/k MneiMA “I’m not here”; 
an, (n)t 6 mit€ ima an, (N)qMneiMA an ... “You’re not here”; 


nominal actor: 

npCUMC MTTCIMA 

oyN-oypcoMe Mirei ma 
Negatived: 

(M)npome MneiMA an 
(m)MN- pU)M€ MneiMA 

Conversions: 

Circumstantial : 
pronominal actor: 

e- iMneiMA 

Negatived: 

€*N'f , Mn€IMA AN OR C- IMITCIMA 

nominal actor: 

epe-npeuMe MneiMA 
eoyN-oypcuMe MneiMA 

Negatived: 

6 -Mnpo>MC MneiMA an or epe 

not being here” 


“He's not here” (etc.) 
“The man’s here” 

“A man's here” (existential; 

“There’s a man here”) 

“The man isn’t here” 

“No man is here” (existential: 
“There isn’t a man here”) 


“I being here” (etc.) 
an “I not being here” (etc.) 

“the man being here” 

“a man being here” 

npcoMC MneiMA AN 


“the man 



m 


TAIILES 


(e) (m) NN-pcuM€ mitgima “no man being here” (existential). 

t he circumstantial conversion in all forms is also used to expand and 
describe an indefinite/zero noun or indefinite pronoun: oypcuHe 
oqMneiMA a man being here”. 

Relative: definite antecedent only (inch definite articles. Proper 
Names and demonstratives; see circumstantial for indef. antecedents) 

(a) antecedent = actor of the conjugation form (er/cTe): 
nptOMG gt-mitgima “the man who is here” ncg. npamc ctc- 

NqMITGIMA an/ct* miig ima AN 

(b) antecedent represented (resumed) in the predicate adverb phrase: 

PRONOMINAL actor (6T-/€TG-): 

ttma Gl’-/GTK-/eTq-MMoq “the place in which 1 am/you are/ 

he is” 

Negatived: 

itma eTG-N*f*-/ N r-/Ncj- MMoq am “the place in which I am/you arc/ 
he is not” 

nominal actor (GTC-/crcpe-): 

ttma GTGp€-npa>M€ MMoq “the place in which the man is” 

itma GTGOYN-/€Tcp€-oYpcuMG MMoq “the place in which a man 
is” (existential) 

Negatived: 

TTMA 6TC- HirpCOMG MMOq AN / GTGpG-nptUMG MMOq AN; I1MA 

gtg(m)mn-OY pcuMG MMoq “the place in which the man is not”: 
“the place in which no man is” (existential) 

Second Tense : 
pronominal actor: 

g- imtigima; c* imiigima ... “It is here that ! am/you are/hc 

is”; “It is... that 1 am here” (etc.) 

Negati ved: 

g-imitgima an; g-imitgima an... “It is not here that I am/you arc/ 
he is”; “It is not... that I am here” (etc.) 
nominal actor: 

6pG-npo)M€ mitgima (...) “It is here that the man is”; “It 

is... that the man is here” 

Negati ved: 

(N)cpc-npoiMC mttgima an (...) “It is not here that the man is”; 
“It is not... that the man is here” 



rABU-s 193 

The Second Tense conversion is used lo emphasize a constituent of the 


sentence: cither the predicate 
adverb phrase. 

Preterite: 

pronominal actor: 
nc- iHneiMA (ne) 

Negatived: 

Nc-iHneiHA an (ne) 
nominal actor: 

wepe-npeoHe MneiMA (ne) 
Negatived: 

N€pe*npa>Me MneiMA an (ne) 


adverb phrase itself or a subsequent 

“I was here’* (etc.) 

“I wasn't here” (etc.) 

“The man was here" 

“The man wasn’t here” 



TABLE G 


THE CONVERTERS 


CONVERTERS**): 

circumstantial 

relative Second Tense preterite 

CONVI RTF.D CLAUSF. 

Nominal Sentence 

e- 

ere* — 

N6- 

Perfect (affirm.) 

e- 

(g)nt- (g)nt- 

NG- 

Perfect (ncg.) 

(€-) 

CT€* CT€- 

NG- 

Aorisl (affirm.) 

^ w 

€- | 

, €- 

N6- 

Aorist (ncg.) 

e- } 

g-/gtg- 

NG- 

“Not yet" 

(e-) 

€TC* — 

NG- 

Optative (affirm.) 

— 

- - 

— 

Optative (neg.) 

e- 

- - 

— 

Durative conjugation 
(present, future, adverb 
predication) 

(Table F) 

e(pe)- 

€T-/eT€(pe)- e(pe)- 

NG(pG)- 

Exislcntial/posscssive 
clauses (Table E) 

€-/(€)- 

CTG- €- 

NG- 

Adjective Verbs 
(Tal?lc 11) 

€- 

€T-/eT€- e- 

N€- 


The Circumstantial converter (sections 27-30) marks a clause as 

% 

adjoining a predicate to and thereby modifying another (“main") clause 
or an indefinite noun/pronoun. (The English gerund {“-ing", as in “I 
found him writing a letter", “Walking home, I met John" or “Having 
tried everything, I finally chose on this method"] is often the best and 
structurally apt translation, but a conjunctional rendering (“while...", 
“whereas...", “since...") is sometimes inevitable. 

The Relative convener (sections 31-33) marks a clause as adnominal 
and attributive (describing) to a definite noun or pronoun. 


(*) The converter forms given arc the pronominal (prcsuffixal) and prenominal ones, 
attested in the corpus drawn upon Tor this Chrcslomathy.' — 



TABLES 


195 


The Second Tense converter (sections 34-38) marks a conjugation form 
as of lower prcdicalivity than other, non-verbal constituents of its 
clause, or, in the absence of other pertinent elements, puts into focus 
(“emphasizes”) its own predicate. (The European Cleft Sentence con¬ 
struction (“It is... that...”, “C'cst... qui/que...”] is an apt translation, 
with the Second Tense the “that...” constituent.) 

The Preterite converter (sections 39-41) marks the clause as divergent 
in time, place or actuality from a mainstream frame of reference. 



TABLE H 


THE ADJECTIVE VERBS: SYNTHETIC VERBAL CLAUSE-FORMS 

(Pari One, Unit VI: sections 22-26) 

III. rixNoy~q “He is good, fair” 
nang-/nanc>y- iiptUHe “The man is good, fair” 

Convert ions (*): 

Circumstantial g-nahoym “lie being good, fair” 

Relative er-MANOYq “who is good, fair”, ctg-hang-/na¬ 
no y- “whose ... is*good, fair” 

Second Tense g-nanoy<( ... “It is... that he is good, fair” 
Preterite hg- nanoy<1 “He was good, fair” 

H2. NAtycu-*oY “They are numerous” 

HA(pe-nMooy “The water is plentiful” 

Conversions (*): 

Circumstantial e-NAtyojoy “they being numerous” 

Relative ct-naujcuoy “who arc numerous”, ctc-naujc-/ 
nao^cu- “whose... arc numerous” 

ID. naa(a)** cj “lie is great” 

Conversions (*): 

Circumstantial g* naa(a)^ “he being great” 

Relative gt- na A(A)q “who is great” 

Second Tense g* NAA(A)q... “It is... that he is great” 

H4. necco-q “He is beautiful”, NGCG-npione “The man is 

beautiful” 

m 

H5. NGtico-q “He is ugly” 

Con versions (*): 

Circumstantial e-NGCtuq “He being beautiful” 

Relative er-Neccoq “who is beautiful” 


(*) The forms given arc (hose actually attested in the source material; the wanting 

prenominal forms, converters (and some other Adjective Verbs) do occur outside this 

1 

corpus 



LEXICAL VERB MORPHOLOGY 1NFINITIVE/STATIVI: 

FORMAL CLASSES(*) 


Noth the following “principal parts** of the Coptic verb lexeme: 
(a) The absolute (dictionary entry) form or slate of the infinitive: 


ccum 

“choose" 

K. CUT 

“build” 

ntuT 

“run" 

TAMO 

“inform" 

COXCA 

“comfort" 

Z\o6 

“be sweet" 

eipe 

“do, make' 

€1 

“come, go’ 


(b) The (pre)nominal or construct form or stale of the infinitive, occurring 
before a nominal, proper-name or dcmonstrativc/indcfinitc/intcrrogativc- 
pronoun direct object (marked in the dictionary by -: cem-): 


cem- 

“choose (a man)" 

KCT- 

“build (a house)" 

TAM€- 

“inform (a man)" 

CACA- 

“comfort (a man) 

P- 

“do (a work)” 


Note the characteristic e vowel, replaced by supcrlincation over sono- 
rants. 

(c) The pronominal form or state of the infinitive occurring before a 
suffix-pronoun direct object (marked in the dictionary by com-): 


com- 

“choose (him)" 

KOT- 

“build (it)" 

TAMO- 

“inform (him)" 

CACCUA- 

“comfort (him) 

AA- 

“do (it)" 


Note the characteristic o vowel in regular verbs, corresponding to a in 
the environment of original laryngal consonants or z- 


(•) as represented in (lie source material for the Chrcstomnlhy. Note that verbs of Greek 
origin arc invariable and have only the dictionary entry form 



198 TABLES 

OBS. 

(1) Forms (a) lo (c) arc “states” of the infinitive, which has all syntactic 
properties of a noun (c.g. can be combined with the articles). 

(2) Forms (b) and (c) arc excluded from the duralivc present (Table FI) 
for a definite and indefinite (not zero-determinated) nominal object, 
form (c) excluded altogether from the durativc present (the “Stern- 
Jernstedt Rule”) 

(3) Form (a) of intransitive verbs (csp. verbs expressing motion, posture 
or quality) is excluded from the durative present with the stativc (form 
(d) below) taking its place as predicate. 

(d) The stativc or qualitative, occurring only as predicate in the du¬ 
rativc conjugation (Table F), and, properly speaking, not a lexeme at 
all (not an “infinitive”) The stativc, marked in the dictionary by a 
superscript crux (com'), expresses “being in a passive state (for 
transitive verbs) or course of action or condition (for in transitives)” 
coTrr “(is) chosen” 

kmt “(is) built” 

riHT “(is) running” 

tamhy ”(is) informed” 

caccoa “(is) comforted” (also cacoat) 

2<>a 3 "(is) sweet” (dur. present) 

o “(is) done” 

why “(is) coming, going” 

The stativc is the distinctive form of the morphological verb class. 



(TABLE I) 


CLASSIFICATION^) 

Note the following vowel alternations: 

w oy following the nasal consonants n and h 

o -* x immediately preceding the laryngal consonant z and some 

cases of the “glottal stop" consonant (in which ease we 
usually have e for h) 

Note also: 

(1) oy may be a root consonant; 

(2) a root consonant may be realized as zero (i.c. absent in writing); 

(3) final c does not affect the assignment of a root to Classes II and II: 

(4) a “broken syllable” (i.e. vowel reduplicated), often with an x- 
vowcl corresponding to o elsewhere, is indicative of a “glottal stop” 
consonant. 


Class I: Three-consonant roots 


ccum 

oycuH^ 

um£ 

HoyoyT 

ntu^T 


“choose” cem- com** com* 

“appear”, “show” oyeN£- oyoN^** oyoNjj’ 
“live” ON2* 

“kill” HcyT- Mooyr** mooyt * 

“bend, throw down, pour” ne^T- rn^T- 


Class II: Two-consonants roots 

KU)T “build” K.CT- K.OT** KMT* 

jeon “hide” jen- Z oxltm Z Hn * 

no>T “run” ttht* 

Noyp “bind” Mep-(Mp-) Mop- hhp f 

Hoyj “fill” nez" mxz* 

con “count” en- on** Hn f 

kco “leave, lay” kx- kxx~ kh* 

quiTe “wipe (out)” qeT- qoT^ but* 


(•) Not in agreement with Stern’s eight classes. The correspondence is as follows: our 
Class I - Stern’s Class VI; It « Stern’s I; 111 Stern's II; IV ~ Stern's VIII; V - 
Stem’s V; VI » Stem’s VII; VII Stern's III. The infinitives quoted are representative 
examples, to illustrate the specific morphology of the classes. 



TABLLS 


200 

Class III: medial “broken syllable” (glottal stop) roots 

TUKoae “repay” Teae- tooi<» toobg* 
ncou)N6 “turn, pervert" newe- noowc«* rrooNc’ 

to)u)M€ “fit, be suitable” TOOMe' 

Cy CD CUT “cut” UJCT- OJAAT# OJAAT 1 

Class IV: “reduplicated syllabic” roots: 

coaca “comfort” CACA- caccda- caccda* cacoat' 
cyTopTp “trouble” upTpTp* cyTpTcop- upTpTcop * 

CKOpKp “roll” cicpicp- CKpKCDp* dCpKCDp 1 CKpKOpT 1 
no6mg6 “reproach” ijc6nc 6- riednoYb* 

Class V: t~o pattern roots: causative lexemes 

tamo “inform” tamc- tamo* tamiiy 5 

tcabo “teach” tcabg- tcabo* tcabhy* 

toy«xo “save, cause to be hale” toy*X€- toy-XO* toy-xhy’ 

jctto “beget, cause to exist” Jtnc- Jtno* 

kto “return, cause to turn” ktc- kto* kthy* 

Class VI: “^ao 6” — quality, slate or condition (physical or psycho¬ 
logical) 

2 Ao<$ “be sweet” 20 a3’ 

riqpoT “be hard, severe” nau^t’ 

mton “rest (oneself)” motn ? 

mka 2 “be hurt, ache” mok^ 1 

Class VII: *\xice” “./-absolute” roots, with final e alternating with 
final -t in pronominal state: 

jucc “raise” Jtec- JtecT* jcact* jtoce* 
puce “bend” peit- peitT* poite' pAice* 

eirle “bring” n- nt* 

lRRi.caa.AR Class (selection): 

cipe *“do, make” p- a a- o’ 

*f* “give” 1* taa* to* 

ju “take” ju-jut* 

c^ai “write” c^ai- cej- CA^* CH^* . _ 



TAUI.ES 


eine 

ujmujc 

BCUK 

ei 

6enH 

2MOOC 

^epAT- 

MOY 

AMA2T6 

ujoyqjoy 


“know" 

“serve" ujMtye- ujmujht 
“go" ha’ 

“come, go" Hiiy ? 

“hurry" 

“sit” 

“stand" 

“die" 

“hold" 

“pride (oneself)" 



GLOSSARY 


A. GLOSSARY OF MORPHEMES (GRAMMATICAL ELEMENTS) 

This glossary includes elements of both native and Greek origin, bound 
morphemes (c.g. articles, conjugation bases, converters, prepositions, 
prefix and suffix pronouns, enclitic and proclitic pronouns, auxiliary 
verbs, derivational prefixes, negativers, etc.); personal, indefinite, 
demonstrative and interrogative pronouns; particles, conjuctions, 
adverbs; Adjective Verbs: existential and possession statements, and 
more. Numbers refer to pages of Crum’s Coptic Dictionary. The 
arrangement is alphabetical, by consonants and then vowels (as in 
Crum’s Dictionary) 

NB: (-) following a morpheme means “prefixed to a noun or pronoun”; 
(*•), “attached to a suffix-pronoun”. 






xwx 

JLAXO ... xwo ... 

... AN, N- ... AN 

AN-, ANN- 


ANr- 

ANOK 
... ANOK 

ANON 
... ANON 

ANTI 

ApA 

Ape- 


alfirmativc perfect base 

prefix of affirmative imperative (for certain 
verbs) 

“about...” (with numbers or quantities) 
rare variant of preposition e- 

(adv.) but 

“there is a difference between ... and ...” 
ncgalivcr of nexus in non-verbal clauses 
“We arc...”, proclitic subject pronoun in Nominal 
Sentence, 1st plur. 

“I am...”: proclitic subject pronoun in Nominal 

Sentence, 1st sgl. 

personal pronoun, 1st sgl. “I” 

rcinforcer: “...for my part” (French (quant) a 

ntoi) 

personal pronoun, 1st plur. “we” 

rcinfotccr: “...for our part” (French (quant) a 

nous) 

(prep.) against, instead of 

part, introducing rhetorical question: “Is it the 

case that... ? 

2nd sgl. fern, variant of perfect base 



TABU-S 


203 


AT* 

Ayco 

iu> 


AJCN-, € JCN- 

A.X.NT «» 


privative prefix: “-less”, “un-“ (18b) 
(adv.) and, additionally (19b) 

(thierr.'pronoun) which? what? (22a) 
NAUJ N^e how? 

(prep.) without; prcsufTixai ajcnt- (25b) 
see AJCM- 


♦ • # 



causal-explicative clause-connecting particle 
(“for.:.”) 



faintly adversative clause-connecting particle 
(“and, but”) 





6* ... C* 

€- ... TH- 

e-... <4>AN- 

€BOA 

CIHHTI 

€N€- 

GNC- 

cnt(a-), mt(a-) 

€HT(A-), NT(A-) 

eu^ocoH, n^ocon 
epe- 


epAT«* 

epo*« 

epu^AN- 





€TB6- 


circumstantial converter 
Second Tense converter 

(prep.) to. against; marking object of verbs of 
perception; introducing infinitive; prcsufTixai 

epo<* 

affirmative optative base 
negative Contitional base (rare) 

Conditional base 
(adv.) out 

(conj.) unless 

remote condition marker (“If I had ...“) 
interrogation marker 
relative converter with affirmative perfect 
Second Tense converter with affirmative perfect 
(conj, adv.) as long as... 

form before noun, 2nd sgl. fern., indef, inlcrrog. 
and demonstrative pronouns of (1) affirmative 
Optative, (2) circumstantial present, (3) Second 
Presen t 

(prep.) to... (person, with movement) 
sec e- (prep.) 

Conditional base before nominal, 2nd sgl. fern., 
inter., indef. and demonstrative pronoun actor 
relative converter 

Second Tense converter (with negative perfect) 
(prep.) about, because of (61a); prcsufTixai 
€tbhmt-; eTBeoy why? 



204 


TABLES 


erepe- 

relative converter in the present and future, 
before nominal, 2nd sgl. fcm., interrog., indef. 
ami demonstrative pronoun actor 

CTN- 

(prep.) to (the hands of) (477a); prcsuffixal 

GTOOT^ 

eqj- 

to be able to (with inf.); cy- after vowel 

cup a)ne 

introducing conditional clause: "Should it be the 
case that “Be it.... be it..." 

eo^Jte* 

assumptive "conditional" prefix: "If .(as wc 
know)...", “Granted that...", "Given that...”; 
"13vcn though ...” 

2 cue eqjjce* as if 

e^oyw 

(adv.) in. inside 

ejpN- 

(prep.) in the face of... (649a); prcsulTixal 

e^HA^/e^ne- 

sec £ha 

c^pAi 

(adv.) up (to), down (to) 

cjcn- 

(prep.) on, onto (757a); prcsuffixal eaccu- 

GJCN-. AJtN- 

(prep.) without (25b); prcsuflixal eatNT-*. 

A.XHT - 

€JCNT »• 

see eacN- (prep.) without 

H. HG 

(conj.) disjunctive: or 

H 

introducing subsequent rhetorical question: 
"Or is it the case that...?" 

OG (t-£€) 

Nee, KATAee as.... like... ("in/according to 

the manner of .../'that...") (638b) 

-1-. -el-, -1. -Cl 

1st sgl. suffix pronoun "I", "me” 

eie- 

"then...” (introducing main clause after ctyace-) 

eic-, eic^HMTe 

“Here is...’*, presentative (85a) 

eire ... gitg ... 

(conj.) disjunctive: cither... or... 

K- 

2nd sgl. niasc. prefix pronoun: "you" (in duralive 
pattern) 

-K* -K 

2nd sgl. masc. suffix pronoun "you*’ 

kg. 6e- 

(an)olhcr, ... too; plur. Kooye (90b) 

• 

-pnKe- see p- 

kaitap 

particlc "for indeed" 

KAN 

(adv.. conj.) cvcmthoughrul least (with imperative 
and jussive) 



TABLES 


205 



KAN ... KAN ... “Be it..., be it...” 

KATA- 

(prep.) according to; prcsuffixal katapo- 

Kooye 

sec K6* 

a. a Ay 

« 

anything, something (146a) 

HA¬ 

imperative prefix of causative verbs (“mata- 
hoi") tell me! 

MM, MHTI 

introducing rhetorical question (“Is it not the 
case that?”) 

H€ - 

negative aorist base, prcsuffixal 

... MMIN MHO - 

rcinforecr: “... (him)scir’ 

MMM-, MM- 

“There is not...”, “There does not exist.../': 
statement of non-existence 

MN- 

(prep.) with; prcsuffixal nhma, 2nd sgl. fcm. 
NMHG (169b) 

between nouns, coordinating: “...and..." 

... HCN, MN 

particle, approx, “on the other hand, ..." 

MMOM 

sentence-word: “No" (168a) 

MNNCA- 

(prep.) after, “following" (of time) (314b); pre- 

suffixal MNNCCD- 

MNT- 

(with noun or infinitive) prefix deriving abstract 
nouns (“-ness", “-ship", “-dom") (176a) 

(M)MNTA «*/(M)HNTe- 

“(Hc/lhc man) has not: statement of negative 
possession (167b) 

Hne- 

negative perfect base (presuffixal) 
negative perfect base, before nominal, 2nd sgl. 
fcm., indef.. interrog. and demonstrative pro¬ 
noun actor 

HHnoTe 

(adv., conj.) lest 

MniT- 

“not yet" base, prcsulfixal 

MITATC- 

“not yet" base, before nominal, 2nd sgl. fcm., 
indef.. interrog. and demonstrative pronoun actor 

Mnp«- 

negative imperative prefix, with infinitive (“Do 
not...") 

Hnj*Tpe- 

negative causative imperative (jussive) prefix, 
with infinitive (“let him not...”); 1st sgl. MTipTpA- 

HApe- 

causativc imperative (jussive) prefix (“Let 
him...’’) 



206 


TABLES 


Mepe* 

H€0;A-/H€cyc- 

neojoje 

... MAyAA«* 

N- (M-) 

H- (m*) 

N- (Rf) 

N- (M-) 

H- (M-) 

N- (M-) (N€*) 

N- 

N- ... AN, ... AN 

-N- -N 
NA¬ 
NA* 

NA «• 

-NA- 

naa(a)- 

N6- 
N€ - 


NAI 
N€I- 
... H€ 

NH 

NH 

Nl- 

Noy- 


ncgativc aorisl base, before nominal, 2nd sgl. 
fern., indef., interrog. and demonstrative pro¬ 
noun actor 

“(He/the man) docs not know*’ (201b) 

Me<pAK sentence-word: “perhaps" 

“It is not right", negative of qpuje 
rcinforccr: “...(he) alone*’, “...(he) by himself* 

"nota rein l ion is" interrelating two nouns: “of* 
(prep.) as (predicative: “be as...”, “make...into’’ 
presuffixal mmo- 

(prfcp.) by, in (215a); prcsuffixal mho- 
(prep.), direct object; prcsuflixal mmo« 

(prep.) to (person) (216a); presuflixa! na», nh «*, 
2nd sgl. fern. nh. no 
definite article, plural (“the...”) 
base of conjunctive, before a pronoun 
negativer of nexus in non-verbal clauses 
1st plur. suffix pronoun, “we**, “us” 
possessive article. 1st sgl. possessor, plural pos¬ 
sessed “my...” (French //ic.v...) 
possessive pronoun, plural “they of...” 
see n- (prep.) to. 
infix or auxiliary of future tense 
Adjective Verb “(Hc/thc man) is great” (218b) 
preterite converter 

possessive article, plural possessed: Ne*- weq- 
Nec- N€N- n€tn- Hey- “your (masc), his, her, 
our, your (plur.), their” (French tes, scs. nos . vos. 
leurs ) 

demonstrative pronoun, plural “these (ones)” 
demonstrative article, plural “these...” 

“They arc”, plural enclitic subject in Nominal 
Sentence 

“to you”, 2nd sgl. fern, form of prep. n-/na*» 
demonstrative pronoun, plural “those (ones)” 
demonstrative article, plural “those...” (emotional) 
possessive article. 2nd sgl. fern, possessor: 
“your” (French tes, fern.) 



TAULUS 


207 



NBAA.A* 

NIM 

... MIH 

NMMA - 

NXNoy -fnxue- 

UtiX- 

NNe- 

Nepe- 

N€C(U«'/N€Ce- 

NCA- 

NAIAT- 

nt(a-), gnt(a-) 

NT(l-), €NT(a-) 
NTA-, TX- 
NT€- 

NT€- 

- ,•*» 
HT6- 

NTO 

... HTO- 

MTOK 

NTK- 

NTN- 

NT€p€- 

HTOC 


possessive pronoun, plural possessed: “mine, 
yours, his, ours, yours, theirs” (French les miens. 
Ics liens, les siens. les notres, ics volres. ics tears) 
(prep.) except, beside (35a) 
interrogative pronoun: who? (225b); indefinite 
"so-and-so” 

determinator and distributive quantifier: all..., 

every... 

sec (prep.) mn- 

Adjcclivc Verb: “(Hc/thc man) is good, fair” 
(227a) 

1st sgl., negative Optative base 
negative Optative base 

preterite converter before nominal, 2nd sgl. fcm., 
indef, interrog. and demonstrative pronoun actor 

I 

Adjective Verb: "(Hc/thc man) is beautiful” 
(228b) 

(prep.) after (314a); prcsuflixal nccu- 
scntcnce-word: "Blessed is..." (74a) 

Second Tense converter before affirmative per¬ 
fect 

relative converter before affirmative perfect 
1st sgl. of conjunctive 

conjunctive base before nominal. 2nd sgl. rem¬ 
inder, interrog. and demonstrative pronoun actor 
(prep.) of^ with (possession and appurtenance): 
presuffixal nti<* 

"you (fern.) arc”, proclitic subject pronoun in 
Nominal Sentence, 2nd sgl. fcm. 
personal pronoun. 2nd sgl. fcm. “you” 
rcinforccr: "...for (his part” (French “(quant) a 

luH 

personal pronoun, 2nd sgl. masc. "you” 

"You (masc.) arc”, proclitic subject pronoun in 
Nominal Sentence. 2nd sgl. masc. 

(prep.) in the hands of...; presuffixal ntoot-, 
ntot-; before 2nd plur. pronoun 
base of Temporal, prcnominal & presuffixal 
personal pronoun, 3rd sgl. fern, "she” 


UUUUUULJULJULJUD 



208 


TABLES 


MT6TN* 

MTtUTM 

HTOOY 

NTOq 
... NTOq 

naujco «*/NAcye- 

(ti)NA^pH- 

fi^OCON, GN^OCON 
N£HT - 
MG 6 <JD - 

S6 i- 


“You (plur.) arc...”, proclitic subject pronoun in 
Nominal Sentence. 2nd plural, 
personal pronoun, 2nd plural “you” 
personal pronoun, 3rd plural “they” 
personal pronoun, 3rd singular masculine “he” 
adversative particle: approx, “on the other 
hand” 

Adjective Verb: “(They/the people) arc nu¬ 
merous” 

(prep.) before, in the presence of: prcsuflixal 

(n)n*2PA* 

(conj.) as long as... 

prcsulTixa! of ^n- (prep.) in 

Adjective Verb: “(He) is ugly” 

introducing nominal specification of 3rd person 

pronominal actor: “namely...” 



(adv.) again, still 


ti- (lie-) 

If A- 
... 176 

... f?G 


ne 



riA- 


I7AI 

nei- 

n H 
m- 


noy 


definite article, sgl. masculine, “the” 
n with relative: “the one who...” 
possessive pronoun, sgl. muse., “he of...” 

“lie is...”, “It is...”, sgl. masc. enclitic subject 
in Nominal Sentence 

element accompanying the preterite converter; 
often “the background situation is, that...” 
possessive article, sgl. masc. possessed: nex- 
(nic-) rreq- nee- nen- ttgth* ney- “your 
(masc., her, her, our, your (plur.), their” (French 
ton. son. notre, votre, leur ) 
possessive article, 1st sgl. possessor, masc. sgl. 
possessed: “my...” (French man) 
demonstrative pronoun, sgl. masc., “this (one)” 
demonstrative article, sgl. masc., “this...” 
demonstrative pronoun: sgl. masc.: “that (one)” 
demonstrative art., sgl. masc. “that...” (emo- 
lional) 

in-...NoywT “the very same...” 
possessive article, 2nd sgl. fern, possessor, sgl. 

masc. possessed: “your...” (French ton , fern.) 



TABLFS 


ncu - 


riApA- 

npoc- 

nGJCA «*/ne jte- 

F- 

po> 

pH-, pHM- 

peq- 

c- 

-c 

cc 

ce- 

-ce 

-coy 

CA(N-) 

r-(re-) 

-T 

TA¬ 

TA* 

TA-, HTA- 

... T€ 



possessive pronoun, sgl. masc. possessed: ''mine, 
yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs" (French Ic 
mien. Ic ticn, ic sien, Ic ndtre, ic voire. Ic leur) 
(prep.) beside, alongside, against 
(prep.) for (a period of time) 

"(He/the man) said (285a) 


with noun: auxiliary, deriving verbs from nouns: 
"do...”, “make...", “be, act as..." (prenom. of 

eipe) 


-pnite- “to (do) also ..." 

-pqjpn(N)* “to (do) first..." 

'P2°Y e * “ t0 (do) rather..." 
particle: “at all", “really", “...indeed"; often 
marking the preceding element as focal 
“man of...". With placcnamcs: prefix forming 
local nouns. With nouns: deriving nouns from 

nouns(295a) 

“man who...". With infinitives: prefix forming 
agent nouns from verb (cf. English - cr, •or). (295a) 


with infinitive or 
stative 


3rd sgl. fern, prefix pronoun: “she", “it" (in the 
durativc pattern) 

3rd sgl. fern, suffix pronoun: “she", “it" 
sentence-word: “yes" (316a) 

3rd plural prefix pronoun: “they" (in the durativc 
pattern) 

3rd plural objective pronoun: “them" 

3rd plural objective pronoun: “them" 

"man of...", “makcr/sellcr of...", deriving pre¬ 
fix (316a) 


definite article, sgl. fern.: “the" 

1st sgl. suffix pronoun (as object, following 
consonants and doubled vowels) 
possessive article, 1st sgl. possessor, sgl. fern, 
possessed: “my..." (French ma) 
possessive pronoun, sgl. fern, “she of..." 

1st sgl. form of conjunctive 

“She is...", “It is...", sgl. fern, enclitic subject in 

Nominal Sentence 



210 


TABLES 


T€- « 

I 

V 

T€ - 


TAI 

T€l- 

TH 

+-, Tl 
t- 

t* 

Toy- 

T<U - 


TM-, -TM- 

TN- 

-TN, -TN- 

TApe- TApe-/TAp 
... THp^ 

TpA- 

Tpe- 

-thyth 

T6TM- 

-T€TN* 

oy 

oy- 

*°Y' -Y- 

oyA 

oyei 


2nd sgl. fem. prefix pronoun: “you" (in durativc 
pattern) 

possessive article, sgl. fern, possessed: Tex- req- 

T€C- T€N- t€tm* Tcy- "your (masc), his, her, 
our, your (plur.), their..." (French ta, sa. noire, 
voire, /cur) 

demonstrative pronoun, sgl. fern.: "this (one)" 
demonstrative article, sgl. fcm., "this..." 
demonstrative pronoun, sgl. fcm., "that (one)" 
demonstrative article, sgl. fcm.. “that..." 
(emotional) 

1st sgl. prefix pronoun: "I" (in durativc pattern) 
with noun: auxiliary, deriving verbs from nouns: 
"give", "cause", "make to..." 
possessive article, 2nd sgl. fcm. possessor, sgl. 
fcm. possessed: "your..." (French ta. fcm.) 
possessive pronoun, sgl. fcm. possessed: “mine, 
yours, his. hers, ours, yours, theirs" (French la 
mienne, la tienne. la sienne. la noire, la voire, la 

leur ) 

negativer; (I) of infinitive (prefixed), (2) of 
dependent clause base conjugation (infixed) 

1st plur. prefix pronoun: “we" (in durativc pattern) 
2nd plur. sufiix pronoun: "you" 

- future conjunctive base 
rcinforcer: "all (of)...", "the whole (of). 

1st sgl. form of causative infinitive 

causative infinitive:."to cause him to..-.", "to let 

him..." 

2nd plur. pronoun (csp. as object of verb and 
after prepositions ending in consonant) 

2nd plur. prefix pronoun: "you" (in durativc 
pattern) 

2nd plur. suffix pronoun (csp. infixed, following 
short conjugation bases) 
interrogative pronoun: “what?" (467b) 
indefinite article, masc. & fcm.: “a..." 

3rd plur. suffix pronoun: "they" 
one (masc.) (469a) 
one (fern.) (469a) 



rAIU.ES 


211 


OY®€- 

oy A€ 
oyKoyN 

OyMOHON 

oyw- 

oyoN 

oyMTA. -/oyNTe- 

oywp 

oycuT 

oyrc 

oyTe- 


(prcp.) against (476a); presuflixal oyBH** 

(conj.) neither, nor 
particle: doubtlessly; therefore 
(adv.) not only 

"There is". "There exists", statement of existence 
(481a) 

somc(onc), any(one); something, anything (482a) 
"(Hc/ihe man) has", verboid of possession 
(481a) 

interrogative pronoun: "how much?" "how 
many?" "how great?" (488b) 
single, in ni-... SoytoT "the very same...” 
(conj.) neither, nor 

(prep.) between (494b); prcsufTixal oyTo>^ 



interjection: O! (csp. in address) 


q>-, eu;- 

OfX- 

yx- 


- 0 )XN- 

tl)XNT- 

<yxf*re- 


<yx? e- 


-<ypn(N)- 


to be able to (with infinitive) 

affirmative aorist base 

(prep.) (up) to, toward, until (541b); presuflixal 

qjApo- 

part of conditional base (c ... ujan-) 

"until..." base, prcsufTixal 

“until..." base, before nominal, 2nd sgl. fern., 

indef., interrog. and demonstrative pronoun actor 

affirmative aorist base, before nominal, 2nd sgl. 

fern., interr. & indef. pronominal actors 

in -po;pn(H)-: see p- 

"lt is right, befitting" 


xcupic- 


(prep.) without 


q- 3rd sgl. masc. prefix pronoun: "he" (in durativc 

pattern) 

-q, -q- 3rd sgl. masc. suffix pronoun: "he" 


ZX‘ 

e» 


(prep.) under for (632a); prcsufTixal z±V°~ 
(prep.) (up)on, from upon; with (643b); presuflixal 

2io)co - 

between zero-determinated nouns, coordinating 


♦ • » 


« a • 



212 


TABMLS 


... 2tutu - 

2-\MOI 
2CN-, 2N- 
2H- (2H-) 

eS- (?M-) 

2 * 1 - 12 N€% €2NA 

20IN€, 20€IN€ 

2 coc- 

2CUCT€ 

2HT* 

2HHTG 
2ITN- 

20TAN 

^oye- 

... 2CUOH) 

z±z 

2A2TN* 

2»-XN- 

.xe- 

XCKXXC,X€KXC 

JOn(n)- 

JCN- 

... 6e 

6e- 

6in- 


rcinforccr: "...for (his) pari*’, "...(he) too”; 1st 
sgl. z<v, 2 tt)tUT » 2nd sgl. fcm. suxutg. 2nd 
plur. 2 ti)TTIIYTN 
interjection: “Would that...!” 
indefinite article, plural: "some...” 

(prep.) in, at (683a); prcsuttixal n 2 ht- 
(prep.) into, against (685a) 

/e 2 N€- "(Hc/thc man) is willing” (690a) 
indefinite pronoun: some, several, a few 
(prep.) as 
(conj.) so as (to) 

(prep.) of (c.g. in "afraid of...”, "wait for...”) 
(640b) 

see C1C 

(prep.) by (agency of), from (428b); presuffixal 
21 TOOT-*; 2nd plur. 2 »t€-tiiytn 

4 

(conj.) whcn(cver), as soon as... 
in -j» 20 Y€-: see p- 

particlc: but. on the other hand; at all 
quantifying pronoun: many 
(prep.) with (7!7a); prcsuflixal 2 * 2 th«* 2* TH " 
(prep.) upon (758b); prcsuflixal 2 i-xco- 

(conj.) that, so that, saying that 
(conj.) in order to, so that 
(prep.) since (772a) 
junta- (with the perfect tense) 

(conj.) or 

particle: approx, "then”, "therefore” (cf. French 
done, Greek mm) (802a) 
see ice 

(with infinitive) deriving abstract action nouns 
from verbs 



B. LEXICAL GLOSSARY 


(1) The words in Ihc lexeme glossary arc entered after each letter, in the 
following order: native words, (2) words or Greek origin, (3) Proper 
Names. An independent morpheme glossary follows. The native words 
in the lexeme glossary arc arranged by their consonant skeleton (with 
subarrangement by vowels), according to Crum's method (Coptic Dic¬ 
tionary, Oxford, 1939; also Wcslcndorf, Knplisches Handwoerterhurh . 
Heidelberg 1965-1977, with some minor changes): all other entries 
(Greek words. Proper Names) arc arranged in the Western alphabetic 
order (initial z not counting as a letter; r before r or k = n). 

Numbers in parentheses following the English equivalents refer to 
Crum’s dictionary, where the full information concerning the lexical 
item may be found. 

(2) The forms and meanings given are those attested in the Chrcstomalhy, 
not “in Coptic”; for a comprehensive presentation of forms and 
semantic synthesis the student is referred to Crum’s or Wcslcndorfs 
dictionaries. 

(3) Gender (masc./fcm.) is indicated for a noun only when it is cither 
evident in our Coptic text or unambiguously attested elsewhere; the 
absence of such indication means (a) either gender or (b) ambiguous 
evidence. 

(4) Prenominal and prcsufftxal forms of verbs and prepositions arc 
marked in the conventional manner, by - and «- respectively. 

Note the following abbreviations: 


adv. 

adverb 

part. 

particle 

art. 

article 

plur. 

plural 

fern. 

feminine 

poss. 

possessive 

imp. 

imperative 

prep. 

preposition 

indef. 

indefinite 

pron. 

pronoun 

interj. 

interjection 

sgl. 

singular 

interr. 

interrogative 

top. 

loponym (placcnamc) 

masc. 

masculine 





GLOSSARY 


214 

A- 

AA - 

ABU) 

ABCUK. 

AA.O** 

AAOy 

AMA£T€ 

AMOy 

ANAI 


AHAy 

ANAUp 

An a 

Anc 

Api- 

Apitce 

Apooye 

ACIHC 

Acoy 

AyAN 

A<yA20H 

A Up AI 


AOpH 

*q 

Aq 

A£G 

Aee(pAT^) 

A£0 

A£U>M 

A£€pAT- 

A2Hy 


about...» approximately (with quantity or 
number) (la) 
see eipe 

fisherman’s net (fern.) (2a) 
crow; plural abookc (2b) 

“Cease!”, imper. of a.o 

youth (masc.) (5a) 

to hold, have power over (9a) 

(with art.) power, rule (9a) 

“Comc/go!”, imper. of ei 
to be pleasing (I la) 
p- anai be pleasing; imp. api-anai 
(with art.) beauty (11a) 

“Sec!”, imper. of nay 
oath (masc.) (12b) 

p-ANAup take an oath 
Father (title) (13a) 
head (fcm.) (13b) 

“Do/makc!”, imper. of eipe 
blame (15a) 
dN-Apnce to blame 
thistle, thorn (16a) 

great size or quantity (fcm.) (2a) (aiai, to 
increase, be great) 
price, value (fcm.) 
colour (masc.) (20b) 

to sigh (coup) (24b) 

to be, become numerous, multiply (22b); stativc 
oqp “(is) numerous, plentiful” 

(with art.) large amount or number 
multitude, great number (fcm.) (22b) 
meat (masc.) (23a) 
fly (masc.) (23b) 

AqeNeBico honeybee 
lifetime, life limit (masc.) (24a) 
sec cu^e 

treasure (masc.) (24b) 
eagle (masc.) (25b) 
to stand (up) (coge) 

SCC K (OK A£My 



GLOSSARY 


AtipHN 

ajuc 

childless, sterile person (26b) 

“Say (il)!“. imp. of x.co 

AHp, Up 

air, sky (masc.) 

ineoN 

(the) good, goods (property) (masc.) 

xrxeocfou 

good 

atatth 

love, charity (fern.) 

xnorxroc 

most holy 

xrwu 

combat (masc.) 

Arpioc/oN 

wild 

Aipecic 

heresy (fern.) 

^AipCTIKOC 

heretic 

A1C0AN€I 

to feel, perceive 

AITHMA 

request (masc.) 

AIXMAACUTOC 

captive, prisoner 

A ICON 

age, era (masc.) 

akaoapcia 

impurity (fern.) 

AKA0ApTOC/ON 

impure 

AKpOByCTIA 

foreskin (fern.) 

AAHOCDC 

truly (adv.) 

AAAOTplOC 

alien, foreign 

AM6A6I 

to be indifferent, careless, neglectful 

ANArNCOCTHC 

reader 

ArreAoc 

angel (masc.) 

ANAriCAZe 

to force 

ANATK AIOC/ON 

necessary, important 

ANATKH 

distress, necessity (fern.) 

ANAXCOpCI 

to leave, go off 

ANexe 

to bear, suffer with patience 

ANOHIA 

lawlessness (fem.) 

ANOMOC/ON 

lawless 

ANOXH 

forbearance (fem.) 

ANTI 

(prep.) against, instead of 

AJiioy 

to demand, expect, require 

AnANspconoc 

inhuman 

AnANTA 

to encounter 

AnATA 

to err, mislead 

AnATH 

error (fem.) 

Anei ah 

promise, threat (fem.) 

AniCTOC 

unbelieving, infidel 





216 


GLOSSARY 


2A1TA.CUC 

inoAeuic 

inoeHKH 
AfTOAOri A 
AITOCTOAOC 
AIIOTACCG 

Aproc 

Ap€TH 

ApiCTON 

ApNA 

ApXAITGAOC 

ApXAIOC/ON 

ApXH 

ApXH 

ApX€l 

xpxei 

Apxienicxonoc 

ApXI6p€YC 

ApXCUN 

AC6BMC 

ACTTA£G 

AYroycTAAioc 

AyiANc 

A<j)OpMH 


(adv.) simply 

argument, proof (fcm.) 
storehouse, bam (fcm.) 
excuse, explanation (fcm.) 
apostle (masc.) 
to renounce, give up 
idle, slothful 
virtue (fcm.) 
breakfast (masc.) 
to deny 
archangel 
of old 

oflicc, authority (fcm.) 
beginning, origin (fcm.) 
to rule 

to begin (n- to) 
archbishop (masc.) 
archpriest (masc.) 

magistrate, office-holder, archon (masc.) 

impious person 

to greet, salute 

prefect, august alis (masc.) 

to grow, increase 

incitement (fcm.) y; 


PROPER NAMES: 


AII6A 

ABpA£AM 

AAAM 

AZApiAC 

AN AMI AC 

ANAfGAC 

A0ANACIOC 

AX€2|ANApOC 

AMNTG 

ANNA 

AflA 

AnOAACUN 


Abel 

Abraham 

Adam 

Aza ri as 

Ananias 

Andrew 

Athanasius 

Alexander 

Amcnti, the Underworld, Hades (masc. top.) 
Ann 

Father (title) 

Apollo 



GLOSSARY 


217 


b (BETA) 


SO) 

BHB 

BUB6 

BCUK 

BCK€ 

BAA 

BOA 


BCL)A 

BABtAC 

BAA6 

BAAHTTC 

BOON€ 

BNT 

appe 

BApOJT 

BOT€ 

BAUJOp 

BCD ^ 


tree (fern.) (28a) 

den. cave (masc.) (28b) 

to be insipid (28b) 

to go (29a) 

wages (masc.) (30b) 

eye (masc.) (31b) 

outer part (masc.) (33b) 

gboa (adv.) out; £iboa (adv.) outside 

p- boa to escape 

It A- boa to vomit 

hbaaa beside (prep.) 
baa-^ht simple, frank (715a) 
to loosen; to interpret (32b) 

(with art.) interpretation 
grain (fern.) (37b) 
blind person (38a) 
baah (fern.) 
goat(39a) 
evil (39b) 

p- boonc to be evil, damaging 

SCe <|NT 

new, young (43a) 
brass (43b) 

abomination (fern.) (45b) 
fox (fern.) (47b) 

to bend (47b); prcnominal ae^- 


BAT1TICM A 

BApBApOC 

BACANlZC 

BACANOC 

BHMA 

BIOC 

BAAfTTCI 

soHeei 

BOH96IA 


baptism (masc.) 
barbarian 
to torture 
torture (masc.) 
judgement-seat (masc.) 
life, way of life (masc.) 
to harm, damage 
to aid 
aid (fern.) 





218 


GLOSSARY 


PROPER NAMES: 

Babylon (top.) 

Baca nos 
Barachias 
Belzcbub 

Bclamon, Baal-Hamon (lop.) 

r (GAMMA) (no Egyptian lexemes) 

rxHoc wedlock (masc.) 

rencA generation (fern.) 

rGNOiTO “May it come about”, “let it be!” 

hh rcHoiTO “God forbid!” 

reNofc kind (masc.) 

rirAC giant 

rpA.HHA.Tcyc scribe 

Ne*/Te-rpA<|)H the Scripturc(s) (fem./plur.) 
ryHNAZc to examine, dispute 

PROPER NAMES: 

t- r aaiaaia the Galilee (top.) 

T-re^GHNA Hell, Gehenna (fcm. top.) 

_ 4 

riezi Gehazi 

roHpppA Gomorra (top.) 


BABYA.CUN 

BAKANOC 

BApAXtAC 

BcexzcBoyA. 

BIIA.AHCON 


a (DELTA) (no Egyptian lexemes) 


aaimonion demon, evil spirit (masc.) 

aaimcun demon (masc.) 

ACinNON, AinrioN dinner (masc.) 

ft- ai aboaoc the Devil 


AIAOHKH 
Af AKONCI 

P 

AIKAION 

AIKAIOC 

* 1 1 1 

AIK AlOCyNH 
AIKAICDMA 
AIK ACTHpiOH 


testament (fern.) 
to serve, minister 


the right, just (masc.) 



righteousness (fern.) 


act of justice, righteousness; ordinance (masc.) 


court of justice (masc.) 




GLOSSARY 


AIKACTHC 

AlOirMOC 

AOKIHUC 

ApAKOJN 

ipineTHC 

AtopeA 

a (upon 


6BIHH 

6BOT 

eauj- 

€KI8€, KIB€ 

€AK<JU 

€HHp€ 

€MiT€ 

eHAY 

ewrHd, nth6 
€N62 

ep- 

epHT 

epHY 


€CHT 

ecooY 

emeu 

eooY 

e<p* 

c^e 

ezoyu 

e^pAi 


ertcxicei 

260 N 0 C 



judge (masc.) 
persecution (masc.) 
to put to the test 
python, serpent (masc.) 
runaway slave (masc.) 
gift (fern.) 
gift (masc.) 


e (EPSILON) 

poor, wretched person (53a) 
month (masc.) (53b); plur. cbotg 
see cuBty 
breast (fern.) (54a) 
sycomore fruit (54b) 
inundation (fern.) (56a) 

(adv.) greatly, much (!90a) 
thither (197a); sec mmay 
plant (masc.) (233a) 

w 

eternity (57a) 

q?A€Ne£ eternally, for ever 
= p-; sec eipe 
to pledge, vow (58a) 

(in possessed plur. NewepnY) fellow com¬ 
panions, (we) and others, each other, mutually 

(59a) 

ground, bottom (masc.) (60a) 

(adv.) enecHT, ^inecHT down(wards) 
sheep (masc.) 

weight, burden (fern.) (352b) 
glory, honour (masc.) (62a) 
aci-eooY to be glorified 
see cy- 

ox, cow, cattle (64a); plur. ejooY 
(adv.) in(to), towards (686a); see £oyn 
( adv.) up/down (698b, 700a); see ^pAt 


to lose heart 
people; (plur.) gentiles 



nnnnnnnnnnnnf 



GLOSSARY 


eiAOc 

sort, kind, class (masc.) 

CKKAMCU 

church (fcm.) 

CAAXICTOC/ON 

least 

£GAAHN 

Hellenic, pagan, non-Christian 

2€Amze 

to hope 

2€\nic 

hope (fcm.) 

cntpATeyG 

to abstain, be continent 

crxpATHC 

continent 

GH^OCON, N^OCON 

(adv., conj.) as long as 

GNTOAH 

commandment (fern.) 

ejoyciA 

• 

authority (fcm.) 

*1*- Gioyci a to aulhouri/c 

enAiNoy 

to praise, commend 

eniBoyAH 

counsel (fern.) 

ciiieyMGi 

to desire 

cnieyriiA 

desire (fcm.) 

CfTIICAACI 

to call upon, turn to 

cniCKonoc 

bishop (masc.) 

eniCTMMH 

understanding, skill (fcm.) 

epriciA 

work, function, activity (fcm.) 

eyArrcAioN 

Gospel (masc.) 

eycGBHC 

pious person 

ey4>pAHG 

to gladden, delight 

ey^pocyMH 

joy (fcm.) 

PROPER NAMES: 

ft 

CNCUX 

Enoch 

gttnii 

Epcp, name of eleventh month 

eyeA 

Eve 



Z (ZETA) (no Egyptian lexemes) 

Z CUMIN 

soup, broth 

2 (DON 

animal (masc.) 


PROPER NAMES: 


ZAXApiAC 


Zacharius 



GLOSSARY 


HI 

hti 

Hne 

Hpn 


^HrCMCON 

HAH 

£HAONH 

^HAIKIA 

PROPER NAMES: 
hcay 

h4>aictoc 


ee 

8AB 

eisio 


OAAACCA 

0eO<J>IA€CTATOC 

eecopiA 

OHplON 

oaibc 

OAl'f'C 

epoNoc 

©YClACTHplON 

PROPER NAMES: 

e IAHM 
0HBAIC 


h (ETA) 

house (masc.) (66a) 
stativc of con 
number (fern.) (527b) 
wine (masc.) (66b) 


governor, hegemon (masc.) 
(adv.) already 
sensual pleasure (fern.) 
age. adult state (fern.) 


Esau 

Hephaestus 


e (THETA) 

in Nee, katasc see ?e 

leaven, moisture (457a) 

to humiliate (457b); stativc eienty 

humble, lowly’' 

(with art.) humbleness, humility 
the Sea 

most God-loving 
observation (fern.) 
wild beast (masc.) 
to oppress, trouble 
tribulation (fern.) 
throne (masc.) 
altar (masc.) 


(i.c. r-jiepoycAAHM) Jerusalem (top.) 
the Thcbaid (top.) 






222 GLOSSARY 


ci, i (IOTA) 


Cl 

to conic, go (70a); stative NHy “(is) going, 
coming”; imperative amoy 

ax 

valley (masc.) (73a) 

CIA 

gjat- (possessed) eye (73) 

TCABG-GiAT*- to enlighten. instruct 

CIO) 

to wash (75a) 

e iuj 

ass (75b) 

C IBS 

to thirst (76a); stative obg “(is) thirsty" 

eiHG 

to know (77b) 

C INC 

to bring (78b); prcnominal S-, prcsuffixal nt-» 

GING 

to resemble (80b) 

(with art.) likeness, rcscmblcncc. aspect 

cione 

work, task, craft, occupation (fern.) (81a) 

eipe 

to do, make (83b); prcnominal p-, prcsuffixal 
a.\«, stative o “(is) made" 
p- auxiliary, deriving verbs from nouns; o n- 
"(is) in statc/circumstancc of*, "be as" 

G ICOT 

father (masc.) (86b); plur. giotg 

C 1 CUT 

barley (masc.) (87a) 

€ ICUTG 

dew (fern.) 

(G)lOyAAI 

Jew 

“ * * »'■' »» ip* V 0 ^ ft ***« ^1- Vl' l« • « 

1 b • 4fU«Ij % ‘ ^ i » ■ fcft » W* *ft • 

GIACOA.ON 

idol (masc.) 

2€IKCON 

picture, icon (fern.) 

eiMHTl 

(adv.) unless 

(e)ipHNH, IpHNH 

peace (fern.) 

eipHNIKOC 

peaceful 

PROPER NAMES: 

IAK.CUB 

Jacob 

IA(J>GT 

Japhclh 

7c = iHcoyc 

Jesus 

ICAAK 

Isaac 

ICAIAC 

Jcsaias 

ICMAMA 

Ishmacl 

lOyAAC 

Judas 

1 CL) B 

Job 

iu^annhc 

John 

ICUCMtJ) 

Joseph — 


nnntiL 





GLOSSARY 


223 


K€- 

Koyi 

ICO) 


KIBC 
KB A 

K BO 

KAK 

KJlKC 

KCUK A^hty 

KAOOA6 
K\OM 
K\ 'j' 

K Cl) A 2 
K. CD AJC 
KIM 
KMOM 

KCDMCy 

KNN€ 

K CJDNC 
KNOC 

Kin 

KpMpM 

KpOMpM 

Kpoq 

K AC 
K CUT 

K CDTC 

KOTC 

KTO 


K (KAPPA) 

(an)othcr: plur. Kooye 
small, little (92b) 

to lay, set down (e^pAi); let, allow (94b); prono¬ 
minal ka-, presuffixal kii», stativc kh “(is) 
put, set” 

see CKIBC 

revenge (masc.) (99b) 

jci-kba to take revenge 

to chill, refresh (100a); pronominal kbc- 

(with art.) coolness, chill 

in aujkak: see ujkak 

darkness (masc.) 

to strip (101a); stativc kmk A^iiy (is) stripped, 
nude 

cloud (104a) 
crown (masc.) (104b) 
blow (105b) 
j*- ka'J' to strike 
to knock (106b) 

to bend (107b); pronominal kga.jc* kajc- 

lo move, shake (108a) 

to be, become black (109b) 

to sneer, mock (with nca-) (110a) 

to be fat. juicy (11 lb); stativc Kicuoy “(is) fat, 

* ■ H 

juicy 

to pierce, slay (112a) 

to be. become putrid; to stink (112b) 

string, thread (masc.) (113a) 

to grumble, complain (116a) 

to be dark (116b) 

guile (masc.) (118b) 

bone (masc.) (120a); plur. xeec 

to build (122a); prcnominal kct-, presuffixal 

kot-, stativc kht “(is) built” 

to turn, return (often reflexive); to encircle (c-) 

(124a); prcnominal kct : . presuffixal kot- 

crookedness, guile (127a), in mnt-cahkotc 

to turn, return; cause to turn, return (127b); 

stativc KTiiy “(is) turned” 




224 


Gl OSSARY 


Kicuoy 

Kooye 

k\z 

KO>2 

KCD? 


SCC KNMC 
SCC KC 


land, earth, country (mnsc.) (131a) 

point (mnsc.) (132a); plur. kooj 

to be envious, begrudge (132b); stalivc km^ “(is) 


envious 




KO€)2 

kco^t 


(with art.) envy, rivalry 
sheath (inasc.) (132b) 
fire (muse.) (133b) 








lueHmcic, kaqhkhc ic exposition, explanation (fern.) 


KAeincei 


to join, be filling, belong 
T-KieoxiKH ckkahcia the Catholic Church 
t-kainh jliaohkh the New Testament 


season, occasion, opporlunity (masc.) 

badness, vice (fem.) 

% * 

(adv.) well 
rule, canon (masc.) 
fruit (masc.) 
to calumniate 
to disdain 
garden (masc.) 
to command, enjoin 
thunder (masc.) 

KHpiAKH, KypiAKH Sunday (fem.) 
k€<)>aaaioc/on (the) main, most important; capital 


KAipoc 

KAKIA 
KAA.COC 
K ANCON 

KApnoc 

KATAAAA.GI 
K ATAtflpONG I 

Kunoc 
KCAcye 
KepAyNoc 


KiNAyNeye 

KieApCOJKOC 


be 


harper 


ka.atoc, kaaaoc branch (masc 


K\lipONOHC I 

KoiNconei 

KOINCONIA 
KOAAZe 
KO'AACIC 
KOM6C 

KOCMCI 

KOCMHCIC 

KOCMIKOC/ON 

KOCHOC 

KpiMA 


to inherit 
to commune 
community (fem.) 
to punish, chastise 

punishment, chastisement (fern.) 
comes , office-holder 

to adorn 

adorncmcnt (fem.) 
worldly 

world, universe (masc.) 
judgement, sentence (masc.) 



nnn 



GLOSSARY 



Kpine 

lo judge 

KpITHC 

judge (masc.) 

KTICIC, K.TMCIC 

creation (fern.) 

PROPER NAMES: 


KAeiN 

Cain 

KAICApiOC 

Caesarius 

KApXApiC 

Carcharis (top.) 

K.HM6 

Egypt (niasc. top.) 


pHNKHH€ Egyptian 

T“ KHpiAKH 

Sunday 

KpONOC 

K ronos 

xypiAAoc 

Cyril 


a (LAMBDA) 

AO 

to cease (£*-) (135a); imp. aao- 

Aiee 

to be, become mad (136b); slative 


mad” 

AAKH 

piece (139a) 

xtucuMe 

to wither; lo be filthy (142b) 

aac 

tongue (masc.) (144b) 

\xxy 

any(thing), somc(thing) (146a) 

\ujx2 

to crush; to be crushed (151a) 

\\6, \o6 

impudent person (151 a) 

\ot6e 

excuse (fern.) (151b) 

AJkHITAC 

lamp, light 

AAOC 

people (masc.) 

AHCTHC 

robber 

Aynei 

to feel pain, sorrow; to cause pain 

AynH 

pain, sorrow (fern.) 

Aoroc 

speech, word, account (masc.) 


•f- Aoroc (&*-) to account for 

AOIMOC 

pestilence 

PROPER NAMES: 


AAZApOC 

Lazarus 

AAMCX 

Lamcch 

aoykac 

Luke 

AO)T 

Lot 


« ^ 



226 


GLOSSARY 



Hoy 

MAI- 

Hoyi 

MOKMGK 


biXKZ 


MOK£C 

H°yA2 

MMN-, MN- 


(m)mnta «* 

HHON 

MMAT€ 

MMAy 

MHNG 

MING 

HOONG 

MOONG 

MNNCA- 

MNTpG 

MnqpA 


\ 


M (MI) 

place (masc.) (153a) 

% 

imp. of *t* to give; imp. prefix with causatives 

("matamoi”) 

truth (fern.) (156b) 

to love (156a); prenominal MGpe-, prcsuflixal 

nepiT^; 

mai- “-loving”, agent noun with object; MGpiT 

beloved person, plur. hgpatg 
to die (159a) 
see mg “to love” 
lion (160b) 

to reflect, deliberate (162a); prcsuflixal hgk- 

HoyK - 

(with art.) reflection 
neck (masc.) (162b) 

to be in pain, grieve, feel pain (163a); stativc 
mok 2 “(is) in pain, (is) grieved” 

(with art.) n^ht grief 
suffering, pain (fern.) (164a) 
to salt (l65a); presuflixal moa.^- 
“there docs not exist”, statement of non-ex¬ 
istence 

I ' • 

“(He) has not”, negative possession verboid; 
pronominal (h)hntg- 
“no“ (168a) 

(adv.) only, alone (190a) 
there (196b) 
in mmhng: daily (172a) 
quality, type, sort (172a) 
to pasture, feed (173a) 

(with art.) pasture, feeding 
to bring into port (173b) 

(prep.) after, following (in time) (314b) pre- 

suffixal MNNCCU- 
witness (177a) 

MNTMHTpe testimony 
to be worthy (179a) 

(with art.) worth 


GLOSSARY 


227 


moyp to bind, tic (180a); prcsuffixal Hop** 

McpiT; plur. MepxTe see Me “to love” 

Mpco harbour, landing stage (fcm.) (183a) 

mxcc calf (186a) (masc.) 

Mice to give birth (184a) 

(with art.) birth 

MHce interest on loan (fcm.) (186a) 

cMHce to take interest, lend on interest 
moct€ to hale (187a); prcnominal MecTe-, prcsuffixal 

mcctcu - 


MHT 

MAT€ 

MiTOI, MXTO€l 

MiTOy 

MHT€ 

MoyTe 

MTO CBOA 
MTON 


MXXy 

Mooy 

neeye 


MoyoyT 

MKye 

Meujxic 

Mitye 

MHH<ye 

Moocye 

Moya;? 

Mecyupe 


mxct- “-hating”, agent noun with object 
(with art.) hatred 
ten (187b) 
to obtain (189a) 

soldier (masc.) (190b) /" 

poison (fcm.) (196a) / 

middle (fern.) (190b) ^ 
to call, name (191 o) 

(with possessive art.) (someone’s) presence (193a) 
to rest (also reflexive): to be comfortable, well 
(193b) stativc motn “(is) rested, comfortable”; 
“(is) easy (to do)” 

(with art.) rest, repose, well-being, comfort 
mother (fcm.) (197a) 
water (masc.) (197b) 
to think, have in mind (201a) 

(with art.) thought 

p- nwecye (n-), p-nccjMeeye have in mind, 
recall 

to kill (201a); prcnominal neyr-, prcsuffixal 
MOoyT-. stativc mooyt “(is) dead” 
scales, balance (fcm.) (201a) 
maybe, perhaps, “you do not know” (201b) 

to fight, do battle (202b) 

(with art.) battle 
crowd, multitude (masc.) 
to walk, go (203b) 

to search out, examine (206b); prcnominal 

MecpT-, prcsuffixal moujt- 

“it is not befitting” (negation of cp<pe) (608a) 



nnnnnnnnnnnnnn 

228 

GLOSSARY 

HOY2 

(o fill (208a); pronominal mg?*. prcsulhxal 
maj m \ slativc M€2 “(is) full” 

HOY2 

lo look (201b) 

Moi^e. woei^e 

marvel, wonder (fcm.) (21 lb) 

MAAA.€ 

car (niasc.) 212b) 

MAflA 

magic (fcm.) 

MA0HTHC 

disciple 

MAKApUG 

lo consider happy, hlcsscd 

MAKApiOC 

happy, blessed 

MAAAKOC 

effeminate 

M.UAON, MAAACON 

(adv.) “nol to mention”, especially, rather 

MAMMCDNAC 

tt-mammlonac Mammon 

MANIXAIOC 

Manichcc 

MApTYPOC 

martyr 

HACTirOY 

to whip 

MGAGTA 

lo meditate, practise 

M6A6TH 

meditation, religious practice (fern.) 

M6AOC 

member, limb of body (masc.) 

Hepic 

allotted share (fern.) 

Mepoc 

part (masc.) 

M6TANOG1. MCTANO 1 (0 TCpCnt 

MGTCXG 

lo share, lake part 

none 

(adv.) hardly 

HONAXOC 

monk 

MONOrCNHC 

only-bcgoltcn 

MONON 

(adv.) only, but 

HOp4>H 

form (fcm.) 

NYCTHpiON 

nMYCTHpioN CToyAAB the Holy Sacrament 

PROPER NAMES: 


HAOOAIOC 

Matthew 

IT-MAMMCUNAC 

Mammon 

MANHC 

Mani 

MApiA 

Mark 

MApICOC 

Mary 

T- MeCOnOTAMIA 

Mesopotamia (top.) 

Ml%AHA 

Mishacl 

mcuyciic 

M oscs 



“nnnnnnnnnnnnnn 


GLOSSARY 



N('Nl) 


H- 

see cine “to bring*' 

NA 

to pity, have mercy (216b) 

P-na to do charity 
mntna act of charity, mercy 

NX 

stativc of uje and Noy “to be about to”, “to 

go” 

Noy 

to be about to... (219a); stativc na “(is) about 
to...” 

NOYB 

gold (masc.) (221b) 

nose 

* ^_ . ^ ^ ^ ' 

sin (niasc.) (222a) 

• * • 

NAHT 

merciful person 

NAIAT«* 

“is blessed” (74b); sec gia, giat- 

HOC IK 

adultcrous person (222b) 

p- nog ik to commit adultery, fornicate 

NK A 

thing (22?a) 

NKOTK 

to lie down, sleep (224a) 

MA MNKOTK bed 

NAMG 

(adv.) truly (157a) 

NOyN€ 

root (fern.) (227b) 

NOyT€ 

god (230b) 
n-NoyTe God 

NT - 

see erne “to bring” 

NAy 

to see (233b); nay gboa. to be able to see, have 

eyesight 

(with art.) sight, view 

NAy 

time, hour (masc.) (243b) 

Nwy 

stativc of ci “to come" 

NU^OT 

to be hard, severe (237a); stativc naujt "(is) 
harsh, severe” 

(with art.) hardness, severity 

naqjt* “hard of...” in compounds; nao^t^ht 

obdurate 

Ntqe 

to blow, breathe (238b); presuffixal na<|t* 

Noqpe 

advantage, benefit (fern.) (239b) 

p- Noqpe to be of advantage, beneficial 

N€£ 

oil (masc.) (240b) 

Noy^ 

rope (masc.) (241a) 

HAji 

shoulders, upper back, neck (fern.) (243a) 



230 

NA£T6 

NOY-X 

NAAJCG 

Noyjce 

NAJt?G, NAAJCG 

no<5 

no6ng6 

Noydc 

GLOSSARY 

to trust, entrust, believe (264a): slative gn^ot 
“( is) trustworthy” 

false, lying (246b) 

see najc^g 

to throw (gboa out) (247a); prenominai ngjc-, 
prcsuffixal nojc**, slative nhjc (g-) “(is) thrown 
upon, relying on” 

tooth (fcm.) (249b) 
big, great (250a) 
to mock, reproach (252b) 

(with art.) reproach 

to be angry, annoyed with (252b) 

•f- Noydc to give cause for anger 

NHCOC 

island (fcm.) 

NHCTGIA 

fast (fcm.) 

NHCTcye 

to fast 

NOGI. NO 1 

to grasp, understand 

NOMOC 

law; rr- nomoc the Law 

NyM<t>IOC 

bridegroom (muse.) 

NgOCON, GN^OCON 

(adv., conj.) as long as 

PROPER NAMES: 

NABOyXOAONOCOp 

# 

• • * 

Nebuchadnezzar 

nazapgo 

Nazareth (lop.) 

NCD2G . 

Noah 

o 

5 (XI) 

o (OU) 

slative of eipe to do 

OBG 

sec gibg 

o »2 

tooth (fcm.) (254a) 

06 IK 

bread (masc.) (254a) 

one 

clay (masc.) (254b) 

ON2 

stativc of o>N2 to live 

oce 

damage, loss, fine (masc.) (256b) 

•f*-oce to suffer damage, be-fined 

0000000000000000 






GLOSSARY 


231 


oeiq; cry. proclamation (257b). in TAuje-oeiuj lo 

cry, proclaim 

o<y see au;ai 

002 moon (masc.) (257b) 

02 € shcepfold (masc.) (258a) 




20B0A.0C 

OIKOJLOMH 

T-OIKOyM€NH 

20A.CDC 

20H€A.ei, 20H1A.€I 
20MOAorei 

20MCUC 

20H00YCI0C/0H 

ONOMAZ6 

ONTCDC 

oprH 


obol (currency of small denomination) (masc.) 
construction, building (fern.) 
the inhabited world (fern.) 

(adv.) at all 

to preach, communicate 

to confess 

(adv.) nevertheless 

of the same essence, substance 

to call by name, mention 

(adv.) in fact, in reality, truly 

rage, fury (fcm.) 


« ■ 


9 


ne 

IT CU CONG 

TTptD 

mpe, neipe 

ncucupe 

ncupic, rrcupeic 

ncupu; 

npttuj 

no) pi 


ITAT 

r-* 

i no)T 

■ 

nooy 

rrA<4> 


n (PI) 

sky, heaven (fcm.) (259a); plur. miye 

me upper part; NCATne up (adv.) 
to overturn, change (263b); stativc nooNe “(is) 
overturned” 
winter (fcm.) 

to come out (of sun), shine (266b) 
lo dream (268a) 

nepe-pAcoy to foretell the future by dreams 
to pluck, root out (268b) 
to spread (with cboa) (269a) 
mat, spread (271a) 

lo separate; to be separated (with eaoA.) (271b); 
slative nopi “(is) distinct from (e-)” 

(with art.) separation 

foot, leg, knee (fern.) (273b) 

to run (274a); with nca- to pursue; stativc itmt 

“(is) running” 

today (731); see 2 ooy 

trap, snare (masc.) (277a) 






GLOSSARY 


TTCUUJ 

n id eye 

nwz 

nxepe 


ntu^T 

nx^oy 

no6e 

nxdce 


to divide, split (277a) 

to be stupefied, amazed (279b) 

(with art.) amazement 

to tear, break (280a); pronominal ne£-, presuf- 
fixal nx^- 

drug, medicament, cure (fern.) (282b) 

T-nx^pe to threat medically, cure 
Jti-nx^pe be treated medically, be cured 
to bend, throw down (also reflexive); (with 
eeox) to pour, shed (283a); prcsulTixal nx^T- 
back, hind part (284b) 

^tnx^oy behind 
piece (fern.) (286a) 
spittle (fern.) (286b) 

Neat-nxdce to spit 


' r ■ 




« ■ 




passion (masc.) 
to chastize, educate 


nxeoc 
nxix.eye 

T-nxAxix (xixeHKii) the Old Testament 


nxxiN 


(adv.) again (usually with on) 


n-nxNTOKpxTcup the Almighty 


HXNTCUC 

nxpxsx 
nxpxre 

nxpxiTei, nxpxin to entreat, beg 


(adv.) certainly, by all means 
to transgress 
to pass 


nxpxK.xA.ei 

n- rTXpXICAHTOC 

nxpxNOMOc 

nxpXTrTCUHX 

nxpx<f>ycic 

nxpeeNoc 

nxp^iCTX 

nxppHCix 

nxTxece 

neiec 


to invoke, call upon 
the Intercessor, Paraclete 
lawbreaker, wrongdoer 
false step, transgression 
perversion (fern.) 

virgin 

to stand by, assist 
freedom, openness of speech 
to strike, smite 

to persuade; to be persuaded, comply 


neipxcMOC, nipxcMoc trial, temptation (masc.) 
neipx^e, nipxze to test, try 


nexxroc 

ncTpx 

nexc 

nnrn 


high sea (masc.) 
rock (fern.) 
sec xpicToc 
fountain, spring (femj 




n n n n n n n n n n n n n n 


GLOSSARY 


233 


to believe, have faith 

faith (fern.) 

faithful 

to lead astray 

error, going astray (fern.) 

to shape, form 


niCTeye 

JTICTIC 

mcToc 

TTAANA 
TTAANH 
TTAACC6 

tc-ttaatconikh aiaackaaia the Platonic Teaching 


nAHre 

TTAHrH 

TINA 


TTNCYMA, TINA 


to strike, wound 
blow, wound (fcm.) 
see TTNeyMA 
spirit (niasc.) 

nenNA gtoyaab the Holy Ghost 


ttn€YH at iicoc/on spiritual 


TTNOH 

TTOA6HOC 


noAic 

nONHplA 

TTONHpOC/ON 

nopNeye 

TTOpNH 

nopNoc 

TTOCCO MAAAON 


breath (fcm.) 
war, quarrel (rnasc.) 
p- noACMOC to fight 
city, town (fcm.) 
wickedness (fern.) 
wicked 
to fornicate 
prostitute (fcm.) 
prostitute (masc.) 
(adv.) how much more 


masc.) 



TTpA^IC 

npecBeyTMc 
npecByTepoc 

npONOIA 

npoeexe 

npOCTAPHA 

npoc<|>opA 

npO<()HTHC 

nyAH 

nyproc 


elder, presbyter 
providence (fcm.) 
to pay attention, mind 
ordainment (masc.) 
offering (fcm.) 
prophet 
gate (fern.) 
tower (masc.) 


PROPER NAMES. 


T- TTANOC 
Tl-TTACXA 


in tttoaic tttanoc Panopolis (Akhmim) (top.) 
Easter 

tino6 mttacxa Easter Sunday 


234 


G LOSS A R Y 


TTA.YA.OC 

TTCTBC 

ncTpoc 

ntpoi 

tita^ 


Paul 

Pclbe (Egyptian deity) 

Peter 

Pshoi 

Ptah (Egyptian deity) 


pn 

po 


pCJL) - 
piKG 

PC0K2 


pine 

pMCIH 

PU)M€ 


pMMAO 

pONne 

pw^e 

PAN 

pip 

ppo 


pHC 

poeic 

pAcoy 

pAT** 


P(RO) 

npn the sun (masc.) (287a) 

door, mouth (masc.) (288a); possessed pu>*- 

(mouth) 

KA-pu>- to be silent, refrain from talking 
sec po 

to bend, turn (291a) 

(with art.) turning, inclination; difference 

to burn (293a); presuflixal poic^*, stative poicj 
“(is) burning” 

(with art.) burning, extreme heat 

td weep (294a) 

(with art.) weeping 

tear (fern.) (294b); plur. pMeiooye 

man, person; someone, anyone (with zero art.) 

(294b) 

pM(S)- “man of-“ (with noun or placenamc) 
peq- **-cr" (agent noun, with verb) 
rich person (296a) 
year (fern.) (296b) 

xppoMne (adv.) yearly 
free person (297a) 

name (masc.) (297b); possessed pin-* 
swine, pork (masc.) (299a) 
king (299a); plur. pptooy 
fern, ppcu queen 
MNxepo kingdom 

south (masc.) (299b) 

to be awake, be vigilant (300b); stative pHC “(is) 
vigilant” 

dream (fern.) (302b) 
foot (possessed form) (302b) 



GLOSSARY 


235 


PCOT 

epx*r- (prep.) to (person, with verbs of motion) 
2 xpx.T*> (prep.) under fool of underneath 
to grow, sprout (303b); stativc pHT “(is) in 

pooyc 

growth” 

stalk of corn (fcm.) (306b) 

pooyT 

sec oypot 

pooyq; 

care (masc.) (306b) 

?*<y 

qi-pooyuj (Z*~) carc f° r 

mild, gentle in pMpxu; mild, gentle person 

pxcye 

(308a) 

to rejoice (308b) 

piucye 

(with art.) joy 

to suffice; to be authorized, responsible 

poyz® 

evening (310b) 

PUJ2T 

to strike; to be struck, fall (31 la); prcsulhxal 


p*2 T- 

PROPER NAMES: 

• 

pXKOTC 

Alexandria (top.) 

2P€BBeKA 

Rebecca 



c (SIMMA) 

ex 

side (masc.) (313a) 

ex 

to be beautiful (315a) 


(with art.) comeliness, beauty 

ce 

“yes” (316a) 

ce 

sixty (368b) 

ci, cei 

to be sated, have enough (316b) 


(with art.) satiety 

CO 

in 'f-co to spare, refrain (with e-) (317a) 

CO 

* 

six (368b) 

CCD 

to drink (318a); prenominal ce-, presuffixal 


coo- 


(with art.) drink 

ecu 

reed mat (318a) 

cxie 

wise, clever person (319a); plur. cxscey. 


exseoy 

CXBH 

wise, clever woman 




rinnnnnnnnnn 


236 

GLOSSARY 

CUIBC 

to laugh, mock (320b) 

(with art.) laughter, mockery 

CB CL) 

leaching, wisdom (fern.) (319b); plur. csooyc 
cbcu to leach 
act- cbcu to be taught 

CBOC 

to circumcise (321b) 

(with art.) circumcision 
atcIbc uncircumciscd 

CBOK 

to be small (322a); stativc cobk “(is) small” 

• 

COBT 

wail (masc.) (323a) 

COBT6 

to prepare (323a); stativc cStcut “(is) prepared” 

CLUB? 

to be, become leprous (324a) 

C Cl) K 

to draw; to flow (325a); prcnominal ceic-, 
presufflxal cok- 

CIKC 

to grind, mill (328a) 
cunc Scute millstone 

CK1I 

to plough (328b) 

CKIM 

grey hair (328b) 

CKOpKp 

to roll (329a); stative cicpicopT “(is) rolled, 
curled up” 

COACA 

to comfort, encourage (332a) 

CMH 

voice (fern.) (334b) 

cmoy 

to bless (with c-); stativc chimut “(is) blessed” 
(with art.) blessing 

CM INC 

to establish, set right (337a); stative cmont “(is) 
established, set right” 

CMONT 

stativc of cm inc 

CMOT 

form, character (340b) 

C AC IN 

doctor (masc.) (342b) 

CANKOTC 

sec KOTC 

CON 

brother (masc.) (342b). male companion; plur. 

• 

• • 

CNiiy brethren 

■ 

CUINC 

sister, female companion (fern., ibid.) 

COONC 

robber (masc.) (344b) 

coywT- 

price, value (possessed) (369b) 

C CUNT 

to create (345a); prcnominal cnt- 
(with art.) creation 

CNTC 

two (fern.) (346b) 

CNAY 

two (346b) 

CNooyc 

two. in compound mntchooyc twelve (347a) 





CAANUp 

choy 

C<OH 2 

con 

concn 

cnoToy 

ccup 

coype 

cpoBT 

CpOHpH 

cpqe 

COCIT 

c+u>£e 

C CUT 
C CUT 

CCOTC 

COTBCq 

CCUTM 

CTO 

CTMHT 

CCUTn 

CTCOT 

CTHY 

CHY 

CIOY 

cooy 

coyo 

CIOOYHC 

cooyM, caoyn 


GLOSSARY 237 

to nourish (347b); pronominal caanup-. canup-; 
prcsuflixal canoyup-*, stativc canaopt “(is) 

nourished, well-fed” 
blood (masc.) (348a) 

to bind, put in fetters (348b); prcsuflixal con^-* 

occasion, lime (masc.) (349b) 

to entreat (352b); prcsufTixal cnccon- 

lips, shore, edge (353a) 

to spread, scatter (353b) 

thorn (F : cm.) (354a) 

stativc of cpqe 

to daze, confuse, obscure (356a); prcsullixa! 

cpHpcuM «» 

to be at leisure (357a); stativc cpoBT. epoqT 
“(is) at leisure*’ 

fame, reputation (masc.) (359a) 

*|*- coc it to be famous 
sec c cut 

repeat (with ۥ) (360a) 
a measure of land (360a) in c't'cu^e a small 
measure of tilled land (fern.) (89b) 
to save, redeem (362a); prcsuflixal coot-* 

COT 

tool, weapon (363b) 

coTBcq HMiupe weapon 

to hear, listen (with c-), obey (with nca-) 

(363b); prcsuflixal cotm*« 

see TCTO 

obedient 

to choose, prefer (365a); stativc cott? “(is) 
preferable” 

to tremble (366b) 

(with art.) trembling 

stativc of TCTO, CTO 

time (masc.) (367b) 
star (masc.) (368a) 
six (368b) 

corn, wheat (masc.) (369a) 
bath (369b) 

to know (369b); pronominal coyn-, prcsuflixal 

coyu)N<» 



238 

coynt- 

cioyp 

COOYTN 

ccuoy^ 


ecu up 
ciupe 

ecu ope 
ecu eye 

ccuupT 

CAupq 

ccuqpq 

CAq 

ccucuq 

CHqe 

ecu 2 
coo^e 

c^ai 

CA^NC 


c^OYOpT 

ca^oy 


C2IH0 

co6 

c6Hp 

c6pA2T 


GLOSSARY 

price (possessed) (369h) 
eunuch (371a) 

to stretch, straighten, uphold (37la); presuffixal 
coytcuh**, stativc coytcun “(is) upright, es¬ 
tablished'’ 

to gather, assemble (with cjoyn) (372a): stativc 
cooyz “(is) assembled" 

(with art.) gathering, assembly 

to despise (375a); presuflixal coup - stativc 

chop “(is) despised, despicable" 

to-be, become bitter (376b); stativc CAupe “(is) 

bitter" 

(with art.) bitterness 
to creep, crawl (376b) 
field (fern.) (377a) 
to stop, impede (377b) 
seven (378a) 

to despise (376a); presuflixal coupq** 
yesterday (378b) 

(adv.) NCAq yesterday 

to defile, be impure (378b); stativc cooq “(is) 
defiled, impure" 
sword (fern.) (379a) 
deaf person (379b) 

to remove (380a), reflexive; prcnominal cA 2 e-, 
presuflixal ca^co** 

to write (381b); presuflixal ca^**, c^ai- stativc 
CH2 “(is) written" 

provision, management (masc.) (385b) 
oy€ 2 “CA 2 N€ to bid, instruct 
(with art.) instruction 
stativc of ca^oy 

to curse (387a); prenominal c^oyp-, czoYep-. 
presuflixal c^OYcup- stativc c^oyopt “(is) 
cursed” 

woman, wife (385a); plur. ^lowe 
fool (388a) 

to sail, wander (388b) 
to rest oneself (389b) 


ODODOODOOOCCDOU 



CXBBXTON 

Sabbath (masc.) 

CApa<|>fN 

Seraphim 

CApKIKOC/OH 

of (he flesh 

cxps 

flesh (fem.) 

n*CATiNiC 

Satan 

CKANAAAIZ6 

to cause to stumble, give offence 

CKANAAAON 

offence (masc.) 

CKCLH7TC, CKOnTC 

to joke 

CWMA 

body (masc.) 

CCOHJk.TIKOC/ON 

bodily, of flesh, physical 

n-CCUTHp 

the Saviour 

CO<f>t& 

wisdom (fern.) 

co<f>oc 

wise 

CI1ATAAA 

to lead a wanton life, live Icwcdly 

cnoy^Aze 

to be eager, busy, earnest 

cnoy-AH 

/.cal, earnest, eagerness (fern.) 

CTzypoc 

cross (masc.) 

cy\x 

to strip bare, plunder 

cywArcurH 

assembly, synagogue (fern.) 

cyNHeeiA. 

custom, habit (fem.) 

cyn^icta 

to present oneself 

cyNTeAeiA. 

consummation, end (fem.) 

CyH4>ON€l 

to be in agreement 

c<f>pAnc 

seal (fern.) 

CXHMA 

monk’s habit (masc.) 

PROPER NAMES: 

CA9BATON 

Sabbath 

cxpenTA. 

Sarcpta, Zarcphath (top.) 

cappx 

Sarah 

n*CATANAC 

Satan 

cepKioc 

Sergios 

CH© 

Seth 

CHM 

Shcm 

CIMCUN 

Simon 

ciNoyeioc 

Shenoutc 

COAOHA 

♦ 

Sodom (top.) 

cnoyAAioc 

Spuda i os 





rrrrnrrrccrrr rr 


240 

(il.OSSAKY 

t (TAU) 

t 

to give, cause (392a); pronominal -f- prcsuffixal 
taa**, stativc to “(is) given"; imperative ha. 
*(*- active deriving auxiliary 

TO 

share, pari (fern.) (396a) 
jti- to to share 

TO) CTCL) 

"Mow can you compare ...?" (396b) 

taibc. 

chest (fern.) (397a) 

THHBC 

linger (masc.) (397b) 

TCOCUBC 

to repay, requite (398b) 

(with art.) requital, revenge 

TBA 

ten thousand (399a) 

TBBO 

to purify, hallow (399b); pronominal tbbc-. 
prcsuffixal tbbo*» stativc tbbhy "(is) pure" 
(with art.) purity 

TBNH 

beast, cattle (400b); plur. tbnooyc 

4 

t5t 

fish (401b) 

TCUB^ 

to entreat, pray (402a) 

TAIO, TACIO 

to honour, glorify (390b); pronominal taic-, 
stativc taihoy “(is) honoured" 

TCUK. 

to be firm, strong (403a) 
toik n^iit to take courage 

TAKO 

to destroy; to perish (405a) 

T40KM 

do draw (sword) (406a); stativc tokm “(is) 
drawn" 

TK AC 

pain, disease (masc.) (407a) 

TAAO 

to mount, ascend (408a) 

TCl)/\M 

to defile (410b); stativc to ah “(is) defiled" 

TA'I’AC 

drop (41 lb) 

taaOo 

to heal (411 b) 

TCUM 

to shut (up); to be shut (up) (412b); stativc thh 
“(he) shup up" 

(with art.) obtuscncss 


town, village (414a) (masc.) 

TAHIO 

to create (413a); prcnominal tahic-; stative 
tamihy “(is) created" 

(with art.) creation 

TAMO 

to inform, tell (413b); prcnominal tahc-, pre* 
suffixa! TAMO*- 



GLOSSARY 


241 


TMAIO 

TMMO 

TCUCUHe 

TIOHC 

-TN- 

TOJN 

TCON 

T€NOy 

TOMTH 

TNNOOy 

TN£ 

TAN£0 


TAN^OyT 

Ton 

i*ne 

Tcune 

TAnpo 

THp-* 


Ttupe 


Ttopn 

Tpip 

rppe 

rpponne 

TopTp 

TCO 

TCIO 

TCLBO 


lo justify (415b); stativc tm Amy “(is) Juslilicd" 
to feed, nourish (416a) 

to Ik biting, appropriate (414b); stativc too mg 
“(is) appropriate” 

to bury (416a); prcsuffixal tomc- 
see Ttupe 

quarrel, dispute (418a) 

*t*-TO>N to quarrel, dispute 
(adv.) where? Whence? (417b) 

(adv.) now (485a) 

lo be like, resemble (420a); stativc tntcun “(is) 
like” 

to send (419b) 
wing (masc.) (421a) 

to keep alive, nourish (421a); prcnominal 

TAM^G- 

prcsuflixal tan^o-* 

to trust, entrust (421b); prcsuffixal tan^oyt- 
fold, lap (masc.) (422a) 
taste (fern.) (423a) 

Jti- *fne to get a taste 

to taste (423a); prcnominal Ten- 

mouth (fetn.) (423b) 

all of..., the whole of... (424a) 

nTHpq the All, the Universe 
(adv.) enTHpq at all 

hand (fern.) (425a); possessed tn-/toot# 
6tn-/6toot * (prep.) “to (the hand of...)“ 
ntn-/ntoot«* (prep.) “in the hands of...“ 

2 itn-/ 2 »toot«* (prep.) “by (the hand of...“) 

to seize, rob, plunder (430b) 

(with art.) plunder 

oven (fern.) (431b) 

to tremble (431 b) 

see powne 

to pierce (432b) 

to let drink (434a) 

to satisfy (also reflexive) (434a) 

to teach, enlighten (434b) 

TCAae-eiAT- to enlighten 



242 


GLOSSARY 


TCTO, CTO 

T COT 

TOOT** 

TTO 

THY 

TAIOY 

toy 

TOOY 

T*Y° 

s 

TOOY® 

TOYCO- 

TCOOYN 

TO*YNOC 

TAUJO 

TOY^CO 

Tjucpo 

TCOUJ 

TO>2 

T CO 2 
TA^O 

te® 

©o 

TCJU£M 

tco6c 

t6aio 


to reject, repulse, turn out (436a); presuffixai 
tcto ; stativc (t)cthy “(is) rejected” 
to agree, be content (437b) 

see Tcope 

to cause to give; prcnominal ttc- 

wind (masc.) (439b) 

fifty (440b) 

five (440b) 

hill (masc.) (440b) 

to send, pul forth; to tell (441b) 

shoe (masc.) (443b) 

bosom (possessed) (444b) 

ttct^itoycu- (one’s) neighbour 

to arise, stand up (445a) 

to raise, set up (446b); prcnominal toyncc- 

to increase, multiply (452b) 

to save (448b); prcnominal Toyae-, presuffixai 

to Y-xo ** 

to strengthen, make firm (462b) 
to appoint, determine, ordain (449b) 

(with art.) vocation, ordainment 
chaff (masc.) (453b) 

to mingle, meddle, disturb (453b); presuffixai 
to meet, happen; to make to stand (with epAT**) 

(455a) 

to be, become drunk (456b); stativc ta^c “(is) 
drunk” 

to be spoiled, become bad (457a) 
to call, summon (458b) 
to fix, plant (464a) 

to disgrace, condemn (465b); prcnominal 
t6aic-, presuffixai t6aio*«. stativc (t)6aihy 
“( is) disgraced, condemned” 


taxy, txxh 

TXAXincupoc 

TAM6ION, TAMION 

TA<f>OC 

T6A.CONION 


(adv.) quickly 
miserable person 
inner chamber, private room 
grave (masc.) 
custom-house (masc.^ 


«« Am 






GLOSSARY 


243 


TCXNH 

craft, skill, profession (fcm.) 

TCXNITHC 

artisan, craftsman 

TeXCONHC 

tax-collector 

TIMtUplX 

punishment, retribution (fcm.) 

TOA.MX 

to dare 

Tonoc 

holy place, shrine (masc.) 

TOT6 

(adv.) then 

Tpxnexx 

table (fcm.) 

TpiAC 

trinity 

TeTpixc the Holy Trinity 

TpO(J>H 

nourishment (fcm.) 

typ^nnoc 

tyrant 

PROPER NAMES: 

TI^OM, TA^OJM 

Tahom (fcm. name) 

TXypiNOC 

Taurinus 

TIH0060C 

Timothy 

oy, y (HE): Native oy-, Greek oy- or ^y- 

oyx 

blasphemy (masc.) (468b) 

Jti-oyx to blaspheme 

oyx 

one (masc.) (469a) 

oye 

to be distant, far (470b); stativc oyHy "(is) 
distant" 

(adv.) enoye far 

oyei 

one (fcm.) (469a) 

oyco 

to have already done, finish doing (473b) 

oyco 

to bud, blossom (475a) 

•f- oycu to sprout, begin to blossom 
(with art.) sprouting, blossoming 

oyxxB 

stativc of oyon 

O yHHB 

priest (masc.) (488a) 

oyaxty 

to be, become white (476a) 

(with art.) whiteness 

oyoi, oyoei 

woe (to..., with n-/nx«*) (472b) 

oyoeie 

husbandsman (masc.) (473a) 

oyoetN 

light (masc.) (480a) 

p-oyoeiN to brighten, light up 

oytueuxe 

to flourish, be well off (477a); stativc oyooxe 


"(is) flourishing" 



l J 


244 


glossary 


DyCUM 

oyowq 

oyoM 

oycuN 

oyeiNc 

oyNoy 


oyw- 

OyNTA - 

oyu>n<y 

oywoq 

oyo>N2 


oyon 

oypoT 

oyepHTe 

oyoei<y 

oyoxy 


oy o)u 
oyct nyi 

oycoq^T 

oycucyq 

oyo>2 


oyo)2M 


OY29r<.u 



*oyxAi 



to cat (478a); pronominal oyen- 
mangcr (niasc.) 

(any)thing/(any) one, (somc)thing/(somc)onc 

(482a) 

to open (482b); slativc oynw “(is) opcn(cd)“ 
to pass by, lapse (483b) 
hour (fetu.) (484a); with definite article 
(adv.) T€Moy now 

“there is", statement of existence (481a) 

“(he) has", possession verboid (481a); prcnominal 

oyHTe- 

wolf (masc.) (485b) 
to rejoice (485b) 

(with art,) joy, gladness 
(with cboa) to make appear, manifest, show 
(also reflexive); to appear (486a); presuflixal 
oyoH 2 «*, stative oyoN2 “(is) manifest, apparent" 
to be, become pure, holy (487a); stative oyAAB 
“(is) holy” 

to be glad, eager (490a); stative pooyT “(is) 
glad” (with art.) gladness, eagerness, zeal 
foot (fern.) (491a) 
time (masc.) (499a) 

to wish, desire, love (500a); prcnominal oyecy-, 

presuflixal oyAqj- 

(with art.) wish, will, desire 

night (fern.) (502a); with definite art. Teoy<yn; 

plur. oytyooye 

to answer (502a) 

(with n-/na«») to worship (504a) 
to crush; to be crushed, worn down (505a) 
to add (with €-/€toot.*), lay; to stay, dwell, be 
settled; to follow (with nca-) (505a); prcnominal 

°Y € 2*i presuflixal oyA2-*, stative oyH2 “(is) 
settled, dwells, follows" 
to repeat, answer, do again (509a) 

(adv.) Noy<U2M again 

dog (510a); with definite art. neoy 2 op; plur. 

,/oy200p 

toibe safe, sound (511 b); stative oyoac “(is) 
safe" " — •— 


GLOSSARY 


245 


oyo6e 


^ **» < ^ i%V » r ^ A V • »■■ 

oy MOHON 

Zy\H 

^ynipxoHTi 

Synoxpicic 

2ynoHeiNe 

jyiTOHOMH 

^ynofTTeye 

^ynoTArM 

oycix 


check, jaw (512a) 
oycri-po doorposl (masc.) 


(adv.) not only 
matter, stuff (fern.) 

(plur.) possessions 
pretence 

to suffer, endure, submit 
endurance, submission (fern.) 
to suspect 

submission, submissivcncss (fern.) 
essence (fern.) 


4>AN€pON 

4>antxcia 

<f> ApICAIOC 

4>eoNei 

4>OONOC 

4>opei 

4 >ycic 

4 >conh 


<f> (PHI) (no Egyptian lexemes) 

(adv.) evidently, obviously 
fantasy (fern.) 

Pharisee 

to envy, begrudge 
envy (masc.) 
to carry 
nature (fern.) 
voice (fern.) 


PROPER NAMES: 

4>.*noyha Phcnuci 

<t>xpxu> Pharao 


x (KHI) (no Egyptian lexemes) 


XApIC 

XHpx 

xpeix, xpix 


grace (fcin.) 

widow (fern.) 
need, exigency (fern.) 
p- xpeix to be in need 
xpHMx property (plur.) 

xpncToc, xpicToc good, kind 

XpiCTIANOC, XpHCTIXNOC, XpeiCTIXNOC 


xc in nexc = nexpicToc Christ 


t, 

** r i 



N ^ 


4^ 


Christian 






246 


GLOSSARY 


xcupx country, land, region (fcin.) 

xcupic (prep.) without, apart from 

PROPER NAMES: 

xoccopoic Chossoroas (a high official) 

xpHCinnoc Chresippus 

y (PSI) (no Egyptian lexemes) 

4'XA.xei to sing, recite hymns 

4'AATHpiON psalter (masc.) 

'| / yxH soul (fetn.) 


CDBUJ 

conic 

CO MC 

CONC 

COM2 

con 

cup 5 
co pic 

cup 3c 

cucic 

coop 


coqpH 

coqT 

co^e 

cu£c 


co (O * O MEGA) 

to forget, overlook (518b) 

to swallow (523a); prcsuflixal omk- 

to be sunk, drown (523a); prcsulTixai omc- 

stone. (524a) (masc.) 

to live (525a); stativc on? “(is) alive” 

to count, count as, consider (526a); prcnominal 

en-, prcsuflixal on-, stativc Hn “(is) numbered, 

counted, considered” 

to enclose, shut in, set apart; to be enclosed, be 
apart, secluded (528a) 
to swear (529a) 

to be firm, be confirmed, real (530a) 

(with art.) firmness, assurance, reality 
to delay (530a) 

to read (out), call (out) (533a); prcnominal eqp-, 
xcy-, presuffixal oqp- 
xup- to sigh 
AUp-KXK to shout 

to quench; to be quenched, extinguished (with 
6box) (535a) 

to fix, nail (536a); stativc oqT “(is) fixed, nailed” 
(with epxT-) x^epxT- to stand (up) (536a) 
to reap, harvest (538b); prcsuflixal oje- 



GLOSSARY 


247 


CUXN 

to expire, lapse, cease (539a) 

a><t>€A.ei* 

use, advantage, benefit (fern.) 

PROPER NAMES: 

^tupireMHc 

Origenc 

<AK €<y* 

q p (SHAI) 

to be able to (541a) 


to shine, rise (of the sun) (542b) 


festival (masc.) (543a) 

<yi 

p-upA to celebrate 

nose (masc.) (543b); possessed up ant- 

upe 

to go (544a); stativc ma “(is) going** 

<JPC 

up upe it behoves, it is befitting 
upeN^ACie to be drowned 
wood (masc.) (546a) 

ape 

a hundred (546b) 

<AM 

to measure (547b) 

upiae 

(with art.) measure 

to change; to be changed, to difTcr <551a); slative 

uplBeicu 

q)o bc “(is) different'* 
repayment, exchange (fern.) (552b) 

upBHp 

friend, mate (masc.) (553a); plur. up Beep; fern. 

<yu>B2 

upeeepe 

upBp- co- (or -mate), in compounds 

to be scorched (554a); stativc upos? “(is) scor¬ 

<pKAK 

ched" 

cry, shout (556a) 

cycoA 

AcyKAK to cry out. shout (coup) 
to plunder (557b); presuffixa! upOA- 

a; AHA 

to pray (559a) 

UpeA€€T 

bride (fern.) (560b) 

cyAoq 

MANUp€A.eeT wedding 
disgrace (masc.) (561 b) 

<yHM 

small person, amount: small (563a) 

a; cum 

summer (masc.) (564b) 

q)MMO 

strange person, stranger (565b) 


nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn 


248 

<y MMU) 

ty OMT, 90 MNT 

upnupe 
ty hn 

up me 

tytuNe 


up ant ^ 

CyONTG 

ty no ty 
ty tun 


cyirie 


ty tune 


upmtpe 

cyAAp 

cyAipe 

tyupe 

tyeepe 

ty cupn 

<yopn, cypn-w- 

« 

cyopcyp 

tytuc 

<ycNe 

qpTopTp 


GLOSSARY 


stranger (fcm.) 
three (566b) 

(fcm.) <yoMT€ 

to serve, worship (567a) 
tree (masc.) (568b) 

to ask, inquire, seek (with nca-) (569a) 
to be, become ill (570b) 

(with art.) disease 

cyAN-^TM*-, tyeN-^TH-. upN-^TH- (to be) ill 

at heart, pitying 

see up a nose 

thorn (fcm.) (573a) 

to stink (573b) 

to receive, accept (574b); pronominal upn- tyen-, 

prcsufTixal tyon-, stativc tynn “(is) ac¬ 
ceptable” 

to be ashamed (576b) 

(with art.) shame 
*t*-up me to pul to shame 
to happen, lake place; to become, come into 
existence (577b); stativc upoon “(is) in ex¬ 
istence” 

wonder, cause for .amazement (fcm.) (581 a) 
to strike (583b) 
shcepfold (fcm.) (584a) 
son (masc.) (584a) 

upHpe ty hm child, son 

daughter (fcm.) (584a) 

tyeepe ty hm child, girl 

to be early; to do as first, do first (586a) 

(with art.) dawn, early morning 
first (587a) 

(adv.) Ntyopn, ty op n at first 

puppTTN- to do first, early 

to wreck, destroy (589a); pronominal uppupp-, 

presuflixa! upp up cop - 

shepherd (masc.) (589b) 

in (adv.) ^NoyupCNe suddenly (589b) 

to trouble; to be troubled (597b); stative 

<y t(*t cup “(is) troubled” — 

(with art.) trouble 



nnnnnnnnririnririririri 


GLOSSARY 



UJCOCUT 


CyTGKO 
<y CUTM 

UJTAM 

C9AY 

qjooye 

<yoyo 

<y tucy 

ujoyajoy 

tycuq 


<y ^qTg___ 

^ * ~ 

ajxxe 

cycucujce, <yu>jce 
cyojcNe 


tydnOoM 


to cut, kill, sacrifice; to deprive; lo be deprived, 
lack (590a); slativc ojaat “(is) deprived, lacking” 
(with art.) cutting 

(adv.) zNoyqjttKOT eeoA decisively 
prison (masc.) (595b); plur. cyTeKcuoy 
to shut (595b); presuffixal <yoTH-. stative 
«yoTM “(is) shut” 

to shut up; lo be shut up (with e-/epo*», 

epeu •*) (596a) 

worth, value (masc.) (599a) 

to be, become dry (601b) 

to flow; to empty; to be empty (602a); stative 

<yoygtT “(is) empty” 

to scatter; to be scattered (605b) 

(with art.) scattering 

(reflexive) to pride oneself, boast (604a) 

(with art.) pride 

to lay waste; to be laid waste (609b) 

(with art.) l aying w aste 
jmpious, iniquitous person (61 lb) 
to speak, talk (612a) 

(with art.) word(s), speech 
to wrestle, struggle (615a) 
to counsel; to take counsel (615b) 

(with art.) counsel 

.xi- ujojcng to lake, receive counsel 
to be able, see 6 om 


PROPER NAMES: 
ujeNoyTe Shenoute 



qNT, BNT 

qcoTG 

qTOoy 


q (FAI) 

« 

to carry, take (620a); prenominal qi-, presuffixal 
qir- 

qi €£pAi to raise 
(with art.) raising 
worm (623b) 

to wipe out (624a); prenominal qe*r-. presuffixal 

qoT^ 

four (625a) 





250 


2*6 

2AM 

2G 

2e, €2€ 

2G 


2« 

Z» 

2«h 

20 

2tu 

... 20)0)- 

2 cuo 


2®* 

20cu. 

eeoyp 

2 HBC 

2 cu B c 

2 BOOC 

2 BCO) 

2BMye 

2AI 

2** 

2 HK€ 

2*0 

2 AA. 

2<^A 

2 CUA 

200AG 


GLOSSARY 


2 (MORI) 


last (occasion) 
end (fern.) 
to fall (637a) 

"yes” (64b) 

manner, way (fern.) (638b) 

nog, kataog as, like ("in the manner of.../ 


that...") 

(adv.) nt€I 2 G thus, in this manner 




* 


) 


belly, inner part (642b); possessed 2 ht*» 
forepart, front (fern.) (640b) 

(adv.) 2 ash before 

way, road (fern.) (646a); plur. 2 'ooye 
face (masc.) (646b) 

xi-z° 10 be prejudiced in favour, to be partial 
to sufiice (651a) 

rcinforccr: "... for (his) part", "... he too"; 
(651b), 1st sgl. 2<JU» 2 tJUtUT ’ 2nd sgl. fern. 

2 cu to t c. 

work, deed, affair, thing (abstract) (masc.) 
(653a); plur. 2 BHye 

p-2tuB to work 


embarassment. misfortune (masc.) (656a) 
see 20 q 

left hand, left side (656b) 
lamp (masc.) (658a) 

to cover (with cjcn-) (658a); prcnominal 26 bc- 
clolhcs, garment, linen (659b); plural 2 bojcuc 
garment (fern.) (660a) 
plur. of 2 <ob 
husband (masc.) (636b) 

\ * • mild, sober person (66()a) 
poor person (664a) 

to hunger (663b); stativc 2 *agit "(is) hungry 
in p- 2 AA to deceive, beguile (664b) 
to fly (665b); stativc 2 ha "(is) flying" 
to throw (666b); prcnominal 2 €a- 
moth (667a) 



GLOSS A R V 


251 


2A.A.O 

2AA.CL) 

2A.OOA.C 

2-AA.HT 

2*06 


2 CUM 
2*MOI 
2IOMG 
2HG- 

2HOY 

2HH€ 

2MH6 
2HOOC 
20HT, ^OMNT 
2HOT 

2H2*A 

2oyN 

2 CUN 

2 CUN 
2>NHB 

2NA 62na - 

2NO, 2NAA-Y 

2Jcn 

2 cun 


2pe 

2pe 

2p*i. 2pe 


2P*« 


old man, old person (669b); plur. 2 ^aoi 
old woman 
to nurse child (669a) 

fowl (masc.) (671a); plur. 2 ****tg. 2 ** ATe 
to be. become sweet (673a); stativc 2 oa5 “(is) 
sweet'' 

(with art.) sweetness 
to tread, trample (674b) 

“Would that...!" (wish) (675a) 
plur. of C 2 »mg 

forty (676a) 

2 MG(yoMTe forty-three 

salt (masc.) (676b) 

heat, fever, heat (fern.) (677b) 

in p* 2 mmg to steer, guide (677b) 

to sit, sit down (with C2PAi). dwell (679a) 

copper, money (678a) 

grace, gift (masc.) (681a) 

u^ri-^MOT ntn-/ntoot*< to thank 

slave, servant (665a) 
inside part (685a) 

(adv.) G 2 oyN inside, in 

to draw near (with G 2 oyn) (687a); stativc 2 »n 
“( is) near” 

to bid, enjoin (with ctn-/gtoot-) (688a) 
to doze, sleep (691a) 

“(is) willing'* (690a); pronominal (c)2ng- 
P- 2 NA** to be willing 
vessel, object, thing (concrete) (692b) 
law, judgement, sentence (masc.) (693b) 
to hide (695a); pronominal 2 en *- presullixal 

2 on-, stativc 2 nn “(is) hidden'* 

(with art.) hiding 

food (fern.) (701a) * 

sec 2P*‘ 

upper part (masc.) (698a) 

(adv.) G2P*i up 
(adv.) HT72pe above 
lower part (700a) 

(adv.) €2P*i down 



nnnnnnnnnnnnnn 


252 


GLOSSARY 


2PB 


epoK 

2 pooy 




2ACI6 


e» 



2*T 

'/HT 


?ht 


2>€IT 
2 CUT 

20TG 


20C1TG 

2<OTB 


2cum 

2TH- 

2 TO 

2TOMTM 

2CDTp 

2Top 

2Tci)cup 

20T2T, z OT Z er 

2HY 


2 iooyc 

2 ooy 


2ooy 


2cuoy 


form, likeness (masc.) (701b) 
jc»* 2P® to take form 
to be still; to cease (702b) 
voice (masc.) (704b); possess* 

2pooY€ 


, plur 





jci- 2P^- to raise one s voice 
to be, become heavy, difficult, severe (706a); 
stalivc 2<>pcy “(is) heavy, difficult, severe 
2 *pq>- 2 HT long-suffering person 


with €-) (707b) 


in q?€N2*cie to be drowned (710a) 
to toil, trouble (710a) 

(with art.) toil, suffering 

silver (masc.) (713b) 
heart (masc.) (714a); possessed 2 *th 
aoht stupid, pMN 2 HT clever 
sec 2 ” 
pit (718a) 

in p* 2 cut to sail (718b) 
fear (fern.) (720b) 

p- 20 T€ to fear 

clothes, garment (fern.) (720b) 

to murder (723b); prcnoininal 2 ctb-, presufTixal 

4 ‘ 

20TB- 

to be reconciled (724b) 
sec 2 «t heart 

horse (masc.) (723a); plur. 2 Tcuu>p 

to be dulled, darkened (724a) 

to be joined (726a); stalivc 2 ot|» “(is) joined" 

necessity, compulsion (masc.) (726b) 

sec 2 to 

to inquire, examine (728a) 
profit (masc.) (729a) 

•f-2HY to profit 


see 


(masc 


(adv.) Mnooy today 
(stativc) “(is) bad, evil" (731a) 

neeooy (noun) evil, (“that which is evil") 

to rain (732a) __ 

(with art.) rain 



GLOSSARY 


253 


Z*oye 

%oyo 

^oyeiTe 

^ooyT 

Z<va) 

2°q 

z*z 


2 oyMne rain (compound with ne sky) 
to cast, strike (732b); pronominal £i-, presullixal 

2»t- 

excess, surplus (masc.) (735a) 

(adv.) M£oyo more, rather 
p^oye- to do more, rather 
beginning, first occasion (fern.) (738a) 
male, man (738b) 

to be in destress (740a); stalivc “(is) in 

distress" 

snake(740b) 

(fern.) z*vb 
many, much (741b) 


For words of Greek origin beginning with z< sec under the second 
letter. 


PROPER NAMES: 


gcopireNHc 

Origene 

2p<xaaei 

Rabbi (title) 

2P6B6KKA 

Rebecca 



jc (DJANDJA) 

XH 

vanity, emptiness (747b) 

en.xiN.xH for no reason 


njun.xh in vain 

xt 

to take, receive (747b); prenominal oti-, prcsullixal 
jut- jun6onc violence (6 onc) 


jcinjch see jch 

xo 

to sow. send forth (752a) 

xw 

to say (754a); prenominal ace-, ju-, presuflixal 
jcoo-; jcooc “to say (it)" 
jct-oyA to blaspheme 
aci-doA to lie 

xiv - 

(possessed) head (756a) 

ataaec 

coal (760a) 

xxie 

desert (masc.) (745b) 

jLoei, atoi 

ship, boat (masc.) (754a) 



254 


G LOSS A R Y 


OCCUR 


OCCUKM 

ocooA.ec 

OCAMH 

occucuMe 

OCGNA 

ocNoy 

ocnooy 

0CNA2 

OCINOCH 

ocnio 

ocno 

occup 

ocepo 

occucupe 

occucupe 
ocpo, 6po 

OCCUpM 

ocpon, 6porr 


ocoetc 

ocice 


ocoeiT 

OCCUTG 

ocioye 


ocooy 


(with e bo a.) to complete, accomplish; to be 

completed, perfect (761a); prenominal ocek-, 

stative .xhk “(is) accomplished, perfect” 

to wash (763a) 

moth (fcm.) (769a) 

calm (fern.) (770a) 

book (masc.) (770a) 

to be quenched, die out (774a) 

ask (774b); prenominal ocng-, presuffixal 

ocNoy «* 

threshing-floor, barn (masc.) (776b) 
forearm, force (777a) 
see och 

to blame, reproach (778b) 

to cause to exist, beget (778b); presuffixal ocno «• 

to sharpen, whet (781a) 

(with art.) sharpness, edge 
to light, kindle fire (781b); prenominal ocepe- 
(with gboa) to scatter, disperse (782a); presuffixal 
ocoop 

strong, brave person (784b) 

(with e-) to be stronger, overcome, vanquish 

(783a) : 

to beckon, signal (785b) 

obstacle, hindrance (masc.) (786b) 

ka- ocpon, 'f-ocpon to put an obstacle (before 

4 

* 

someone) 

lord, master (787b) 
nocoeic the Lord 

to raise, exalt; to be, become tall, high (788b); 
stative ococe “(is) high, exalted” 

(with art.) high part, height 
(adv.) enocice high 
ocaci^ht arrogant 
olive tree, olive fruit (790b) 
to pierce, traverse, enter (791b) 
to steal (793b) 

(with art.) stealth 
(adv.) Hocioye stealthily 
to send forth, dispatch (793a)— 



GLOSSARY 


255 


xa>z 

to touch (797a) 

•XCU^M 

to defile; to be defiled (797b); stative jca 2 m “(is) 
defiled” 

(with art.) defilement, impurity 

jc AJte 

enemy (799b) 

6 (CHIMA) 

6cu 

to stay, remain, persist (803a) 

6 CUB 

feeble, weak person (805b) 

<5ai€ 

ugly, disfigured person (466a) 

6oa. 

lie, falsehood; lier (806b) 
aci- do*. to lie 

6x\e 

cripple, lame person (807b) 

6oeiA.e, 6 oia.€ 

to dwell, sojourn (807b) 

6\o6 

bed (masc.) (815a) 

6om 

power, potency, capability (fern.) (815b) 
oyN- 6om/mn-6om ‘‘it is possible’V“it is impos¬ 
sible” 

at6om impossible 

(uj)6m6om 

to be able, find the power (6 me) 

6 CUM 

vineyard, garden (817b) 

6A.MOYA. 

camel (818b) 

6ing 

to find (820a); prenominal 6n-, presuffixal 6nt- 

6onc 

violence, wrongdoing in jcin6onc to do wrong, 
do violence (822a) 

6 CUNT 

to rage, be furious (822b); stative 6ont ‘‘(is) 
raging” 

(with art.) rage 

derm 

to make haste, hurry (825a) 

(with art.) hurry 
(adv.) 2 Noy<j 6 tth quickly 

dome 

to catch (825b); prenominal derr-, presuffixal 
don- 

dpo 

see aepo 

depcus 

rod, stick (828a) 

6poMne 

pigeon (828a); plur. 6pooMne 

dpon 

see A.pon 

deprid 

hunter (masc.) (83la) 



256 

6tup<5 

6po6 

6fwz 

6ocm 

6ot 

bcucyT 

6oz6% 

6ijc 

bcojci 


GLOSSARY 

(with e-) to waylay (830a); stativc 6op6 “(is) in 

ambush, is lurking” 

seed, sprouting of seed (masc.) (831b) 

to be in want, be needy (829b) 

(with art.) need 
darkness (masc.) (832b) 
size, form (833a) 

to look; to expect, wait for (with esox 2 HT * - ) 
(837) 

to gnash (teeth) 

(with art.) gnashing 

hand (fern.) (839b) 

to be less; to be humble (841b); stative <5ojcb 
“(is) humble” 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


A. ABBREVIATED BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES 

COPTIC SOURCE REFERENCES 

III, IV J. Leipoldt, Sinuthii Archimandritae Vita et Opera Omnia, vols. 

Ill & IV (Paris 1908-1913). 

A I, AII E. A.melineau, Oeuvres de Schenoudi, vols I & II (Paris 1907- 

1914). 

BKU Aegyptische Urkunden aus den koenigl. Museen zu Berlin: Koptische 

Urkunden (Berlin, 1904). 

BM British Museum (British Library) Oriental MSS (unpubl.). 

BM Cat. W.E. Crum, Catalogue of the Coptic MSS in the British Museum, 

(London 1905). 

V 

Cat. L.-Th. Lefort, “Catechese christologique de Chenoute”, ZAeS 80 

(1955) 40-45. 

Ch. E. ChaSSINat, Le quatrieme livre des entretiens et epitres de 

Shenouti (Cairo 1911). 

Cl. Pr. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Clarendon Press MSS (unpubl.). 

Diet. W.E. Crum, Coptic Dictionary (Oxford 1939). 

E A. Shisha-Halevy, “Unpublished Shenoutiana in the British 

Library”, Enchoria 5:53-108. 

IF Cairo, Institut Frangais d’ArcheoIogie Orientale, unpubl. codex. 

Jel. A. I. Jelanskaja, “Fragment s’otryvkom iz socinenija Senute”, 

in: Pigulevskaja Volume (Moscow 1967) 48-51. 

K Vienna, Nationalbibiiothek, unpubl. Coptic MSS 

Leyd. Pleyte-Boeser, Manuscrits copies du Musee d’antiquites des Pays- 

, Bas a Leide (Leiden 1897). 

■ 

Ming. G.L. Mingarelli, Aegvptiorum codicum religuiae... (Bologna 

1785) 

Miss. E. Am£lineaU, Monuments pour servir a I’histoire de iEgypte 

chretienne... (Mem. Miss. Archeol. Fran^aise 4/1, Paris 1888) 
277-287. 

Mun. H. Munier, Manuscrits copies (Cairo 1916) 

Or. A. Shisha-Halevy, “Two New Shenoute Texts from the British 

Library”, Orientalia 44 (1975) 149-185. 

Qrig. T. Orlandi,* SAemi/e contra Origenistas (Rome 1986) 

P Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds copte (unpubl. MSS) 

RE 10, RE 11 H. Guerin, “Sermon inedits de Senouti”, Revue fcgyptologique 

10 (1902) 148-164 and 11 (1904) 15-34. 

Rossi I. Rossi, / papiri copti del Museo egizio di Torino (Turin, 1887- 

1892) 

Wess. 9, Wess. 18 C. Wessely, Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde 

IX (Leipzig 1909) and XVIII (Leipzig 1917) 



258 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 


Young D.W. Young, “A Monastic Invective against Egyptian Hiero¬ 
glyphs”, in: Studies Presented to Hans Jakob Polotsky (ed. D.W. 
Young, Beacon Hill 1981) 348-360 

Z G. Zoega, Catalogus codicum copticorum . manuscriptorum ... 

(Rome 1810) 


B. REFERENCES TO GRAMMATICAL DISCUSSIONS 

Funk, “Qualitativ”: W.P. Funk, “Zur Syntax des koptischen Qualitativs”, AeZ 

104 (1977) 25-39. 

Lambdin : Th. O. Lambdin, Introduction to Sahidic Coptic , Macon 1983. 

■ 

Layton, “Compound Prepositions”: B. Layton, “Compound Prepositions in 
Sahidic Coptic”, in: Studies Presented to Hans Jakob Polotsky , ed. D.W. 
Young, Beacon Hill 1981, 239-268. 

Polotsky, Collected Papers: H.J. Polotsky, Collected Papers, Jerusalem 1971. 
Polotsky, “Conjugation System”: H.J. Polotsky, “The Coptic Conjugation 

System”, Orientalia 29 (1960) 392-422 (= Collected Papers, 238-268) 
Polotsky, Etudes: H.J. Polotsky, Etudes de syntaxe copte, Cairo 1944 ( = 

Collected Papers, 102-207). 

Polotsky, Kausativer Infinitiv: H.J. Polotsky, Der kausative Infinitiv und die 

kausativen Konjugationen, Part III of Polotsky, Crundlagen des koptischen 
Satzbaues, 1988. 

Polotsky, “Modes”: H.J. Polotsky, “Modes grecs en copte?”, in: Coptic 

Studies in Honor of W.E. Crum, Boston 1950, 73-90 (= Collected Papers, 
208-225). 

Polotsky,. Nominalsatz: H.J. Polotsky, Grundzuege des koptischen Nominalsat- 

zes. Part I of Polotsky, Grundlagen. 

Polotsky, “Nominalsatz und Cleft Sentence”: H.J. Polotsky, “Nominalsatz 

und Cleft Sentence im Koptischen”, Orientalia 31 (1962) 413-430 (= 
Collected Papers, 418-435). 

Polotsky, Nom. Transposition : H.J. Polotsky, Grundzuege der nominalen Trans¬ 
position im Koptischen , Part II of Polotsky, Grundlagen. 

Polotsky, Rev. Till: H.J. Polotsky, Review of Till, Koptische Grammatik. OLZ 

52 (1957) 219-234 (= Collected Papers, 223-233). 

Quecke, “Relativsatz”: H. Quecke, “Zum substantivischen Relativsatz im 

Koptischen”, in: Acts of the Second International Congress of Coptic 
Studies, Rome 1985, 261-281. 

Shisha-Halevy : A. Shisha-Halevy, Coptic Grammatical Categories: Structural 

Studies in the Syntax of Shenoutean Sahidic, Rome 1986. 

Shisha-Halevy, “Discovery Procedure”: A. Shisha-Halevy, “Grammatical 

Discovery Procedure and the Egyptian-Coptic Nominal Sentence”. Orien¬ 
talia 56 (1987) 147-175. 

Shisha-Halevy, “Existential Statements”: A. Shisha-Halevy, “Existential State- 

i * 

ments in the Sahidic New Testament: Work Notes”, Goettinger Miszellen 
77 (1984) 67-79. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 259 

Shisha-Halevy, “Patterns”: A. Shisha-Halevy, “Notes on Some Coptic Nominal 

Sentence Patterns”, in: Studien zur Sprache und Religion Aegyptens l 
(Westendorf Festschrift), Goettingen 1984, 175-189. 

Steindorff: G. Steindorff, Lehrbuch der koptischen Grammatik, Chicago 1951. 

Stern: L. Stem, Koptische Grammatik , Leipzig 1880. 

Till: W. Till, Koptische Grammatik: saidischer Dialekt 2 , Berlin 1961 

Vergote: J. Vergote. Grammaire copte Ha: Morphologie syntagmatique, syn- 

taxe (par tie synchronique), Louvain 1983. 

Wilson: M. Wilson. Coptic Future Tenses, The Hague-Paris 1970. 

Young, “£fope”: D.W. Young, “ ESope and the Conditional Conjugation", 

yjV£S 21 (1962) 175-185. 

Young, “Present I": D.W. Young, “On Shenoute’s Use of Present I", JNES 20 

(1961) 115-119. 

Young, “Unfulfilled Conditions”: D.W. Young, “Unfulfilled Conditions in 

Shenoute’s Dialect”, JAOS 89 (1969) 399-407. 



INDEX TO GRAMMATICAL TERMS OCCURRING IN THE 

TEXTUAL NOTES 


(The index is selective and refers mostly to phenomena not especially illustrated 
in the Chrestomathy. References are to pages). 


article see "'determination of nouns’ 1 
assimilation 4, 15 
augens, see “reinforcer” 

auxiliary verbs 5, 13, 17, 34, 35, 55, 
S8,91 

backgrounding 36, 38 
bracketing 14 

compound verb 35, 49, 55, 131 
descriptive verbs 12, 91 
determination of noun 7, 8, 9, 10, 
17, 19, 22, 23, 26, 29, 31,46, 74, 93, 
96, 98, 100, 114, 154 
direct object 22, 25, 68, 73, 74, 77, 
9 Iff., 131 

feminine pronoun for neuter see “neu¬ 
ter” 

“figura Sinuthiana” 125 
gender 19, 24, 28 

glossing, hermeneutical 23,24, 30, 124 
impersonal 51; see “neuter” 
inalienable possession 6, 30, 63, 97 
juncture see “prosody” 
laryngal consonant 55, 78 
letter-/narrative opening role of the 
Cleft Sentence 52, 127 
lexeme premodifier 58, 88, 93, 139 
“manner”: “in the manner of’, “like” 
(etc.) 21,34 

negation 12, 15, 24, 27, 42, 77, 78, 
91, 130, 142, 163 


neuter 14, 38f., 51, 53, 67, 102, 114, 
139, 144 
nucleus 23 

object construction 12, 74, 91, see 
“direct object” 

passive voice 30, 37, 91, 92 
predicate 24, 25, 28 
prenominal form (“construct state”) 
of infinitive 52, 93 
prosody 19, 22, 37, 86, 96 
reflexive mode of action 53 
reinforcer 5, 6, 9, 11, 16, 34, 36, 37, 
55, 78 

resumption 22, 24, 26, 59, 68, 74, 
114, 124, 127, 155 

rhetorical question 16, 20, 27. 44, 
63, 64, 75, 77, 85, 89, 115, 152 
syllabic nasal 87 
“tautological infinitive” 60 

“that” form 146 ff. 
theme 81, 86 

topic, topicalization 80, 88, 100 
transitive/intransitive verb 35, 9Iff. 
“vocative” 4,28, 53,69 
zero morpheme (pronoun) 6, 34, 39, 
44, 55, 77, 96 
zero object 59 

zeroing 6, 35, 36, 37, 51, 85, 87 



TERMINOLOGICAL GLOSSARY AND CORRESPONDENCE LIST 


German and French conventional equivalents are suggested only for 
such terms as are not simply and unambiguously transposable from 
English (as are e.g. “adverb”, “theme”, “intransitive”). Equivalence is 
often approximate; so are definitions and explanations given, which are 
practically conceived and often valid only for the application of the 
term in Coptic. 

The user is referred to current reliable linguistic terminological 
dictionaries, such as: (English:) Hartmann & Stork (London, 1972); 
Crystal, Oxford 1985 (2nd edition); (German:) Abraham, Tubingen 
1974; Lewandowsky, Heidelberg 1976 (2nd edition); Stammeijohann, 
Miinchen 1974; (French:) Marouzeau, Paris 1951; Mounin, Paris 1974 
(also Dictionnaire Larousse de la linguistique , Paris 1973). 


abstract noun (Abstraktum; nom abstrait): a noun referring to a notion 

or non-material concept (“happiness”, “falsehood”, “truth”, 
“coming” as in “the coming of the Normans”). 

actor (Agens; agent): the noun or pronoun expressing the carrier-out of 

an active action, or the undergoer of a passive action, or the one 

•» 

who is in a state (“grammatical subject”: John in “John hit the 
ball” or “John was hurt” or “John is happy”). 

adjective: a class of words typically qualifying nouns (“red”, “old” in 

“the old woman’s red shawl”). 

“Adjective Verbs” (Copt.) (“Eigenschaftsverba”; “verbes adjectifs”, 
“(quasi-) verbes de qualite”): a closed set of special synthetic 
conjugation forms with a suffixed theme, predicating quality (“... is 
good”, “...is fair”, “...is numerous” etc.). 


adjunct: an optional or secondary element in a construction, typically 

extending or qualifying the meaning of another; it is not a main 


structural element; approx. 


modifier, satellite, expansion 


(“good” in “the good soldier”, “quickly” in “He moved quickly”, 
“tomorrow” in “Come and see me tomorrow”). 


adnexal: a verb form attaching a rhematic element to a clause or phrase 

(“gone” in “I found him gone”; “cry” in “Listen to him cry!”; “he 
being...” in “I forgave him. he being my brother”; “hot” in “some 
like it hot”). 



262 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


adnominal: expanding or modifying a noun or pronoun (“yellow’' in “a 

yellow book”, “charming” in “this charming lady”, “flowing” in 
“the river, flowing North, meets the lake”, “who...” and “whom...” 
in “She, who is standing there, is my sister”, “John, whom 1 have 
known for a long time, came to dinner”, “that...” in “all that 
glitters”). 


adverb: an element typically qualifying or specifying a clause, an 

action, state or quality (“quickly”, “well”, “on the table”, “in 
fact”, “still”, “sadly”, “very”). 


adverbal: expanding a verb form or a clause. 

adverb(ial) phrase (Adverbialsyntagma [adverbielle Bestimmung]; syn- 

tagme adverbial [complement circonstanciel]): a syntagm in the 
role of an adverb; often a prepositional phrase (“at all”, “on the 
wall”, “for whom?” “like a fly”). 

affective: characterized by a marked emotional attitude. 

Akhmimicism: a feature peculiar to the Akhmimic dialect of Coptic. 

4 

alternation, alternant: interchange of elements regulated (conditioned) 

by an isolable environmental factor (examples: t/d as pronounced 
forms of the past simple mark after English verbs: [kist], [lovd]; t/d 
as pronounced final/non-final base termination in German: [das 
rat] “wheel”, gen. [des radesj; zero and [z] as pronounced alter¬ 
nants of final -s in French les : [le livre] (plur.), [lezami]). 

anaphora, see resumption. 

antecedent (Beziehungswort; antecedent): the nominal or pronominal 

nucleus of a relative clause (“the man” in “the man who came to 
dinner”, “you” in “you who are my friend”). 

aorist (Copt.): a special conjugation form expressing general, natural or 

habitual action. 


apodosis: the result or consequence (follow-up) constituent of a con¬ 
ditional sentence (the second clause of “If you come tomorrow, I 
shall show you the book”). 

apposition: a type of phrase in which the nucleus is a proper name, 

noun or pronoun and the expansion another noun or pronoun, 
with no intermediating linking mark (“John, my friend”, “I, the 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


263 


miserable”, “my friend the General” “New York, this immense 
beehive”). 


article (also “determinator”): a pronominal grammatical element 

attached to the noun and characterizing it for its degree of defini¬ 
tion (“a”, “some”, “another”, “this”, “the”, “any”; also zero , as 
in “fighting disease ”, “the origins of man”). 


asyndetic: not bound by formal means (other then zero) (“I remained 

standing — I couldn’t find a chair”). 


attributive(ly) (attributiv; epithete): the role of a modifier or descriptive 

expansion of a noun (“good” in “the good soldier”). 

augens: see reinforcer. 

auxiliary verb (Hilfsverb; verbe auxiliaire): a lexically empty (or rela¬ 
tively empty) verb carrying out the grammatical functions in 
syntagm with a more or less invariable lexeme (“have” in “I have 
come”, “make” in “make love”, “did” in “He did not come”). 

base (Copt.): a prefixed'morpheme in certain verbal clause patterns, 
characterizing the action for tense and in some cases also for 
affirmative or negative. 

•4 

(to) bracket, bracketing (Klammerdarstellung): the analytical schematic 
presentation of the reference or application of an element to several 
following ones on (which are presented as being a different analytical 
rank). (“The [cats and dogs]”, “[cats’-and-dog’s] meat”, “[old book] 
seller”, “She is [alive and well]”). 


category, grammatical: the notion(s) expressed by a paradigm (e.g. 

“person”, “number”, “determination”, “tense”). 

causal clause (Kausalsatz; proposition causale): a clause expressing 

cause or reason. 


causative: a verb form expressing the causing or letting an action to be 

carried out (by another) (“You made him cry”, “Let me go!”). 

circumstantial (Copt.) (Umstandssatz; circonstantiel): a clause marked 

by a special conversion as adnexal to another clause or noun/ 
pronoun; often translatable as circumstance (“...ing” as in “I 
found him eating supper”, “Walking home, I met Joan”; “when...”, 
“while...”). 



264 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


clause (Teilsatz; proposition): an independent or dependent unit com¬ 
bining theme and rheme in nexus. 

Cleft Sentence (Spaltsatz, phrase coupee): a construction in which a 

non-verbal element (noun, pronoun or adverbial) is marked as 
focus and a verb is marked as topic (“It is God who will provide”, 
“It was yesterday (that) I saw him last”, “C’est toi qui 'as change, 
pas moi”). 

cluster (Konsonantenhaeufung; groupe consonantique): a sequence of 

non-syllabic consonants (esp. initial: “pr-”, “cl-”, “spl-”). 

compatible: two elements are compatible if they occur combined and 

adjoining in a syntagm (e.g. “yesterday” and (past simple}, as in 
“Yesterday I found a letter in my mailbox”; [n] and [t] in final and 
medial position, as in “don’t”, “hunting”; “many” and “a”, as in 
“many a man”). 

conditioning, conditioned (Bedingung, bedingt; conditionnement, 
conditionne): a type of dependence in which one element or form 
is determinated by a quality of, or by another element in its environ¬ 
ment; the conditioned element is no longer commutable (examples: 
in “These are my dogs”, the form “are” and the -s plur. are 
conditioned by the form of the demonstrative “these”. In “Ta fille 

est jolie”, the fern, form of the adjective is conditioned by the fern. 

* 

noun. In the English (past simple}, the pronounced suffix is [t], [d] 
are conditioned by preceding voicless or voiced consonants, respec¬ 
tively: [kist], |mu:vd]; a past tense in a dependent clause is 
conditioned by a main-clause past tense, as in “He said that he 
would come”). 

Conditional (Copt.) (Konditionalis; conditionnel): a special conjugation 

form expressing the protasis (“if...” constituent) of a condition. 

conjugation, conjugation form (Copt.): the grammatical variation of a 

verb clause pattern by actor; a form so varying in a specific 
pattern. 

conjunctive (Copt.): a special dependent conjugation form expressing 

mainly the “carrying on” or extending of a preceding verb form: 
see also microcoordination. 

consonant: a type of speech sound produced by obstructing the passage 

of air in the mouth (p, t, k, g, d etc.). 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


265 


construction: the grammatical arrangement of elements. 

conversion, converters (Copt.): the morphosyntactic phenomenon of 

marking the syntactic status of a clause; a set of prefixed morphemes 
marking the syntactic status of a clause. 


coordination: two or more elements or syntagms in an “X and Y” 

interdependence. 

copula (Copt.): an element formally marking a nexus between theme 

and rheme in a Nominal Sentence (English “is” as in “My father is 
a teacher” is comparable to a degree). 

definite: specific, familiar, assumed as known, unambiguously identi¬ 
fiable; determinated by a definite determinator (“the man”; “God”; 
“this house”; “my brother”). 

deictic: pointing out or indicating. 

delocutive: pertaining to the third persons (“he”, “she”, “it”, “they”). 

demonstrative pronoun: a pronoun pointing out, pointing at or indicating 

(“this”, “that”). 

a 

dependent clause (Nebensatz, abhaengiger Satz, Gliedsatz; proposition 

subordonnee, dependante): a clause formally marked as dependent 
upon another (“when...” in “He laughed when I told him you 
wanted to see him”, “till” in “Why shouldn't we go on seeing each 
other till we are tired of it?”, “what” in “He rubbed what was left 
of the pommade upon his scalp”, “who” in “The girl who came to 
dinner yesterday is his sister”). 


deriving (ableitend; derivant): forming a semantically related, semantically 

and often grammatically different word from another (e.g. noun 
from verb, verb from noun, noun from noun etc.: e.g. the deriving 
suffixes -ire, -en as in “circularize” from “circular”, “whiten” from 


44 

44 


white”; -or as in “actor” from “act”; -ship as in “hardship” from 
hard”; -ess as in “heiress” from “heir”). 


determination, to determinate, determinator: marking a noun with 

respect to specificity and definiteness; the marker of a noun with 
respect to specificity and definiteness (see also article). 

dialogue: a conversational type of discourse, ideally alternating between 

two speakers. 

discourse (Diskurs, Rede, Text; discours, texte): a stretch of real 

attested text. 



266 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


disjunction: two or more elements or syntagms in an “X or Y” 

interdependence; a morph marking this interdependence. 

durative (Dauerzeit, Dauer-; duratif): (of an action) in progress, con- 

tinuative, repetitive (“I was writing” as against “1 wrote”). 

enclitic: a morph (e.g. particle) of weak stress and a tendency.to follow 

and attach itself to a preceding unit carrying full stress (“then” in 
“Well then!”; German doch, French done). 

existant: the term stated as existing in an existential statement (“There 

was a king”). 

expansion; to expand (Erweiterung, erweitem; expansion, elargisse- 

ment, elargir): addition of further elements (usually modifying or 
qualifying), without affecting the basic grammatical structure or 
relations (“lovely” and “whom...” expand “the girl” in “the lovely 
girl whom you saw there is his daughter”; “immediately” and 
“when...” expand the verb in “She immediately fainted when she 
heard he was alive”; “quickly” expands “come” in “Come 
quickly!”). 

extraposition; to extrapose (approx, segmentation, anticipation): a 

noun is extraposed when placed in front of a clause, to mark it as 
topic (“Man or woman — it made no difference to Minty”, “as for 
the soup — it has been ready long ago”). 

feminine (weiblich, Femininum; feminin): a term, often marked, in the 
grammatical category of gender; in animates, typically referring to 
the female sex (“she-wolf”, “heiress”, “heureuse”, “die” in “die 
Sache”). 

final clause: a dependent clause expressing purpose or willed result. 

finite: (of a verb form) characterized for person (“I wished”, “They are 

sleeping”, “We were about to leave”, “He had been beaten up”). 

to finitize: to render finite. 

first person: the speaker persons (“I”, “we”). 

focus; focal; focalization (= focussing): the center or highlight of the 

communication stretch (sentence and sentence complex) (It was 
only when she was twenty that she fell in love for the first time”, 
“you certainly did not waste much time”; “She did lose her purse 
that day”, “Hou could you behave like this?”, “Damn it all, this 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


267 


isn’t the Sahara. We’re only thirty-six hours from Picadilly”); 
marking as focal; pertaining to the focus. 

function, to function (Funktion, Leistung; fonction): the role played by 

an element of language and its structural relationship to other 
elements; to play such a role. 

gender (grammatisches Geschlecht, Genus; genre grammatical): a 

grammatical category (of nouns, pronouns) displaying such 
contrast as masculine: feminine: neuter, animate: inanimate (“he, 
she, it’’, “lion, lioness”, “wolf, she-wolf ’ “bon, bonne”, “der, die, 
das”). 

gloss, to gloss: the interpreting explanation or specification of a word 

that is considered obscure or in need of interpretation; to explain 
or specify such a word. 

to govern (regieren; regir): to require (condition) or determine a certain 

form or element; often used of verbs governing certain prepositions 
(“differ” governs “from-”, “care” governs “for-”, “to accustom 
[someone]” governs “with-”). 

hermeneutical: see gloss, to gloss.. 

■ « 

imperative: an addressed verb form expressing command (or forbid¬ 
ding) or direct request (“Listen, Kate”, “Trust me”, “Come here!”, 
“Don’t tell me that”). 

Imperfect (Copt,): a special conjugation form (the preterite conversion 

of the present form) expressing durative action in the past (cf. “I 
was writing”). 

impersonal: a 3rd person pronoun with no reference to any specific 

noun; a clause in which such pronoun serves as theme (“it” or “es” 
in “It is raining”, “It ails me”, “Es geht”). 

inalienable possession (unveraeusserlicher Besitz, possession inalienable): 

a type of possession that is formally marked as inherent, close or 
intimate (e.g. in many languages, the “belonging” to each other of 
family members, one’s parts of the body, one’s name etc.). 

incompatible: elements are said to be compatible if they never occur as 

combined in a syntagm, but in substitution to each other (e.g. 
“when” and “while”, “a-” and [plur.]” -s”, “three” and “a”, [n] 
and [t] initially in English). 



268 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


indefinite, indefinite determinator (unbestimmt, unbestimmtcr Artikel; 

indefini, article indefini): a non-specific individual or specimen of a 
class; a morpheme marking an element as a non-specific or individual 
or specimen of a class (“a man”, “some cats”, “someone”, “three 
stones”, “other gods” etc.). 

independent clause (selbstaendiger Satz; proposition independante, 

principale): a clause that is formally marked as autonomous. 

indeterminable: a nominal or pronominal element that is incompatible 

with determinators (e.g. “this”, “you”, “some”). 

infinitive: a nominal non-finite form of the verb (“to go”); (Copt.) the 

verb lexeme. 

infix, to infix: a bound morpheme (“affix”) attached inside a word ; to 

attach a morpheme in this position (e.g. the nasal in the Latin 
present stems rump-, linqu -; the English number opposition of the 
type “tooth”: “teeth”, or tense oppositions of the type “ring”: 
“rang”; “ne” in the negatived form of the finite verb in French: 
“je-veux”, “je-ne-veux pas”). 

interlocutive: pertaining to the first and/or second persons (“you”, 

“toi”, “vous”). 

intransitive: (of a verb) not governing an object (the verbs in “He ran 

all the way home”, “This chimney smokes”, “She warmed to him”, 
“Something may turn up”, “He felt sick”). 

“irrealis”: see remote (hypothetical) condition. 

jussive: the delocutive (third person) imperative (Lat. esto, Gk. dKouexco, 

Engl. “Let him wait!”). 

laryngal (consonant; also glottal): a speech sound produced in. the 

larynx (e.g. [h], [’], [*] = [“Aleph”], (“Ajin”]). 

lexeme: the basic unit of the lexicon or vocabulary. 

(to) mark, marker: to characterize formally; a formal characteristic. 

marked (merkmalhaft; marque): the term of an opposition that is 
positive with regard to the presence of a specific linguistic feature 
(e.g. the plural in many languages as against the singular, with 
regard to the feature “number”; in French and Semitic, the femi¬ 
nine as against the masculine, with regard to the feature “gender”; 
in English, the past progressive as against the past simple, with 
regard to the feature “mode of action”). 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


269 


masculine (maenntich; masculin): a term, often unmarked, in the 

grammatical category of gender; in animates, typically referring to 
the male sex (“wolf’, “heir”, “heureux”, “der”). 

microcoordination (Copt.): a special closely-knit kind of coordination 

expressed by the conjunctive form. 

modal: expressing or pertaining to mood; the attitude of the speaker 

towards the stated action (e.g. wish, command, obligation, request, 
exhortation). 

mode-of-action (Aktionsart; mode d’action): the manner of evolvement 

of an action (e.q. commencing, repeated, durative, terminating 
etc.). 


modification; to modify; modifier: a describing expansion; to expand 

descriptively; an element expanding another descriptively (“red”, 
“quickly” are modifiers in “The red fox jumped quickly over the 
hedge”). 


morph: a discrete, segmentable unit of discourse or text (e.g. “she”, 




recognize”, “d”, “at” “once”, “that”, “the”, “moment”, “had 




“pass”, “ed” in “She recognized at once that the moment had 
passed”. - 


morpheme: a distinctive meaningful unit of grammar (e.g. {she}, {(e)d}, 

{that}, {had + (e)d}, {at} in “She recognized at once that the 
moment had passed”. 

narrative: a textual type reciting a tale, chronicle, history, report etc.; 

grammatical phenomena occurring in or pertaining to such a 
textual type. 


negativing (vereinend, niant): rendering negative. 

nexus: the special interdependence and link of theme and rheme. 


neuter, neutric (saechlich; neutre genre): the term in the category of 

gender that is neither feminine nor masculine (“it”; “das Maed- 
chen”, “gutes...”). 

neutralization (Aufhebung, Neutralisierung; neutralisation): the cancel¬ 
ling or suppression of an opposition in a given environment 
(following [$], the opposition [d:t] is neutralized in favour of [t], as 
in “kissed” [kistj; following “three”, the opposition of number is 
neutralized in favour of {plural}, as in “three dogs”; following a 



270 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


main-clause past tense, the opposition {past: non-past} is neutralized 
in the dependent clause in favour of {past}, as in “He said that he 
would come”). 

nominal: pertaining to a noun; with the grammatical properties of a 

noun. 


“Nominal Sentence” (“Nominalsatz”; “phrase nominale”): a clause 

pattern predicating a pronoun or noun (the clauses “This is 
Anthony”, “You are not yourself’, “It’s cold”, “It’s winter”, * He 
is sincere”, “It is I”, “This is my wife”, “Your god is Mammon” 
are verbal clauses corresponding to Egyptian or Semitic Nominal 
Sentences). 

to nominalize: to mark as nominal. 


noun (Nomen; nom): a word class with a specific composite set of 
constructional and/or morphological properties (e.g. {Coptic] being 
preceded by an article or quantifier, by a special form of preposi¬ 
tions, occurring as rheme in the Nominal Sentence, having a plural 
form, being representable by a pronoun, etc.; [English] being 
preceded by an article or quasntifier, compatible with a plural 
suffix, with a possessive article — “my friend” etc.) 


nucleus, grammatical the grammatical center: the grammatically impor¬ 
tant, definitive or decisive constituent of a syntagm that is not a 


clause (i.e. of a phrase) (e.g. “hat” in “green hat”; “bird”, “ship 




in “blackbird”, “kingship 


M 


44 

-en 


in “frighten”; “this” in “this 


matter”, German “die” in “die Frage” and so on). 


object: the nominal or pronominal receiver or goal of a transitive 

action. 


opposition: two elements are in mutual opposition if their substitution 

to one another in the same environment entails a change of 
meaning (see the examples given under paradigm). 

Optative (Copt.): a special conjugation form expressing wish, prayer, 

promise, prophecy etc. 

paradigm: a substitution class, i.e. the class of elements which may be 

substituted for each other in the same environment with an entailed 
change of meaning (e.g. the paradigm of the phonetic elements [p], 
[t], [k], [b], [n], [f], [h] before [it]; of the person/number characteristics 
in the finite verb, {I...}, {you...}, {he...s}, {she...s}, {it...s}, etc.; 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


271 


of the elements modifying adjectives (“quite”, “more”, “less”, 
“very”, “fairly”...]; of the elements predicated by “to be” — the 
noun phrase paradigm (“an artist”], the adjective paradigm 
(“kind”], the gerund paradigm (“writing”]). 

particle (Copt.) an element, often insubstantial and weakly stressed, 

marking a sentence for inter-sentential relationship and often indi¬ 
cating prosodic properties of sentence components (e.g. unstressed 
“then”, German doch, French done, Greek and Coptic men, gar, 
de...). 

passive voice: a verbal construction type in which the actor expresses 

the undergoer of the action, while the performer of the action is 
instrumental^ expressed (“She was ardently kissed by her fiance”). 
In Coptic, if the actor is not explicitly expressed, the verb is 
indistinguishable from the 3rd plur. form (“They kissed her”). 

pattern (Muster, Bauplan; modele, schema): a delimited (bounded) 
construction of paradigms, or the actual form representing this 
construction (e.g. “consonant + vowel + consonant”, “pronoun + 
{be} + gerund”, “noun phrase + finite verb + object” “article + 
adjective + noun lexeme”; “p-i-n”, “I am working”, “Snakes eat 
birds”, “a good soldier”). . ^ 

perfect (Copt.): a special conjugation form expressing an action in the 

past (“He heard”, “He has heard”). 

personal pronoun: element of grammar and lexicon expressing the 

persons: “I”, “you”, “he”, “she”, “it”, “we”, “they”. 

phrase: a syntagm that is not a clause; either the combination of a 

nucleus and an expansion (satellite) (“a young girl”, “my friend”, 
“a profession”, “a profitable profession”, “three squirrels”, “the 
man who laughed”, “a profession which is more profitable”, 
“come quickly”, “very well”, “rather lazy”), or a syntagm that is 
not hierarchically analyzable (e.g. prepositional phrase, coordina¬ 
tion). 

plural: a term in the grammatical noun/pronoun/person category of 

number, marked as referring to more than one item (“dogs”, 
“three books”, “we”, “those”). 

possessed: (a noun) that is marked (in a possession statement, clause or 

phrase) as belonging to a nominal or pronominal possessor (“the 
boy’s han”, “my friend” — “I have a friend”). 




272 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


predicate: see rheme; (to) predicate: to state as rheme. 

predicative complement (praedikative Ergaenzung; complement attributif, 

complement d’attribution): the expansion of a verb or of an object 
of a verb that, expansionless, is informationally incomplete or has 
a different meaning (“I found him gone ”, “He became Jcing”, “He 
felt sick ”, “he turned red”, “I was appointed ambassador ”, “watch 
him go”): a rhematic expansion. 

prefix, to prefix: a bound morpheme (“affix”) attached at the head of a 

word; to attach a morpheme in this position (“un-known”, “de¬ 
frost”, “fore-ground”, “more-beautiful”, “je-veux”, ge-schaffen). 

premodifier (Copt.): a modifier presetting, information, circumstances 

or attitude to a clause (“At first...”, “In fact...”, “Surely...”, 
“Finally, what does all this mean?”, “Frankly, I do not understand 
your approach”). 

prenominal (Copt.): the special form of an element preceding and 
prefixed to a noun, demonstrative or indefinite/interrogative 
pronoun. 

preposition: a morpheme prefixed to a noun or pronoun marking its 

relation to other elements in the text (“in”, “with”, “at”, “for”). 

prepositional phrase: the syntagm of preposition + noun/pronoun (“to 

me”, “by God”, “at home”, “for what?”, “becaume of whom?”, 
“in my hand"). 

presentative: an element presenting a noun or pronoun into discourse, 

esp. dialogue (“Here is...”, “Look, ...” “voila”). 

presuffixal (Copt.): the special form of an element preceding and 

prefixed to a suffix pronoun. 

preterite: non-durative (“point”) past tense (cf. English past simple: “I 

wrote”). 


pronoun: an element used to refer (by pointing or indicating, by 

representation, specifically, interrogatively or indefinitely) to a 
person of dialogue, a noun, proper name or their substitutes (“I”, 


you 


“she” [personal pronouns], “who?” [interrogative pro¬ 
noun]; “anyone”, “many”, “one” [indefinite pronouns], “this” 
[demonstrative pronoun]). 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


273 


Proper Name (Eigenname; nom propre): a naming element with gram¬ 
matical properties of both noun and the quality of typical high 
specificity (“John”, “Oxford”, “January”, “Les Pyrenees”, “Herr 
Kleinhans”). 

prosody: the phonetic features which characterize sentence structure 

and are usually not expressed in text segments of their own: 
including stress, intonation, juncture (“liaison” & pauses). 

protasis: the hypothetical (“if...”) component of a conditional sen¬ 
tence . 


qualification; to qualify: see modification. 

quantifier: element marking quantity or number in a noun phrase 

(“three”, “many”, “some”, “another”). 

reflexive: an object expansion of a verb containing a reference back to 

its actor (“She washed herself”). 


reinforcer, augens (Copt.; also “Verstaerker”): a special set of elements 

modifying a noun or pronoun and containing a pronominal element 
referring (mostly back) to this noun (“I myself “the man, for his 
part ”, “the Church, she alone etc.) 

relative (Beziehungsform, Relativum; relatif): a clause marked (in 

Coptic, by special conversion) as adnominal, expanding a definite 
noun or pronoun (“who...”, “whose...”, “whom...”, “in whom...”). 

remote (hypothetical or unreal) condition (Irrealis, irrealer Konditio- 

nalsatz; condition irreele): a hypothetical condition that is contrary 
to reality and conceived as no longer fulfillable (“She would have 
taken him in her arms if he had not spoken”). 


resumption, to resume, resumptive (also anaphora, anaphoric): the 

linking phenomenon of reference or pointing back to a preceding 
element (in “I realized then that John thought he understood his 
wife; but in fact he did not, although she invariably saw through 
him”, “then”, “he”, “him”, “she”, and “did” are resumptive). 


rheme, rhematic (Rhema, Satzaussage, Praedikat; rheme, attribut, 

propos, predicat): one of the two main constituents of the informa¬ 
tion structure of the clause: the constituent that conveys new 
information about the theme; the main part of the clause message 
(in the text “The bird sank with beating wings as if the air had 



274 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


grown too thin to support it. It settled and lay along the water. 
When they reached it, it was dead, its beak below the water, one 
wing submerged”, the stretches “sank with beating wings”, “had 
grown too thin to support [it]” “settled and lay along the water”, 
“reached [it]”, “dead”, “below the water”, “submerged” are 
rhematic). 

rhetorical question: a type of question formally marked as presupposing 

an affirmative or negative answer or as unanswerable (bordering 
on exclamation): (“Can’t you be yourself?” “Is that the way to 
talk to your elders?” “Why can’t you say so?” “I have to live, 
haven’t I?”). 

satellite: the expansion constituent of a phrase. 

second person: the addressed person in dialogue (“you”, “toi”, “vous”). 

Second Tense (Copt.) (zweite Tempora; temps seconds): a special 
conversion of conjugation forms, marking them, in specific contex¬ 
tual circumstances, as either focal (“emphatic”) or as focalizing 
(“emphasizing”) other components of the verbal sentence (adjunct, 
actor, object). An apt translation equivalent of Second Tense 
sentences (esp. into French) is the Cleft Sentence (“Is it for this you 

have come?”, “It is only on weekends that I find the time to read”, 

♦ 

“When was it you saw him last?”). 

sentence (Satz, Satzgefuege; phrase): a subtextual complex unit consisting 

at least of one clause, intermediate between clause and paragraph. 

singular: a term in the category of number, unmarked or referring to 

not more than one item (“dog”, “a dog”, “book”, “a book”, “I”, 
“this”). 

stative (trad, qualitative) (Copt.): a special verb form for expressing 

passive or intransitive state or a quality (“broken”, “going”, 
“thirsty”, “impure”). 

sonorant (also “liquid”): a type of consonant that is especially prone to 

be syllabic (in Coptic [1] [m] [n], [r], [v]). 

3 

subject: see theme, topic. 

suffix: a bound morpheme (“affix”) attached at the end of a word; in 

Copt, conventionally used of a special set of suffix pronouns, 
which are sometimes infixed. 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


275 


superfinear (or supralincar) stroke (Sahidic Copt.) (Silbenstrich, ueber- 

gesetzter Strich; trait superlineaire): a short stroke placed above 
consonants or consonantal combinations, indicating their syllabic 
nature. 

suppletion: the use of different externally unrelated forms to replace or 

supply part of a paradigm (“go” + “went”, “am” + “is” + “was” + 
“be” are instances of suppletion). 

syllabic: constituting a syllabic or the center of one. 

syllable, syllabic: a complex phonetic unit comprising an opening 

segment (consonant or sonant), a center (vowel or sonant) and a 
closing segment (consonant or sonant) (exx. [com-mu-ni-sm], [bo- 
tm], [wa-tr], [se-cu-ri-ty]); constituting a syllable or the center of 
one. 

syntagm: the combination of two or more morphs. 

synthetic (of grammatical forms): characterized by a close merging or 

fusion of grammatical and lexemic elements in a word (e.g. “bought”, 
in contrast to “love-d”, “feet” in contrast to “hand-s”). 

. W _ _ 

tautological: expressing the same twice over, esp. in a different form. 

Temporal (Copt.): a special dependent conjugation form expressing 

time or cause dependence (“when “since...”). 

tense (Tempus; temps): the grammatical category of marking the time 

reference for a verbal action. 

third person: the person not taking active part in the dialogue (“he”, 
'“she”, “it”, “they”). 

theme, thematic (Thema, Subjekt, Satzgegenstand; theme, sujet): one of 

the two main constituents of the information structure of the 
clause: the constituent that least advances the communication; whe 
part containing given or presupposed information; what is being 
discussed (in the text “The bird sank with beating wings as if the 
air had grown too thin to support it. It settled and lay along the 

k 

water. When they reached it, it was dead, its beak below the water, 
one wing submerged”, the stretches “the bird”, “the air”, “it”, 
“they”, “its beak”, “one wing” are thematic). 

topic, topicaiization: what is being discussed; the textual elements that 

« 

is not the focus of the communication stretch (sentence and 



276 


TERMINOLOGICAL 


sentence complex); the elements that arc context-bound (in the 
text: “Yes, it was ugly, the human figure. Man or woman, it made 
no difference to Minty. The body’s shape, the running nose, 
excrement, the stupid postures of passion, these beat like a bird’s 
heart in Minty’s brain’’, topics are “the human figure’’, “Man or 
woman”, “The body’s shape, the running nose, excrement, the 
stupid postures of passion”); marking as topic. 

transitive: (of a verb) governing an object (the verbs in “He felt his 

shirt”, “He turned out the light”, “How many cigarettes do you 
smoke per day?”). 

unmarked (Merkmallos; non-marque): the term of an opposition that 

is neutral with regard to the presence of a specific linguistic feature 
(e.g. the singular in many languages as against the plural, with 
regard to the feature “number”; in French and many Semitic 
languages, the masculine as against the feminine, with regard to the 
feature “gender”; in English, the past simple as against the past 
progressive, with regard to the feature “mode of action”). 

variation, variant: the fluctuation of forms, with no entailed difference 

in meaning; such a form (“can’t” and “cannot”, [u] and [u:] as 
pronunciation of “- 00 -” in some types of English, “that”, “wh-”, 
“zero” as relative aarkers; “well cared-for lady’s bicycle” and 
“lady’s bicycle, well cared-for”; “...pas” and “ne...pas” in some 
types of French, are all variants, mainly of stylistic motivation). 

verb: a word class with a specific composite set of constructional and/ 

or morphological properties (e.g. (Coptic] being conjugated in one 
of the conjugation patterns, being potentially a member in a 
causative: non-causative opposition, etc.; [English] being charac¬ 
terized for person/number and tense, modified by adverbs, etc.). 

verboid: a clause form that shares the syntactic properties of a verb but 

not its morphological properties (in Coptic, the expression for "to 
have”). 

vowel (Vokal, voyelle): a type of speech sound produced with no 
complete closure of the speech organs (e.g. [a] [e] [i] [o] [u]). 

zero element, zero morph (Null-Morphem; morpheme zero): a signifi¬ 
cantly absent element (morph); an absence of an element (morph) 
that is meaningful (e.g. the plural mark in “fish-0”, cf. “fish-es”; 



TERMINOLOGICAL 


277 


the singular “book-0” as opposed to the plural “book-s”; the 1st 
and 2nd persons, Present Simple, “I-love-0”, “you-love-0”, as 
opposed to the 3rd person, “he-love-s”; the masculine form of the 
adjective in French, as in “bon-0” vs. “bon-ne”). For “zero article” 
see “article”. 

zeroing (Null-Realisierung; realisation zero): the (conditioned) realiza¬ 
tion of an element as zero (e.g. the pronunciation of “p-”, “k-”, 
before “n”, “s”, as in “pneumonia”, “knee”, “psychology”; the 
realization of one of the “t”’s in the fast pronounced form of 
“Where did you get to?”; the realization of the finite verb in the 
response constituent of the dialogue “What would you like?” — 
“Tea, please”.) 




ORIENTALISTS P.B. 41, B-3000 Leuven